Currently, India spends about 0.7% of GDP on research and development, a considerably small amount when compared with other developed nations. India’s spending is much less than the developed nations which spent between 3-4% of their GDPs.
In India, nearly 60% of cargo travels by road.
Manufacturing alone has the potential to deliver 20% of the incremental GDP that’s needed and at the same time create some 11 million more jobs.
India had only 600 large companies with over $500 million in revenue.
China is the largest shareholder in AIIB with a 26.6% voting power, followed by India with a 7.62% voting power.
The agriculture sector showed growth of 5.9% in the last quarter of 2019-2020. CMIE data shows that 111.3 million people declared their occupation as farming in 2019-20. By March 2020, this had increased to 117 million, shooting up to 130 million in June.
In India, an analysis of child marriage data show that among girls who were married by the age 18, 46 per cent were also in the lowest income bracket.
UNICEF estimates suggest that each year, at least 1.5 million girls under the age of 18 are married in India, which makes the country home to the largest number of child brides in the world accounting for a third of the global total.
India imports around 18% of its crude oil requirement from Saudi Arabia which is also a major source of LPG for India.
India is Maldives’ 4th largest trade partner after UAE, China and Singapore. In 2018, India was the 5th largest source of tourist arrivals in Maldives.
India’s exports to Bangladesh in 2018-19 stood at $9.21 billion, and imports from Bangladesh at $1.04 billion.
India has 18% of the world’s population but only 4% of its renewable water resources.
India depends on China for 67% of chemical intermediates and API that it needs to manufacture drugs and export.
According to the recently released National Cancer Registry Programme Report 2020, cancer cases in India are likely to increase to 15.6 lakhs by 2025, a 12% increase from the current estimated cases. Tobacco-related cancers are estimated to contribute 27.1% of the total cancer burden. Cancers related to use of any form of tobacco were highest in the northeastern region of the country and in higher proportions in men. Among women, breast cancers are estimated to contribute 14.8% and cervical cancer (tumour of the cervix, the lowermost part of the uterus) are estimated to contribute 5.4%.
Only 21% of all employment in India is in the form of a salaried employment. Salaried jobs contribute more to the country’s GDP than employment in the informal sector, which is largely dependent on the formal economy.
In 2019, 42.39% of the workforce in India was employed in agriculture.
A report published by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) said that while child marriages were almost universally banned, “yet they happen 33,000 times a day, every day, all around the world”. An estimated 650 million girls and women alive today were married as children, and by 2030, another 150 million girls under the age of 18 will be married. Although advances in India have contributed to a 50 per cent decline in child marriage in South Asia—to 30 per cent in 2018, the region still accounts for the largest number of child marriages each year, estimated at 4.1 million in 2017.
The UN agency estimates that 152 million children worldwide are affected, with 73 million in hazardous work.
Worldwide 218 million children between 5 and 17 years are in employment. Among them, 152 million are victims of child labour; almost half of them, 73 million, work in hazardous child labour.
In absolute terms, almost half of child labour (72.1 million) is to be found in Africa; 62.1 million in the Asia and the Pacific; 10.7 million in the Americas; 1.2 million in the Arab States and 5.5 million in Europe and Central Asia.
In terms of prevalence, 1 in 5 children in Africa (19.6%) are in child labour, whilst prevalence in other regions is between 3% and 7%: 2.9% in the Arab States (1 in 35 children); 4.1% in Europe and Central Asia (1 in 25); 5.3% in the Americas (1 in 19) and 7.4% in Asia and the Pacific region (1 in 14).
Almost half of all 152 million children victims of child labour are aged 5-11 years. 42 million (28%) are 12-14 years old; and 37 million (24%) are 15-17 years old.
Hazardous child labour is most prevalent among the 15-17 years old. Nevertheless up to a fourth of all hazardous child labour (19 million) is done by children less than 12 years old.
Among 152 million children in child labour, 88 million are boys and 64 million are girls.
58% of all children in child labour and 62% of all children in hazardous work are boys. Boys appear to face a greater risk of child labour than girls, but this may also be a reflection of an under-reporting of girls’ work, particularly in domestic child labour.
Child labour is concentrated primarily in agriculture (71%), which includes fishing, forestry, livestock herding and aquaculture, and comprises both subsistence and commercial farming; 17% in Services; and 12% in the Industrial sector, including mining.
Despite a 20GW demand for solar cell manufacturing, India’s current average annual capacity is only around 3GW. Nearly 80% of the inputs and components are imported from China as it was the top exporter of solar cells and modules to India in the Financial Year 2019-20, accounting for USD1.68 billion of the product into the country.
The number of taxpayers in India is significantly low with only 1.5 Crore paying taxes in a country of 130 Crore people.
A new study, recently published by Seattle-based Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) predicts that India will be the most populated country in the world. Its population will peak by 2050 by reaching 1.64 billion and thereafter it will decline to 1.09 billion by 2100. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) projects that India’s population will be 1.64 billion by 2050. The UNDP predicts a population of 1.45 billion by 2100 instead of 1.09 billion by the IHME.
Fertilizer has produced more than 400 dead zones in the oceans, equalling an area greater than the size of the United Kingdom.
India is the fifth largest contributor of uniformed personnel to the UN Peacekeeping Forces.
Handloom sector in India is key to women empowerment as over 70% of handloom weavers and allied workers are women.
According to the recently released UN Report on the Impact of Covid-19 on Children, almost 24 million children could drop out or not have access to school next year due to the economic impact of Covid-19. An estimated 42-66 million children could fall into extreme poverty as a result of pandemic.
The value of global assets exposed to coastal flooding is projected to be between USD 6,000-9,000 billion or 12-20% of the global GDP. Globally, of the 68% area that is prone to coastal flooding, over 32% can be attributed to regional Sea Level Rise (SLR).
Delhi was on top of the chart with the highest prisoner occupancy in the country at 174.9%. Rajasthan has the highest number of prisons for women (7) but Delhi has the highest number of women inmates.
Chandigarh has more than 35% of its geographical area under forest and tree cover, making it one of the greenest cities of India.
India’s country-level social cost of carbon emission was estimated to be the highest at $86 per tonne of CO2. It means the Indian economy will lose $86 by emitting each additional tonne of CO2. India is followed by the US, where the economic damages would be $48 per tonne of CO2 emission. Saudi Arabia is close behind at $47 per tonne of CO2 emission.
Before COVID, it was estimated that India needs over USD 2.6 trillion to meet the SDG targets by 2030.
As per UNICEF report an estimated 463 million children have been unable to access remote learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic and widespread school closures. At least one-third of the world’s school children lack the equipment or electronic access that would allow them to pursue distance education.
As per a report of the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights, almost 40% of girls aged 15-18 do not attend school. Nearly 65% of these girls are engaged in non-remunerative work.
According RBI Annual Report 2019-20, Public sector banks accounted for 80% of the ₹1.85 trillion reported as frauds in FY20, followed by private sector banks at 18%.
As per a report by Centre for Science and Environment, India recycles just one per cent of its construction and demolition (C&D) waste. India generates an estimated 150 million tonnes of C&D waste every year.
As per the National Cancer Registry Programme Report 2020, the cancer cases in the country are likely to increase by 12% from current estimated cases.
India has been among the top three defence importers in the world in the recent past. As per Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), India was the second largest importer between 2014 and 2019 with US$ 16.75 billion worth of imports during this period.
According to NCBC, there are 2514 OBC castes in the country and scientific subcategorization by analyzing each caste could be challenging.
In 2019, India exported USD 38.7 billion of agricultural goods, which is only 7% of Indian agriculture production. India’s agricultural export has the potential to grow from USD 40 billion to USD 70 billion in a few years. Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for 58 per cent of India’s population and the sector contributed 16.5 per cent to India’s Gross Value Added (GVA) in 2018-2019.
Thermal power plants are source of 60% of industrial particulate matter, 45% of SO2, and 30% of NOx emissions in the country, apart from 80% of mercury as a pollutant. It accounts for some 80% of India’s industrial emissions of sulfur- and nitrous-oxides in India, which cause lung diseases, acid rain and smog.
Coal accounts for 205 GW (56%) of the total installed power generation capacity in the country—and for 77% of the current electricity supply in the country and India needs to ensure that this capacity is made cleaner.
About 10-15% of rice and maize grown area is affected by the flash droughts each year in India.
According to the Global Mangroves Alliance, 67 per cent of mangroves have been lost or degraded to date, and an additional one per cent being lost each year. Without mangroves, 39 per cent more people would face threat of floods annually and flood damage would increase by more than 16 per cent. Every $1 invested in mangrove conservation and restoration generates a benefit of $3.
Drylands are found in tropical and temperate latitudes and account for 41.3% of the global terrestrial area.
Land degradation affects between 25% and 30% of all land on the planet, and over 40% of all agricultural land. The global cost of land degradation has been estimated at US$ 6.3–10.6 trillion or between US$ 870 and 1,450 per person per year.
India faces a severe problem of land degradation, or soil becoming unfit for cultivation. About 29% or about 96.4 million hectares are considered degraded.
India accounts for close to 7.3 per cent of around 152 million children worldwide engaged in child labour. 80% of working children live in India’s villages, where most of them work in agriculture. According to census data of 2011, around 10.1 million children were engaged in child labour in India.
Mean age of women at marriage is 22.1 years, and more than 21 in all states. As per the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) about 26.8% of women aged 20-24 were married before adulthood (age 18). Women in the poorest 20% of the population married much younger than their peers from the wealthiest 20%. The average age at marriage of women with no schooling was 17.6, considerably lower than that for women educated beyond class 12.
70% of South Asia’s population is dependent on subsistence agriculture and allied services.
India is the world’s second-largest gold consumer after China. Gold is a part of RBI’s forex reserves.
The World Health Organization tracks country-wise data on hospital beds per 10,000 people. India stands at the lowest among the seven countries, at 7. Iran has 15, UK 28, US 29, Italy 34, China 42, South Korea 143.
Over 8 million tonnes of plastic enter the oceans every year. By 2050, the number of plastic entities would be equal to the number of fish in the sea, according to a study. Currently, as much as 80 per cent of all the litter in oceans is plastic.
Delhi has the highest rate of childhood cancers among boys in the age group of 0-14 years in Asia, recently published data from the National Cancer Registry. Leukemia contributed to a little less than half of all the childhood cancers among both age groups and both sexes; followed by lymphomas.
The NFHS-4 data on women aged 15-49 by number of years of schooling completed shows that 42 per cent ST women and 33 per cent SC women have received no schooling. Merely 10 per cent ST and 15 per cent SC women have completed 12-plus years of education as compared to 30 per cent women among the Others (general category) and 21 per cent among Other Backward Classes.
Expenditure on education as a percentage of the Union budget has declined from 4.14 per cent in 2014-15 to 3.2 per cent in 2020-21. Expenditure on education by the Centre and states as a proportion of GDP is 3.1 per cent in 2019-20 which remained stagnant at 2.8 per cent since 2014-15.
WITH CLOSE to 5.8 million people dying of non-communicable diseases (NCD) annually, India already had a heavy disease burden before the Covid-19 pandemic struck.
As per International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), at least 8 million tonnes of plastic end up in the oceans every year and makes up about 80% of all marine debris from surface waters to deep-sea sediments.
India announces $500 million infra project, $250 million financial aid for Maldives.
Agricultural expansion drives nearly 80% of tropical deforestation, and the land sector (including agriculture and forestry) accounts for 24% of annual global greenhouse gas emissions.
Nature is one of our most cost-effective assets in the fight against climate change. Yet only 2% of global financing aimed at addressing climate change goes toward nature’s climate solutions.
Protecting and restoring tropical forests and mangroves can provide 30% or more of the mitigation action needed to limit average temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 Fahrenheit).
Agriculture is directly responsible for 13 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.
Less than 3 percent of the Earth’s water is fresh, and only a fraction of that is available for human use. Of that small amount, nearly 70 percent is used for agriculture.
About 30 percent of the world’s fisheries are already overexploited or depleted.
There are more than 1.8 billion young people between the ages of 10 and 24 in the world, one of the largest cohorts in human history. Too often, they lack access to an education that will prepare them for contemporary job and business opportunities – giving them “Twenty-First Century Skills for a Twenty-First Century Economy”
Close to 90 per cent of the burden of disease attributable to climate change is borne by children under the age of 5.
According to a 2019 Oxfam report, India’s richest 10 per cent own 77.4 per cent of the national wealth, while the bottom 60 per cent own less than 5 per cent.
It is estimated that 6.4% of GDP (largely in urban centres) is lost due to inadequacies in Water supply (WS), solid waste management (SWM).
India’s population, of which 50 per cent is below 25, and more than 65 per cent is below 35.
Textile Sector employs almost 3.5 million people. Industry is dominated by women constitute almost 72 per cent. 30 million farmers are a part of producing 60 per cent natural fibers in India.
India has contributed USD 15.46 million to the India-UN Development Partnership Fund, underscoring the country’s commitment to supporting developing nations in its developmental priorities across all the Sustainable Development Goals.
Coastal flooding set to rise by about 50 per cent over the next 80 years and could threaten assets worth 20 per cent of global gross domestic product, according to a recent study. 77 million more people will be at risk of experiencing flooding, a rise of 52 per cent to 225 million. Threaten an area with an economy worth up to $14.2 trillion. Close to 68 per cent of the coastal area likely to be flooded will be caused by tide and storm events, while only 32 per cent will be caused by regional sea level rises.
India’s ransomware encounter rate was twice as high as the regional average, and over three times higher than the global average.
Akshaya Patra is the world’s largest (not-for-profit run) mid-day meal programme serving wholesome food every school day to over 1.8 million children from 19,039 schools across 12 states & 2 Union territories of India.
Inadequate public health infrastructure: India’s public health expenditure in 2018 was a mere 1.28% of GDP. According to the World Bank, India’s out-of-pocket health expenditure was 62.4% in 2017, against the world average of 18.2%. Manpower in the health sector is low with India’s doctor-population ratio being 1:1,457 against WHO norm of 1:1,000.
Globally, of the 68 per cent area that is prone to coastal flooding, over 32 per cent can be attributed to regional SLR. This, they say, will significantly increase coastal flooding by 2100.
In India, 126 million marginal and small farms together operate on 74 million hectares of agricultural land, with 0.58 hectares of average size of holding. Decline in its share in GDP, from 59% in 1950-51 to about 14% in 2018-19.
A PwC study in 2017 estimated the world would gain $15.7 trillion by 2030 if artificial intelligence (AI) was adopted across nations.
MSMEs are the backbone of the Indian economy. Numbering over 45 million, they provide employment to 150-180 million people, contributing to 30% of GDP and 40% of exports.
Almost 194.4 million people in India are undernourished, according to the State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2019 report by the FAO.
A third of the world’s children — around 800 million — are affected by lead poisoning, said a report by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).
According to the World Bank, in 2019, total remittances to South Asia was about $140 billion, of which India received $83.1 billion. South Asians account for nearly 15 million in the Gulf. The South Asia-Gulf migration corridor is among the largest in the world.
Around 13.4% people in rural areas and 8.5% in urban areas borrow money to pay their hospital expenses.
The richest 1% of Indians own 53% of the country’s wealth, the richest 5% own 68% of the country’s wealth, while the top 10% have 77% wealth. At the other end of the pyramid, the poorer halves of our countrymen jostle for 4% of the nation’s wealth. Income inequality in India may be at its highest levels. This inequality ratio has risen rapidly over the last three decades; in the 1990s, there were no Indians on the Forbes list of billionaires, and today there are more than 100.
In India, the world’s second-most polluted country (first is Bangladesh), air pollution shortened the average life expectancy by 5.2 years.
State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020 Report estimates that 18% of South Asians (numbering 586 million people) cannot afford the nutrient-adequate diet and 58% of South Asians (1,337 million people) cannot afford the healthy diet.
New analysis from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) shows that hundreds of millions of people in India above the international poverty line of $1.90 purchasing power parity (PPP) per person per day cannot afford a healthy or nutritious diet.
According to National Family Health Survey data, 26.8 per cent of girls are marrying below the legal age nationally.
The BRICS group consists of five major economies of the world namely Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. It represents 42% of world population, 23% of world GDP and 18% of world trade.
There are 14,500 km of navigable waterways in India. This includes canals, rivers, backwaters and creeks. The National Waterways Act, 2016 pronounced 111 rivers, creeks, river stretches and estuaries in the country as National Waterways. Despite all these measures, Inland Water Transport in India is miniscule as compared to other countries. It is just 0.5% in India. On the other hand, it is 8.3% in US, 8.7% in China, 7% in Europe and 42% in Netherlands.
India has by far the highest number of rabies cases in the world (around 33 per cent), followed by Congo. According to a conservative WHO estimate, there are 20,000 annual rabies deaths in India.
India, China and Indonesia are the world’s three largest producers of rice and together account for about 60 per cent of the total world production.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) sectors would need an additional annual spending of 6.2 percentage points of GDP until 2030, according to the NITI Aayog- report.
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