The northernmost point of Earth is the geographic North Pole, in the Arctic Ocean.
The northernmost point on land is the northern tip of Kaffeklubben Island, north of Greenland, which lies slightly north of Cape Morris Jesup, Greenland. Various shifting gravel bars lie farther north, the most famous being Oodaaq.
The southernmost point of the world and the southernmost point on land is the geographic South Pole, which is on the continent of Antarctica.
The southernmost point of water is a bay on the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf at the coast of Antarctica about 100 kilometres (62 mi) south of Berkner Island, the southernmost island of the world. The southernmost point of Ocean is Gould Coast
The southernmost open sea is also part of Ross Sea, namely Bay of Whales at 78°30’S, at the edge of Ross Ice Shelf.
The westernmost and easternmost points of the world, based on the normal practice of using longitude, can be found anywhere along the 180th meridian in Siberia (including Wrangel Island), Antarctica, or the three islands of Fiji through which the 180th meridian passes (Vanua Levu’s eastern peninsula, the middle of Taveuni, and the western part of Rabi Island).
The westernmost point on land, according to the path of the International Date Line, is Attu Island, Alaska.
The easternmost point on land, according to the path of the International Date Line, is Caroline Island, Kiribati.
The highest point measured from sea level is the summit of Mount Everest on the border of Nepal and China, and was first reached by Sir Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and Sherpa of Nepal Tenzing Norgay in 1953 (with speculation that it may have been reached in 1924). While measurements of its height vary slightly, the elevation of its peak is usually given as 8,848 m (29,029 feet) above sea level.
The point farthest from the Earth’s center is the summit of Chimborazo, in Ecuador, at 6,384 kilometres (3,966.8 mi) from the center of the earth (the peak’s elevation in relation to the sea level is 6,268 m (20,564 feet)). This is due to the Earth being an oblate spheroid rather than a perfect sphere. An oblate spheroid is very much like a sphere except it is wider at the equator and narrower between the poles. This means that Chimborazo, which is near the equator, is farther away from the center of the Earth than the peak of Mount Everest. The summit of Mount Everest is 2,168 metres (7,112.9 ft) closer at 6,382.3 km (3,965.8 miles) to the Earth’s center. Peru’s Huascarán contends closely with Chimborazo, the difference in the mountains’ heights being 23 m (75 feet)
Lowest point (artificial)
The lowest point underground ever reached was 12,262 m (40,230 feet) deep (SG-3 at Kola superdeep borehole).
The lowest human-sized point underground is 3,900 m (12,800 feet) below ground at the TauTona Mine, Carletonville, South Africa.
The lowest (from sea level) artificially made point with open sky may be the Hambach surface mine, Germany, 293 m (961 feet) below sea level.
The lowest (from surface) artificially made point with open sky may be the Bingham Canyon open-pit mine, Salt Lake City, United States, 1,200 m (3,900 feet) below surface level.
The lowest point underwater was the 10,680 m (35,040 feet)-deep (as measured from the subsea wellhead) oil and gas well drilled on the Tiber Oil Field located in the Gulf of Mexico. The wellhead of this well was an additional 1,259 m (4,131 feet) underwater for a total distance of 11,939 m (39,170 feet) as measured from sea level.
Lowest point (natural)
The lowest known point is Challenger Deep, at the bottom of the Mariana Trench, 11,034 m (36,201 feet) below sea level. Only three humans have reached the bottom of the trench: Jacques Piccard and US Navy Lieutenant Don Walsh in 1960 aboard the bathyscaphe Trieste, and filmmaker James Cameron in 2012 aboard Deepsea Challenger.
The lowest point underground is more than 2,000 m (6,600 feet) under the Earth’s surface. For example, the altitude difference in the Krubera Cave between the entrance and the deepest explored point (its depth). In 2012, Ukrainian cave diver Gennadiy Samokhin had reached the lowest point, breaking the world record
The lowest point on land not covered by liquid water is the valley under Byrd Glacier, which reaches 2,780 m (9,121 feet) below sea level. It is, however, covered by a thick layer of ice.
The lowest point on dry land is the shore of the Dead Sea, shared by Palestine, Israel, and Jordan, 418 m (1,371 feet) below sea level.
The closest point to the Earth’s centre at the Earth’s surface – interpreted as the penetrable for man, natural surface of the land and sea – is the surface of the Arctic Ocean at the Geographic North Pole (6,356.77 km (3,950 miles)). The closest point at the ground – interpreted as the land surface and the sea floor – is bottom of the Litke Deep, the deepest point of the Arctic Ocean (6,351.61 km (3,947 miles)); the bottom of the deepest oceanic trench in the world, the Mariana Trench is 14.7 km (9 miles) further from the centre of the Earth. But the closest point of the dry land is the point at the Karo Hills in the Queen Maud Mountains at the Antarctica (6,357.00 km (3,950 miles)).
1. International Institutions (Part I & II) (Part II will be sent by end of April-2021), 2. Biosphere Reserves, Biodiversity Hotspots & Hope Spots, 3. Important Terms of Ancient & Medieval History, 4. Mnemonics for UPSC, 5. Indices & Reports, 6. Economic Terms (02 Parts), 7. Environment Conventions, Terms, Organizations, 8. Important Constitutional Articles, 9. Wildlife Sanctuaries, Tiger Reserves, National Parks, 10. GI Tags in News, 11. Places in News, 12. Rivers in News, 13. Buddhism & Jainism, 14. Faunal Species of India, 15. Critical Regions, 16. Tiger Reserves in India (Updated), 17. Ramsar Sites in India (Updated), 18. World Heritage Sites in India, 19. Elephant Corridors /Reserves in India, 20. Government Portals, 21. Government Apps