Dance, Art Forms and Paintings in India-Part II


  1. Aranmula Kannadi is a handmade metal-alloy mirror that is unique to Kerala.
  2. Channapatna are the traditional toys of Karnataka made using different varieties of woods. It employs natural colours.
  3. Assam’s Kamrupi crafts are made from bell metal & brass. These crafts are often designed with gold, silver, and copper.
  4. Khavda pottery is practiced in the region of Kutch, Gujarat. Dramatic designs and patterns are then created with Geru (red), black & white clay-based colours.
  5. Kondapalli toys are unique to Andhra Pradesh.
  6. Sikki grass has its deep-rooted origin in various parts of Bihar. Sikki grass is a natural fibre that is dyed in different colours.
  7. Many regions of Haryana are host to the famous Sarkanda (type of plant used to create various types of furniture products) Craft.
  8. Gond art is a famous art form of Madhya Pradesh that is inspired by folk & tribal paintings.
  9. Traditional attire of Maharashtra, Narayanpeth saree uses cotton & silk fabrics with contrasting zari border and alluring palla with a silver lining.
  10. Bomkai sarees gets fame in the Bomkai village of Odisha.
  11. Paithani sarees are the finest examples of hand-woven silk sarees originating in Paithan town of Maharashtra and flourished during the Satvahana dynasty.
  12. Panchachuli weave is one of the famous & high-quality weaves made by Uttarakhand women living near Indo-Tibetan border.
  13. The art of hand-knotted carpets, locally known as ‘Kal Baffi’, was brought to Kashmir in the 15th century.
  14. IKAT is a traditional form of textiles weaved in several parts of the nation, but Odisha has mastered the art of weaving IKAT.
  15. Applique is ornamental needlework & patchwork commonly used for decorating fabrics popular in states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Odisha and Bihar.
  16. The origin of Kanjeevaram sarees inherently belongs to the Tamil Nadu region.
  17. Tracing back to 17th century, Mirror or Sheesha embroidery was brought to India during the Mughal era.
  18. Popularly known as Scroll paintings of Jharkhand, Paitkar paintings also occur in areas of West Bengal and Odisha. These paintings have a vertical format and were traditionally made using palm leaves as base.
  19. White Pat Silk is a domestic variety of mulberry silk in Assam.
  20. Traditionally worn by Assamese women, the Mekhela chador is made by using cotton, Muga silk, pat silk, and Eri silk.
  21. Worn by both men and women, Puans are the traditional attire of the native people of Mizoram.
  22. Wangkhei Phee fabric is made throughout the state of Manipur using very fine cotton yarn woven.
  23. Meenakari Art is a Persian art which was introduced in Rajasthan by Raja Mansingh. Later the craft flourished under Mughal patronage.
  24. A popular mural craft of Kutch- Gujarat, Lippan Kaam is distinct in its usage of mud, clay and mirrors to create intricate embroidered patterns.
  25. Using lost-wax-casting technique, the popular Dhokra handicraft is ultimate combination of primal simplicity and urbane refinement.
  26. Dating back to 7th century, Manjusha is the folk art of Bhagalpur, Bihar which follows a sequential representation of story displayed in the form of a series.
  27. Madhubani art employs enticing geometrical patterns. A pride of the Mithila region, Bihar.
  28. Warli painting is a form of tribal art of North Sahyadri Range in Maharashtra. These Rudimentary arts follow geometric shapes.
  29. Pattachitra is the traditional artwork of Odisha and also a component of ancient Bengali narrative art narratives centering around Jagannath and Vaishnava sect & mix of folk and classical events.
  30. The art of Toda embroidery, known as ‘pukhoor’ is practiced by the Toda Tribals based in Nilgiris, Tamilnadu.
  31. Emblematic of Punjab and Haryana, the Phulkari embroidery weaves flowers, motifs and geometrical shapes.
  32. Pochampalli Ikats, GI product of Telangana,are woven with geometrical patterns with precision and skills using tie and dye technique.
  33. “Turahi, Turhi or Turturi” is a traditional musical instrument of Uttarakhand.
  34. Kalamezhuthu is a unique art form of Kerala. It is a ritualistic art practiced in temples where the representation of deities, are made on the floor. It is practiced using natural pigments and powders, usually in five colours. The drawing is done with bare hands without any tool.
  35. Karma dance is a traditional dance form of Jharkhand, takes place during the auspicious Karma festival marks the end of the rainy season and the advent of autumn.
  36. Dokra the world-famous ancient metal craft is practised by the Malhar and Tentri tribes of Jharkhand.
  37. Chang Lo is the folk dance of the Chang tribe of Nagaland performed on festival of Poangelam. Women of the Chang tribe also join the men in the dance.
  38. Alpana a popular Kumaoni art form of Uttarakhand done on walls, paper, and pieces of cloth involves drawings of various geometric.
  39. Chikankari from Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh is that iconic design famous for its motif embroidered on chiffon, muslin, organza, etc fabrics.
  40. Rathwa ni Gher is a traditional dance form of the Rathwas dwelling in Rath Vistar region of Gujarat. The performance is presented during Holi also known as Kavant Festival.
  41. The art of creating Jhabua dolls of Madhya Pradesh is also popularly known as Adivasi Gudiya Hastashilp.
  42. Tallapaka Annamacharya, popularly known as Padakavitha Pitamaha is the first known composer in Carnatic music. His compositions in easy Telugu came to be known as Sankirtans are sung till date at Tirumala.
  43. A traditional ritual of tribal women, Sohrai Khovar Painting is an Indian GI product of Hazaribag in Jharkhand primarily created to celebrate the occasions like marriages and harvest season.
  44. Bobbili Veena is an Indian GI product from the state of Andhra Pradesh.
  45. Zardozi is an Indian GI product of the handiwork skill-based craft of Lucknow, UttarPradesh.
  46. Kakulha Ragini, 18th Century CE: Deccan Painting showing the scene is laid on a hilly landscape by a lotus pool in the foreground.
  47. Dhumketu puppet theatre, West Bengal.
  48. Sat Bis-Deori, Chittorgarh, Rajasthan is a group of twenty-seven Jain temples built-in 1448 CE.
  49. Satsang is a four-stringed musical instrument made of a single piece of wood belongs to the Lepcha community of Kalimpong, WestBengal.
  50. Shadow Theatre of Odisha also known as Ravana-Chhaya, it’s a rare form of puppetry art of the state. The main theme of its story is Ramayana. In this scene, Bali is being executed by God Rama.
  51. Temples in Pattadakal, Karnataka the UNESCO World Heritage Site illustrates the apogee of eclectic art,achieved a harmonious synthesis of architectural forms from the north & south of India.
  52. Kalbelia is a folk-dance form of Rajasthan. Traditionally nomads, their main occupation was catching snakes & trading their venom. Women dance while men play instruments.
  53. Lai Haraoba dance of Manipur is performed during Lai Haraoba (Festival of Gods). It enacts the creation of the universe & is traditionally performed before the shrines of Umanglai, the ancestral God of Meitei community.
  54. Karakattam/ Karagam is a folk-dance form of Tamil Nadu performed for the rain goddess Mariamman. It has two types, Aatta Karakam is performed for entertainment and Sakthi Karakam is performed in temples. Both are performed with pots on heads.
  55. 𝐓𝐚𝐦𝐢𝐥 𝐋𝐢𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞
    • Thirukkural – written by Saint Thiruvallur
    • Tolkappiyam – Tamil grammar book
    • Manimekhlai – written by Sattanar
    • Andal – Women Alvar saint
    • Periya Puranam, Kambaramayanam – Major poets in Nayanars
  56. 𝐉𝐚𝐢𝐧 𝐋𝐢𝐭𝐞𝐫𝐚𝐭𝐮𝐫𝐞
    • Agam – consists of many texts, which are the sacred books – in the Ardha-magadhi
    • Non-agam – explanation of Agam literature – written in many languages such as Prakrit, Sanskrit, Apabhramsa, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannad, etc.
  57. Uvasaggaharam stotra, Kalpa Sutra – written by Bhadrabahu. Samayasara, Niyamasara – written by Acharya Kundkund. Ratna Karanda, Sravakachara, Aptamimansa – written by Samanta Bhadra. Silappadikaram – written by Ilango Adigal
  58. Major Sub-Sects of Jainism:
    • Murtipujaka; Sthanakvasi; Terapanthi
    • Sthanakavasi – Pray saint rather than idols; wear Muhapatti
    • Murtipujaka – keep idols of Tirthankaras at their temple; do not wear Muhapattis
  59. Pithoda painting is a ritualistic art form of the Rathwa and Bhilala tribes of Gujarat depicting their history, aspirations & everyday life.
  60. Sculpture Kanheri, Maharashtra is the largest Buddhist site in India in terms of the number of caves in a single hill. The term Kanheri is derived from Sanskrit ‘Krishnagiri’ meaning black mountain. Sculptures of various Buddhas & Bodhisattvas are found there.
  61. Kavad art is the unique fusion of skilled carpentry, painting, & narration. It is practiced in the village of Bassi in Rajasthan & signifies the cultural expressions of storytelling. Kavads are decorated using colors like red, white & yellow.
  62. Thangka is a famous Buddhist painting on a cotton or silk applique usually representing Buddhist deities of Arunachal Pradesh. Serves as a medium of religious expression & teaching tools. Subject matter – Buddha, humans, stupas, animals, bodhisattvas, etc.
  63. The GI (Geographical Indication) tagged, Baluchari sarees from Bishnupur, West Bengal are an epitome of grace! Carved from fine silk, these sarees depict mythological tales through fine embroidery.
  64. 𝑪𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒔 𝒃𝒚 𝑽𝒊𝒋𝒂𝒚𝒂𝒏𝒂𝒈𝒂𝒓𝒂 𝑬𝒎𝒑𝒊𝒓𝒆
    • Issued large quantities of gold coins; some pure silver and copper
    • Pagodas – higher denomination – figure of warrior and dagger symbol
    • Fanams – Gold – Fractional Unit
    • Targs – Silver – Fractional units
  65. 𝑪𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒔 𝒃𝒚 𝑴𝒂𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒉𝒂𝒔
    • Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
    • symbol of sovereignty
    • Special Shivrai Hons – Gold coins
    • Rajmudra – The Royal Seal – not coins
  66. 𝑪𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒔 𝒃𝒚 𝑴𝒖𝒈𝒉𝒂𝒍𝒔
    • Coins – Mohur
    • Abu Fazl – Ain-i-Akbari – Mohur=9 rupees
    • Silver rupees – adoption from Sher Shah’s currency
    • Akbar – both round and square coins
    • Gold coins – Ilahi coins
    • Jahangir – legends in a couplet
  67. 𝑪𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒔 𝒃𝒚 𝑻𝒖𝒓𝒌𝒊𝒔𝒉 𝒂𝒏𝒅 𝑫𝒆𝒍𝒉𝒊 𝒔𝒖𝒍𝒕𝒂𝒏𝒂𝒕𝒆
    • King’s name, title and dates-as per Hijri calendar
    • No any image of the monarch
    • Delhi Sultanate – Gold, Silver and Billon/copper coins
    • Silver Tanka & Copper Jital – by Iltumash.
  68. 𝑪𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒔 𝒃𝒚 𝑪𝒉𝒐𝒍𝒂𝒔
    • Chola – Raja Raja I
    • On one side – Standing King
    • On other Side – seated goddess
    • Rajendra I coins – Sri Rajendra or Gangaikonda Chola
    • legends with tiger and fish
    • Pallava Dynasty – figures of a lion on coins
  69. 𝑪𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒔 𝒃𝒚 𝑷𝒂𝒏𝒅𝒚𝒂𝒔
    • Pandyan – square-shaped – images of elephant initially
    • Later – Fish became a very important symbol
    • Silver Coins – Sanskrit
    • Copper Coins – Tamil
  70. 𝑪𝒐𝒊𝒏𝒔 𝒃𝒚 𝑪𝒉𝒂𝒍𝒖𝒌𝒚𝒂𝒔
    • Western Chalukyan dynasty – by Pulkesin I – 6th cen. CE
    • Capital city – Badami
    • On one side – Image of temple, lion, legend
    • On other Side – blank/design
    • Eastern Chalukyan dynasty – symbol of boar at the centre.
  71. 𝑲𝒉𝒂𝒓𝒐𝒔𝒕𝒉𝒊 𝑺𝒄𝒓𝒊𝒑𝒕 (3𝑩𝑪𝑬-3𝑪𝑬)
    • Used in ancient Gandhara
    • Sister script of Brahmi
    • Includes set of numerals
    • Right to left
    • Abugida
  72. 𝑩𝒓𝒂𝒉𝒎𝒊 𝑺𝒄𝒓𝒊𝒑𝒕
    • Oldest writing system
    • Rock cut edicts of Ashoka
    • Deciphered in 1837 by James Prinsep
    • From Left to right
    • Abugida writing system
  73. 𝑮𝒖𝒑𝒕𝒂 𝑺𝒄𝒓𝒊𝒑𝒕
    • Descended from Brahmi
    • Gave rise to Nagari, Sharada and Siddham scripts
  74. 𝑾𝒂𝒓𝒍𝒊 𝒑𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈
    • Practiced in tribal regions of Maharashtra and Gujarat border area
    • decorative paintings on floors & walls of ‘gond’ and ‘kol’ tribes homes and places of worship
    • made in geometric patterns like squares, triangles, and circles.
  75. 𝑲𝒂𝒍𝒂𝒎𝒌𝒂𝒓𝒊 𝑷𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈𝒔 (Andhra Pradesh)
    • painting done by kalam (shart pointed bamboo)
    • Stories from the epics Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Puranas are painted as continuous narratives.
  76. 𝑴𝒂𝒅𝒉𝒖𝒃𝒂𝒏𝒊 𝑷𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈𝒔 (Mithila – Bihar)
    • Religious motifs of rama, Krishna, durga, Lakshmi, shiva
    • Figures – symbolic, fish depicts good luck and fertility
    • Flowers, trees, animals to fill gaps
    • No shading, 2Dimentional, double line borders.
  77. 𝑲𝒂𝒍𝒊𝒈𝒉𝒂𝒕 𝑷𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈𝒔 (Kolkata – 19th century)
    • They evolved a quick method of painting on mill-made paper
    • Used brush and ink from the lampblack, use of water colour
    • Depicts figures of deities, gentry & ordinary people.
  78. 𝑻𝒂𝒏𝒋𝒐𝒓𝒆 𝑷𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈
    • decorative paintings
    • Created on glass and boards
    • Use of brilliant colour patterns and liberal use of gold leaf
    • Use of gemstone and cut glasses
    • at Zenith under Sarfoji maharaj
  79. 𝑩𝒂𝒔𝒐𝒉𝒍𝒊 𝑷𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈𝒔 (17th – 18th century)
    • known for its bold vitality of colour, lines & red borders
    • expressive faces, big eyes shaped like lotus
    • 1st patron Raja Kirpal Singh – Bhanudatta’s Rasamanjiri, Gita govinda, Ramayana drawings.
  80. 𝑻𝒉𝒆 𝑷𝒂𝒉𝒂𝒓𝒊 𝑺𝒄𝒉𝒐𝒐𝒍𝒔 (17th-19th Century)
    • Comprises the present State of Himachal Pradesh, some adjoining areas of Punjab, the area of Jammu, & Garhwal in Uttarakhand.
  81. 𝑴𝒂𝒓𝒘𝒂𝒓 𝑷𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈𝒔 (15-16th cen.)
    • Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jaisalmer
    • Colourful clothing
    • Executed in a primitive and vigorous folk style
    • Completely uninfluenced by the Mughal style.
    • Shiva Purana, Natacharitra, Durgacharitra, Panchatantra.
  82. 𝑴𝒆𝒘𝒂𝒓 𝑷𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈𝒔 (17th – 18th century)
    • Characterized by bold bright contrasting colours and direct emotional appeal
    • Extraordinary figure of Sahibdin
    • Tamasha paintings – shows court ceremonial and city view.
  83. 𝑲𝒊𝒔𝒉𝒂𝒏𝒈𝒂𝒓𝒉 𝒑𝒂𝒊𝒏𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈𝒔 (18𝒕𝒉 𝒄𝒆𝒏𝒕𝒖𝒓𝒚)
    • Distinguished by its individualistic facial type and its religious intensity
    • Developed under the patronage of Raja Savant Singh (1748-1757 AD)
    • Bani Thani Painting
  84. Barmer wood carvings are famous in Rajasthan. The art form boasts stone and mirror work, leather and cloth embroidery, printing, and dyeing.
  85. Batto Bai Dolls an enterprising craftswoman from Gwalior Madhya Pradesh.
  86. Tumba Art is practiced by the tribal community of Chhattisgarh.
  87. Pithora a tribal art famous in Gujarat & Madhya Pradesh. Usually canvased on cloth, paper, card boards and walls with natural and synthetic colors. No two paintings are ever similar. Occupation of the Bhilalas or Rathwas tribals.
  88. Jaipuri Meenakari (Enamel Work) – a traditional art form of decorating metals with colourful designs and motifs can be seen everywhere in the state.
  89. The dangis are unique tribals a blend of Gujarati and Maharashrin culture mixed harmoniously with original Dravidians. The dance perfomed by Dangis is called Dangi Nrutya performed by both Men and women. Famous in Gujarat.
  90. Dollu Kunitha originated in the rituals of the Kuruba Gowda community of North Karnataka, is a traditional dance form.
  91. Banana Fibre Handcrafts: Kerala
  92. Screw pine craft has its roots in the Thrissur district of Kerala.
  93. In Kashmiri language, the one who designs the carpet is known as Nakaash, the weaver is known as Kalimba and the one who dyes the carpet is known as Ranger.
  94. Usta Art form is practiced by ‘Usta’ artisans from Bikaner, Rajasthan. The colourful & intricate Naqqashi or Manoti are inspired by Mughal designs.
  95. Soof is an intricate embroidery practiced in the Kachchh region of Gujarat. It Is characterized by geometric motifs created by the craftswomen directly on the fabric without any prior drawing.
  96. Introduced by Scottish people, Crochet Lace’s work is the specialty of Palakollu and Narsapur villages of Andhra Pradesh.
  97. Kuppadam silk saree hail from Andhra Pradesh. It is known for its intricate and exquisite designs.
  98. The Bandar hand-woven sarees are not only popular domestically but even internationally. Bandar is also known as Machilipatnam or Masulipatnam which is the name of a city situated in the Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh.
  99. Kasuti Embroidery flourished during the Chalukya period and became popular in Karnataka. This hand embroidery is mainly created on Ilkal and Kanchipuram sarees using cotton threads.
  100. Chedibutta is an amalgamation of chedi which means ‘plant’, and butta which means ‘motif’ in the Tamil language.
  101. It is believed that the making of Sungudi sarees was inspired by the women of Madurai. The weavers create the round patterns in a similar way to how the women tie their hair in a bun, using the help of tiny pinches, the cloth is tied along with threads.
  102. Tangail saree flourished from Bengal. Its dotted designs, spaced-out motifs, make it a desirable attire.
  103. Hails from Ganjam, Odisha, Pitala sarees are one of the simplest kinds of attire, worn on a daily basis by the local inhabitants. The border and pallu of these sarees carry simple ikat patterns and the base comprises butis.
  104. Khandua is a handloom speciality of Nuapatna in Cuttack. The dazzling textures of Khandua makes it every woman’s go-to attire for weddings and auspicious occasions. Khandua silk sarees adorned with Gita Gobinda texts are also offered to Lord Jagannath.

Mural Paintings (Credit: @INDArtCulture)


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