What is Dunning-Kruger effect in Psychology

  • This refers to a cognitive bias which renders people unable to properly assess their intellectual ability, which in turn leads them to overestimate their abilities.
  • It is named after psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger who proposed the existence of such bias in a 1999 paper (“Unskilled and unaware of it”).
  • As part of an experiment, they conducted tests which revealed that participants who fared the worst in them ironically considered themselves to have performed a lot better than their peers.
  • Such illusory superiority can cause people to turn hostile towards negative reviews about their work.


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