Dance, Art Forms and Paintings in India
CLASSICAL DANCE OF INDIA
- Indian classical dance or ‘Shastriya Devesh’ is an umbrella termfor various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical theatre styles whose theory and practice can be traced to the Sanskrit text Natya Shastra.
- The Sangeet Natak Academy recognizes eight Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi, Odissi, Kathakali, Sattriya, Manipuriand Mohiniyattam. Additionally, the Indian Ministry of Culture includes Chhau in its classical list.
|Dance Forms||State||Key Features|
|BHARATANATYAM||Tamil Nadu||· National dance of India
· Originally known as Sadiraattam or Thevarattam
· noted in the ancient Tamil epic Silappatikaram
· oldest classical dance form of all dance forms
· derives its name from Bharatamuni and Natyam
· origin of this dance is traced to the solo dance performance of Devadasis (Temple’s dancers)
· described as ekaharya in which one dancer depicts many roles. Siva as Nataraja, the Lord of Dance is depicted in various dance forms.
· includes nrita (pure dance), nritya (solo expressive dance) and natya (group dramatic dance)
· leans heavily on the abhinaya or mime aspect of dance – the nritya, where the dancer expresses the sahitya through movement and mime (gestures and facial expression)
· The person who conducts the dance recitation is the Nattuvanar.
· Practiced by male and female dancers
· Thanjavur, Brihadeshwara temple dedicated to Shiva has been a major center
· Follows a seven-part order of presentation: Alarippu- Jatiswaram- Shabdam- Varnam- Padam-Tillana- Shlokam or a Mangalam
· Rukmini Devi Arundale, Mallika Sarabhai, Yamini Krishnamurthy
· Maharis were Oriya devadasis or temple girls
· Gotipuas were boys dressed up as girls and taught the dance by the Maharis
· Nartaki dance took place in the royal courts.
· Noted Odissi exponents are: Kelucharan Mohapatra, Gangadhar Pradhan, Pankaj Charan Das, Deba Prasad Das and Raghunath Dutta, Sonal Mansingh
MARTIAL ART FORMS OF INDIA
|THANG-TA AND SARIT SARAK||
|KATTI SAMU (SWORD FIGHT) & KARA SAMU (STAFF FIGHT)||
FOLK DANCES OF INDIA UPSC
- Indian folk dances, which typically consist of a few simple steps, are performed throughout the world to celebrate a new season, childbirth, weddings, festivals, and other social occasions. In some Indian folk dances, men and women perform separately; in others, they dance together.
|Andhra Pradesh||Kuchipudi, Vilasini Natyam, Andhra Natyam, Bhamakalpam, Veeranatyam, Dappu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Dhimsa, Kolattam, Butta Bommalu.|
|Arunachal Pradesh||Dance Forms||Tribes|
|Lion and peacock dance||Monpa|
|Assam||Bihu, Bichhua, Natpuja, Maharas, Kaligopal, Bagurumba, Naga dance, Khel Gopal, Tabal Chongli, Canoe, Jhumura Hobjanai, Hamja, Ojapali, Sattriya, Bhortal,|
|Bihar||· Bideshiya is a form of dance-drama that is believed to have been created by Bhikhari Thakur, a barber with a passion for drama. It deals with social issues and conflict between traditional and modern, rich and poor.
· Domkach is performed in the bridegroom’s house by women during a marriage ceremony.
· Fagua is a dance and also a type of folk song performed during Holi.
· Jat-Jatin is the most popular folk dance of North Bihar, especially in the Mithila and Koshi regions. It is performed by a man and a woman; the man is going far away to work. The dance reflects poverty and sorrow.
· Jhijhian is sung and danced during a drought as a prayer to Indra for rain. Its music is usually a singer, a harmonium and a drum.
· Jhumri is similar to Gujarat’s Garba.
· Kajari is popular in Bihar’s Bhojpuri-speaking region. It often describes a woman’s longing for her lover as the black monsoon cloud hangs in the summer sky, and is sung during the rainy season.
· Painki evokes the infantry’s agility, courage, and excitement. Danced on flat ground, it highlights the dancers’ weapon-handling ability.
· Sohar is sung and danced by women to celebrate the birth of a child.
|Chhattisgarh||· Gaur Maria, Panthi, Raut Nacha, Pandwani, Vedamati, Kapalik, Bharthari Charit, Chandaini|
|Goa||· Fugdi in a Goan folk dance performed by the women in the Konkan region during the Hindu religious festivals Ganesh Chaturthi and Vrata or near the end of other dances, such as Dhalo
· Tarangamel, Koli, Dekhni, Shigmo, Ghode, Modni, Samayi nrutya, Jagar, Ranmale, Gonph, Tonnya mell
|Gujarat||· Dandiya Raas is an energetic, vibrant dance which originated in Gujarat. Often called the “stick dance” because it uses polished sticks (dandiya)
· Garba is customarily performed by both sexes, and sometimes includes the stick dance
· The Tippani dance originated in the Chorwad region of Saurashtra.
|Himachal Pradesh||· Nati, Jhora, Jhali, Chharhi, Dhaman, Chhapeli, Mahasu, Dangi|
|Jammu and Kashmir||
|Manipur||· Thougal Jagoi is the traditional folk dance of the Meitei community performed during the Lai Haraoba festival before the deities. It is also known as Khamba Thoibi Jagoi. A variant of Thougal Jagoi, performed only by women dancers, is known as Leima Jagoi. The dance uses traditional musical instruments like pena and laangden (traditional drum).
· Yelhou Jagoi includes all the dances performed during the Lai Haraoba festival, mainly by the Maibis.
· Luivat Pheizak is one of most popular dances of the Tangkhul Naga community of Manipur.
· Shim Laam is the traditional folk dance of Rongmei community. It is popularly known as the fly dance.
· Thabal Chongba (dancing by moonlight) is a Manipuri folk dance traditionally performed during the festival of Yaoshang in India
|Meghalaya||· Ka Shad Suk Mynsiem, Nongkrem, Laho|
|Mizoram||· Cheraw Dance, Khuallam, Chailam, Sawlakin, Chawnglaizawn, Zangtalam, Par Lam, Sarlamkai/Solakia, Tlanglam|
PERFORMING ARTS IN INDIA UPSC
- Koodiyattam is a traditional performing art form in the state of Kerala, India. It is a combination of ancient Sanskrit theatrewith elements of Koothu, an ancient performing art from the Sangam era. It is officially recognised by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
- Krishnaattam is a temple art in Kerala, India. It is a dance drama and presents the story of Krishnain a series of eight plays
- Chakyar Koothu is a performance art from Kerala, India. It is primarily a type of highly refined monologuewhere the performer narrates episodes from Hindu epics (such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata) and stories from the Puranas. Solo performance, by a narrator in a distinctive headgear. Performed in the Koothambalam; a place inside Hindu temples specifically designed for performing Kutiyattam and Chakyar Koothu
- Nangiar koothu or Nangyar Koothu is an allied traditional art of Kutiyattam, an age-old Sanskritdrama tradition of India. It is performed traditionally by the women of the Ambalavasi Nambiar community of Kerala, known as Nangyaramma, but since the second half of the 20th century it’s no longer the case.
- Garudan Thookkam (Eagle Hanging) is a ritual art form performed in certain Kalitemples in some Central Kerala districts in south India. The people who dress up as Garuda perform the dance.
- Ottan Thullal is a recite-and-dance art-form of Kerala, India.
- Koothambalam or Kuttampalam meaning temple theatre is a closed hall for staging Koothu, Nangiar koothu and Koodiyattam, the ancient ritualistic art forms of Kerala, India. Koothambalams are said to be constructed according to the guide lines given in the chapter 2 of Nātyasāstraof Bharata Muni.
THEATRE FORMS OF INDIA UPSC
|BHAND PATHER||Kashmir||· unique combination of dance, music and acting.
· Satire, wit and parody are preferred for inducing laughter.
· In this theatre form, music is provided with surnai, nagaara and dhol.
· Since the actors of Bhand Pather are mainly from the farming community, the impact of their way of living, ideals and sensitivity is discernible.
|SWANG||Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh||· mainly music-based
· prose too, played its role in the dialogues.
· two important styles of Swang are from Rohtak and Haathras.
|NAUTANKI||Uttar Pradesh||· The meters used in the verses are: Doha, Chaubola, Chhappai, Behar-e-tabeel
· women have also started taking part in the performances
|RAASLEELA||Uttar Pradesh||· In this theatre form the dialogues in prose combined beautifully with songs and scenes from Krishna’s pranks.
· based exclusively on Lord Krishna
|BHAVAI||Gujarat||· centers of this form are Kutch and Kathiawar.
· instruments used in Bhavai are: bhungal, tabla, flute, pakhaawaj, rabaab, sarangi, manjeera, etc. In Bhavai, there is a rare synthesis of devotional and romantic sentiments.
|JATRA||Orissa and eastern Bihar, originated in Bengal||· Krishna Jatra became popular due to Chaitanya’s influence. Later, however, worldly love stories too, found a place in Jatra.|
|MAACH||Madhya Pradesh||· songs are given prominence in between the dialogues.
· The term for dialogue in this form is bol and rhyme in narration is termed vanag.
· The tunes of this theatre form are known as rangat.
|BHAONA||Assam||· presentation of the Ankia Naat
· cultural glimpses of Assam, Bengal Orissa, Mathura and Brindavan can be seen.
· The Sutradhaar, or narrator begins the story, first in Sanskrit and then in either Brajboli or Assamese.
|TAMAASHA||Maharashtra||· evolved from the folk forms such as Gondhal, Jagran and Kirtan.
· Unlike other theatre forms, in Tamaasha the female actress is the chief exponent of dance movements in the play.
· She is known as Murki.
· Classical music, footwork at lightning-speed, and vivid gestures make it possible to portray all the emotions through dance.
|DASHAVATAR||Konkan and Goa regions||· performers personify the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu-the god of preservation and creativity.|
|KRISHNATTAM||Kerala||· cycle of eight plays performed for eight consecutive days.
· based on the theme of Lord Krishna – his birth, childhood pranks and various deeds depicting victory of good over evil.
|MUDIYETTU||Kerala||· performed only in the Kali temples of Kerala, as an oblation to the Goddess
· seven characters in Mudiyettu-Shiva, Narada, Darika, Danavendra, Bhadrakali, Kooli and Koimbidar (Nandikeshvara) are all heavily made-up.
|Himachal Pradesh||· normally performed around the Dussehra festival
· prefaced by virtuoso drumming, uses minimal props and often incorporates dance and comic acts
· local variants all over Himachal Pradesh (banthada in Mandi, budechhu in Sirmaur and bhagtu in Kangra)
· derives its theme from the daily life and concerns of the villagers
|Kerala||· based on Sanskrit theatre traditions
· part of temple rituals performed in sacred theaters
· recognized by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.
· Emphasis on hand gestures and eye movements makes this dance and theatre form unique.
|Karnataka||· unique harmony of musical tradition, eye-catching costumes, and authentic styles of dance, improvised gestures and acting, with its extemporaneous dialogue holding a wide appeal
· mythological stories and epics
· presented from dusk to dawn, this folk theatre is predominantly seen in the coastal districts
|Tamil Nadu||· “street play”
· mostly performed at the time of annual temple festivals of Mariamman (Rain goddess) to achieve rich harvest
· cycle of eight plays based on the life of Draupadi
· performance includes lively dances and songs sung in a high pitch by the male actors (even the female roles are played by males) who wear wide colorful costumes, sparkling shoulder plates, elaborate head-dresses and thick bright make-up
|Uttarakhand||· religious festival in honour of the village deity, Bhumiyal Devta.
· made up of highly complex rituals that involve the recitation of a version of the epic Ramayana and various legends
· performance of local songs and masked dances
PUPPET FORMS OF INDIA
- String Puppets-Rajasthan, Orissa, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
- Kathputli, Rajasthan
- Kundhei, Odisha
- Gombeyatta (styled and designed like the characters of Yakshagana), Karnataka
- Bommalattam (combine the techniques of both rod and string puppets & largest, heaviest and the most articulate of all traditional Indian marionettes), Tamil Nadu
- Shadow Puppets-Odisha. Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu
- Togalu Gombeyatta (differ in size according to their social status), Karnataka
- Tholu Bommalata (richest and strongest tradition), Andhra Pradesh
- Ravanachhaya (one piece and have no joints. They are not coloured), Odisha
- Rod Puppets- West Bengal, Bihar and Odisha
- Putul Nautch, West Bengal
- Yampuri (one piece and have no joints), Bihar
- Glove Puppets (also known as sleeve, hand or palm puppet)
- Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal and Kerala
- Pavakoothu (influence of Kathakali), Kerala
FOLK PAINTINGS OF INDIA
|Paintings||Region /State||Key Features|
|MADHUBANI PAINTINGS||Mithila region of Bihar||· Theme of these paintings are Hindu god and goddesses, mythology, wedding scenes, festival scenes and also royal courts scenes
· exclusively made by women painters
· no space left empty
· outline directly draw with brush without any preliminary sketching.
· use of colourful rice is prevail here
|WARLI||Maharashtra region||· mainly tribal paintings
· use cow dung for background plaster.
· white colour paste use to draw figures. Male and female figures are draw in geometrically pattern.
|MANJUSHA||Bhagalpur region Bihar||· also called as Angika art.
· Snake paintings.
· Paintings are made on the boxes of jute and paper.
|KALAM (KALAMEZHUTHU)||Kerala||· ritualistic art practiced in temples and sacred groves
· natural pigments and powders, usually in five colours.
· Essentially a ritualistic art practiced in temples and sacred groves of Kerala where the representation of deities like Kali and Lord Ayyappa, are made on the floor.
· Drawing is done with bare hands without the use of tools.
|Bihar||· Most of the paintings are of miniature category and made on paper
· link between the Mughal style and the British style
· Paintings on the daily life are in abundance
· Colours are extracted from indigenously plants, barks, flowers and metals. Paintings are characterized by light colored sketches and life-like representations.
· usually they do not paint any landscape, foreground or background
· technique was commonly known as ‘Kajli Seahi’.
|Odisha||· Have their origin in the mud walls of aboriginal Lanjia Saora tribal homes in Odisha
· Painting is called Idital and the person who creates it is known as the iditalmar
· The wall is cleaned and smeared with locally available red soil, then rice paste is prepared as white colour for painting with bamboo sticks [instead of brushes]
· Painting has a rectangular frame, and features icons of deities, or those drawn from nature
|Bengal region||· figures of Roman and Greek are copy here
· figures of indian gods with many arms are condemn because they don’t follow human representation
· Every day bazar scene and also the female dancer which are dancing in front of the British officers are the theme
|Odisha||· picture on a cloth.
· The paintings also consist Hindu mythology, religious stories, folklore and the figures of deities.
· Natural paints and a cloth canvas are used for creating of simple themes.
|Gujarat & Madhya Pradesh||· practised by tribes like Rathwas, Bhilalas
· found on the walls of the houses and are believed to bring peace, prosperity and happiness to the household.
· These paintings are considered more of a ritual than an art form to plead the gods for a boon.
· It is interesting to note that there is not even a single attempt to imitate nature.
|Central India||· practise by “Gondi” tribe
· art form celebrates life i.e, hills, streams, animals, birds etc. The tribes, traditionally painted the paintings on the mud walls of their house.
|West Bengal||· paintings tradition of Patuas was started as a village tradition as painters of scrolls or pats telling the popular mangal stories of the gods and goddesses.
|West Bengal||· unique and delightful Blend of the Oriental and the Occidental styles of painting.
|Jharkhand||· popularly known as the scroll paintings
· popular in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and other adjacent states of India.
· used in storytelling performances and in socio-religious customs.
· paintings that belong to this form have a common subject of what happens to human life after death. This scroll painting also mirrors the Bengali and Jharkhand daily life.
· considered as the variable of Pata painting. Patapainting or Pata chitra was term used for long scroll painting.
|Andhra Pradesh||· hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile
· two distinctive styles of Kalamkari art in India – Srikalahasti style and the Machilipatnam style
· “kalam” or pen is used for free hand drawing of the subject and filling in the colors, is entirely hand worked
· Only natural dyes are used in Kalamkari and it involves seventeen steps.
|Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Tibet and Sikkim.||· Buddhist art form
· theme for this painting revolves around the life of Buddha.
· Vegetable colors are used
· paint consists of pigments in a water-soluble medium of animal glue.
· Both mineral and organic pigments are used
|Marwar (Rajasthan) and later to Manavar (Madhya Pradesh)||· essentially block printing
· involved blocks that are carved onto motifs that represent flora such as Jasmine, Mushroom, lehariya and so on
· inspired by the jaali work that embellished the Taj Mahal and various other forts
TANJORE ART / THANJAVUR PAINTING
|Tamil Nadu||· art form draws its immediate resources and inspiration from way back about 1600 AD, a period when the Nayakas
· characterised by rich and vivid colors, simple iconic composition, glittering gold foils overlaid on delicate but extensive gesso work and inlay of glass beads and pieces or very rarely precious and semi-precious gems
· paintings are panel paintings done on wooden planks, and hence referred to as palagai padam
|Rajasthan||· clearly distinguished by its individualistic facial type and its religious intensity
· sensitive, refined features of the men and women are drawn with pointed noses and chins, deeply curved eyes, and serpentine locks of hair
|Rajasthan||· Bani Thani was a singer and poet in Kishangarh in the time of Raja Samant Singh
· Kishangarh Miniature
· depicted with elegant and graceful features, rather stylized, including arched eyebrows, lotus-like elongated eyes and pointed chin
|Rajasthan||· The blend of Mughal and Deccani art elements in Bundi style are unique.
· Excelled in its illustrations of Krishna-Lila and Rasikapriya. Besides these the other themes that these paintings depict are Nayaka- Nayika Bheda, Baramasa, Harem or Zanana, Hunting and Portraits.
|Rajasthan||· painted scroll, which depicts stories of epic dimensions about local deities and legendary heroes.
· narratives of the folk deities of Rajasthan, mostly of Pabuji and Devnarayan are depicted
|Jammu and Kashmir||· reputed school of miniature paintings known for its vivid, evocative colors, bold lines, and deep-set facial patterns.
· first school of Pahari paintings, many of which have evolved into the much more detailed and widespread style of Kangra painting school.
· The Basholi paintings had obscure beginnings, although Raja Bhupat Pal is widely credited as its founder.
JAINA MINIATURE SCHOOL OF PAINTING
KARIKIYOOR ROCK PAINTINGS
- A festival celebrated by the Nyishi tribe of the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh
- Close link with cultivation
- The main prayer structure of the Nyishi is made of bamboo, called the yugang.
- Alongside the yugang sacrificial animals are tethered. Like cows, mithuns, and goats.
Dance Forms of Tamil Nadu
- Bamber dance, Bharatanatyam (Classical), Bommalattam or puppet show, Chakkai Attam, Devaraattam, Kamandi or Kaman Pandigai, Kai Silambu Attam, Kazhi Attam or Kolattam, Karagattam, Kazhai Kothu, Poi Kal attam, Kummi, Mayil Attam or Peacock dance, Ottan Koothu, Oyilattam, Oyil Kummi, Paampu attam or Snake Dance, Poikkaal Kuthirai Aattam or Artificial Horse Dance, Puliyattam or Puli Aattam (Tiger Dance), Shattam dance, Parai Attam, Theru koothu, Urumi Attam, Villu Paatu
Types of Holi in India
- Lathmar Holi-Barsana in Mathura is famous for Lathmar Holi
- Cultural Holi of Santiniketan-West Bengal
- Ukkuli-Konkani community
- Dhuleti-Ahmedabad Young Men
- Bedara Vesha (Hunter Dance)-Karnataka
- Holla Mohalla-Punjab (train Nihang Sikhs in martial skills)
- Dol Jatra-West Bengal
- Famous in Lucknow & Uttar Pradesh
- Created by block printing patterns on the fabric at first and then the embroider stitches along the pattern, and the finished piece is later washed to remove traces of the prints.
- Famous in Punjab
- Embroidery of flower motifs with contrast of bright colours on light colored fabric. The stitches are embroidered on the reverse of the cloth.
Intangible Cultural Heritage of India, recognized by UNESCO
- Tradition of Vedic chanting
- Ramlila, the traditional performance of the Ramayana
- Kutiyattam, Sanskrit theatre-Kerala
- Ramman: Religious Festival and Ritual Theatre of the Garhwal Himalayas
- Mudiyettu: Ritual Theatre and Dance Drama of Kerala
- Kalbelia: Folk Songs and Dances (Kalbelia community of snake charmers living in Thar Desert)-Rajasthan
- Chhau Dance-Odisha, West Bengal & Jharkhand
- Buddhist Chanting of Ladakh: Recitation of Sacred Buddhist Texts in the TransHimalayan Ladakh Region
- Traditional brass and copper craft of utensil making-Punjab
- Kumbh Mela (It is celebrated four times every 12 years, the site of the observation rotating between four pilgrimage places on the four sacred rivers at Allahabad, Haridwar, Ujjain and Nashik.)
Types of Hindustani Music and its meaning
- Dhrupad – Effort from vocal chords and lungs
- Dhamar – Play of Krishna during holy
- Khayal – Delicate, romantic and based on imagination.
- Thumri – Romantic religious literature
- Tappa – Quick turn of phase
- Bhajan – Religious devotional songs
- Tarana – Syllables stung together to set a rhythm
- Sabadas – Sikh religious songs
- Qawali – Indo- Muslim repertories of songs in groups.
- Ghazal – Independent couplets on love and devotion
UNESCO Creative cities network from India included are: Varanasi – Music, Chennai- Music, Hyderabad- Gastronomy, Jaipur- Folk art, Mumbai- Film
- Sheethankan Thullal is a dance and poetic performance form in Kerala. One of the three major thullal forms prevailing in Kerala. Others are Ottan Thullal and Parayan Thullal. Dance is performed in a very slow tempo. Gives importance to gestures than vocal actions
- Parayan Thullal is a dance and poetic performance form prevailed in the state of Kerala. One of the three major thullal forms prevailing in Kerala. Others are Ottan Thullal and Sheethankan Thullal
- Ottan Thullal or Ottamthullal is a comedic dance and poetic performance form of Kerala. Introduced in the eighteenth century by Kunchan Nambiar, one of the Prachina Kavithrayam (three famous Malayalam language poets). Accompanied by a mridangam (a barrel shaped double headed drum) or an idakka (drum and cymbal). Has its origins in the classical principles of Natya Shastra
- Sanghakkali traditionally performed by the Namboodiris as a ritual. Rare art forms of Kerala. Performed in Namboodiri homes during the ‘shodasa kriyas’(16 rites) as well as in Shiva temples. Kambadi Kali, Velakali, Poorakkali, Duffmuttu, Sanghakkali, Padayani, Margam Kali etc. come under martial art forms.
- Kottichetham– An excerpt from the Tamil epic Silappathikaram, written by Ilango Adigal. Believed to have been danced by the Parayur Chakyan of the Chera court for the King and the queen. Dance of Lord Siva and Uma.
- Ekaharya Lasyanga– Solo performance depicting themes of love and relationships, mentioned in the Sanskrit text Natyasastra (2BC-2AD). Natyasastra written in Kashmir by Abhinavagupta (9th-10thC) reached all over India, just as karanas from the Natyasastra were found carved in the 11th c Brihadeeswara temple in the South. A pre-Thanjavur Quartet repertoire of a solo Nati or Nartaki from Sangita Muktavali (15 C) featured: Pushpanjali, Mukhacaali, Suddha-Yati nrtta, Raagaanga- Yati-nrtta, Sabdanrtta, Rupa-nrtta, dance and abhinaya to songs in dance-dramas (Rupakas), Dhvaada, Sabdacaali, Sudasabda, Sudagita, various Gita-prabandhas, followed by local dances like Cindu, Daru, Dhrupad, etc.
- Pulikkali- “Puli” = Leopard/Tiger & “Kali” = Play in Malayalam language. A recreational folk art from the state of Kerala. Performed by trained artists to entertain people on the occasion of Onam, an annual harvest festival, celebrated mainly in the Indian state of Kerala. Also known as Tiger Dance. Tempra Powder and varnish or enamel is used to make the paint and is said to be extremely hard to remove.
- Sangrai dance performed by the Mog tribal community on the occasion of Sangrai festival during the month of Chaitra (in April) of the Bengali calendar year. The Mogs are one of the 19 tribes in Tripura. Mogs are Buddhist and have the close affinity with Burmese Buddhism. Arakanese descendants who migrated to Tripura through Chittagong Hill Tracts. Language is grouped under Tibeto-Chinese family which is also linked with Assam-Burmese section of language.
- In Assam, the day before bhogali bihu or magh bihu is called Uruka — community feasting by a bonfire.
- Chindu Yakshaganam-Traditional art forms popular in Telangana. combines dance, music, dialogue, costume, make-up, and stage techniques with a unique style. Popular drama of this form is where Jambavantha — an important character from the Ramayana — explains Srishti Rahasyam. Q&A session, a character keeps shooting questions, and Jambavantha explains the evolution of the universe, birth of gods, Shakti Puranam, Pancha Brahma Jananam, 66 castes and 18 varnas. Performed during summer and winter
- Theyyam popular ritual art form of worship in Kerala. Performed by mainly by males, except the Devakoothu theyyam. The Devakoothu is the only Theyyam ritual performed by women. Similar custom is followed in the Mangalore region of neighbouring Karnataka known as Bhuta Kola. Performed in sacred groves and other places usually once in a year and is known as Kaliyattam
- Our country has a very rich heritage of traditional sports. For example, you may have heard the name of a game called“Pachisi”. This game is played as “Pallanguli” in Tamil Nadu, is called “Ali Guli Mane” in Karnataka and is known as “Vaman Guntlu” in Andhra Pradesh. It is a type of game employing strategy in which a board is usedwith many pits, in which the players have to catch hold of the pellet or seed. It is said that this game has spread from South India to Southeast Asia and then to the rest of the world. Traditional Indian game, called “Moksha Patam” or “Parampadam”. We also have another traditional game in our country called “Gutta.
- The traditional Art of ‘Talamaddale’, a variant of Yakshagana theatre. In the conventional ‘talamaddale,’ the artists sit across in a place without any costumes and engage in testing their oratory skills based on the episode chosen. It has only spoken words without any dance or costumes. Hence it is Yakshagana minus dance, costumes and stage conventions.
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