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- Kabul and Qandhar had always acted as staging places for an invasion in India, Babur’s advent made Kabul and Qandhar the integral parts of an empire comprising north India.
- Babur and his successors strengthen the India security from an external invasion, which were persistent from the last 200 years.
- Geographically Kabul and Qandhar positioned in the trade route; therefore, the control of these two regions strengthened India’s foreign trade.
- Babar attempted to re-establish the prestige of the Crown, which had been eroded after the death of Firuz Tughlaq.
Zahir al-Din Muhammad (Babur)
- Babur born on 14 February 1483 at Andijan in Mughalistan (present day Uzbekistan).
- Babur had the prestige of being a descendant of two of the most legendary warriors of Asia namely Changez, and Timur.
- Babur groomed himself to his begs by his personal qualities. He was always prepared to share the hardships with his soldiers.
- Babur was fond of wine and good company and was a good and cheerful companion. At the same time, he was a strict disciplinarian and a hard taskmaster.
- Babur took good care of his army and other employees, and was prepared to excuse many of their faults as long as they were not disloyal.
- Though Babur was an orthodox Sunni, but he was not prejudiced or led by the religious divines. Once, there was a bitter sectarian conflict between the Shias and the Sunnis in Iran and Turan; however, in such a condition, Babur’s court was free from theological and sectarian conflicts.
- Though Babur declared the battle against Rana Sanga a jihad and assumed the title of ‘ghazi’ after the victory, but the reasons were noticeably political.
- Babur was master of Persian and Arabic languages, and is regarded as one of the most famous writers in the Turkish language (which was his mother tongue).
- Babur’s famous memoirs, the Tuzuk-i-Baburi is considered as one of the classics of world literature. His other popular works are masnavi and the Turkish translation of a well-known Sufi work.
- Babur was a keen naturalist, as he described the flora and fauna of India in considerable details.
- Babur introduced a new concept of the state, which was to be based on −
- The strength and prestige of the Crown;
- The absence of religious and sectarian bigotry; and
- The careful fostering of culture and the fine arts.
- Babur, with all these three features (discussed above), provided a precedent and a direction for his successors.
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