Barbary macaque, Lion-tailed macaque & Rhesus macaque

  • The Barbary macaque or Barbary ape is a species of macaque unique for its distribution outside Asia.
  • Found in the Atlas Mountains of Algeria and Morocco along with a small population that were introduced from Morocco to Gibraltar, the Barbary macaque is one of the best-known Old World monkey species.
  • Skull and brain, as illustrated in Gervais’ Histoire naturelle des mammifères
  • The Barbary macaque is of particular interest because males play an atypical role in rearing young. Because of uncertain paternity, males are integral to raising all infants.
  • Generally, Barbary macaques of all ages and sexes contribute in alloparental care of young.
  • Macaque diets consist primarily of plants and insects and they are found in a variety of habitats.
  • Males live to around 25 years old while females may live up to 30 years.
  • Besides humans, they are the only free-living primates in Europe.
  • Although the species is commonly referred to as the “Barbary ape”, the Barbary macaque is actually a true monkey.
  • Its name refers to the Barbary Coast of North West Africa.
  • The Barbary macaque population of Gibraltar is the only such population outside of Northern Africa and the only population of wild monkeys in Europe.
  • The Rock of Gibraltar is populated by approximately 230 macaques.
  • The Barbary macaque is mainly found in the Atlas and Rif Mountain ranges of Morocco and Algeria.
  • It is the only species of macaque that is distributed outside of Asia.
  • Wild populations of Barbary macaques have suffered a major decline in recent years to the point of being declared an endangered species by the IUCN.

The lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), or the wanderoo, is

  • an Old World monkey endemic to the Western Ghats of South India. 
  • The lion-tailed macaque is a diurnal rainforest dweller.
  • It is a good climber and spends a majority of its life in the upper canopy of tropical moist evergreen forests.
  • Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List.
  • Protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972, India.
  • Included on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), making international trade in this species illegal

  • The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.
  • It is listed as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and its tolerance of a broad range of habitats.
  • Native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia, rhesus macaque troops inhabit a great variety of habitats, from grasslands to arid and forested areas, but also close to human settlements.

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