Currently, India spends about 0.7% of GDP on research and development, a considerably small amount when compared with other developed nations. India’s spending is much less than the developed nations which spent between 3-4% of their GDPs.
In India, nearly 60% of cargo travels by road.
Manufacturing alone has the potential to deliver 20% of the incremental GDP that’s needed and at the same time create some 11 million more jobs.
India had only 600 large companies with over $500 million in revenue.
China is the largest shareholder in AIIB with a 26.6% voting power, followed by India with a 7.62% voting power.
The agriculture sector showed growth of 5.9% in the last quarter of 2019-2020. CMIE data shows that 111.3 million people declared their occupation as farming in 2019-20. By March 2020, this had increased to 117 million, shooting up to 130 million in June.
In India, an analysis of child marriage data show that among girls who were married by the age 18, 46 per cent were also in the lowest income bracket.
UNICEF estimates suggest that each year, at least 1.5 million girls under the age of 18 are married in India, which makes the country home to the largest number of child brides in the world accounting for a third of the global total.
India imports around 18% of its crude oil requirement from Saudi Arabia which is also a major source of LPG for India.
India is Maldives’ 4th largest trade partner after UAE, China and Singapore. In 2018, India was the 5th largest source of tourist arrivals in Maldives.
India’s exports to Bangladesh in 2018-19 stood at $9.21 billion, and imports from Bangladesh at $1.04 billion.
India has 18% of the world’s population but only 4% of its renewable water resources.
India depends on China for 67% of chemical intermediates and API that it needs to manufacture drugs and export.
According to the recently released National Cancer Registry Programme Report 2020, cancer cases in India are likely to increase to 15.6 lakhs by 2025, a 12% increase from the current estimated cases. Tobacco-related cancers are estimated to contribute 27.1% of the total cancer burden. Cancers related to use of any form of tobacco were highest in the northeastern region of the country and in higher proportions in men. Among women, breast cancers are estimated to contribute 14.8% and cervical cancer (tumour of the cervix, the lowermost part of the uterus) are estimated to contribute 5.4%.
Only 21% of all employment in India is in the form of a salaried employment. Salaried jobs contribute more to the country’s GDP than employment in the informal sector, which is largely dependent on the formal economy.
In 2019, 42.39% of the workforce in India was employed in agriculture.
A report published by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) said that while child marriages were almost universally banned, “yet they happen 33,000 times a day, every day, all around the world”. An estimated 650 million girls and women alive today were married as children, and by 2030, another 150 million girls under the age of 18 will be married. Although advances in India have contributed to a 50 per cent decline in child marriage in South Asia—to 30 per cent in 2018, the region still accounts for the largest number of child marriages each year, estimated at 4.1 million in 2017.
The UN agency estimates that 152 million children worldwide are affected, with 73 million in hazardous work.
Worldwide 218 million children between 5 and 17 years are in employment. Among them, 152 million are victims of child labour; almost half of them, 73 million, work in hazardous child labour.
In absolute terms, almost half of child labour (72.1 million) is to be found in Africa; 62.1 million in the Asia and the Pacific; 10.7 million in the Americas; 1.2 million in the Arab States and 5.5 million in Europe and Central Asia.
In terms of prevalence, 1 in 5 children in Africa (19.6%) are in child labour, whilst prevalence in other regions is between 3% and 7%: 2.9% in the Arab States (1 in 35 children); 4.1% in Europe and Central Asia (1 in 25); 5.3% in the Americas (1 in 19) and 7.4% in Asia and the Pacific region (1 in 14).
Almost half of all 152 million children victims of child labour are aged 5-11 years. 42 million (28%) are 12-14 years old; and 37 million (24%) are 15-17 years old.
Hazardous child labour is most prevalent among the 15-17 years old. Nevertheless up to a fourth of all hazardous child labour (19 million) is done by children less than 12 years old.
Among 152 million children in child labour, 88 million are boys and 64 million are girls.
58% of all children in child labour and 62% of all children in hazardous work are boys. Boys appear to face a greater risk of child labour than girls, but this may also be a reflection of an under-reporting of girls’ work, particularly in domestic child labour.
Child labour is concentrated primarily in agriculture (71%), which includes fishing, forestry, livestock herding and aquaculture, and comprises both subsistence and commercial farming; 17% in Services; and 12% in the Industrial sector, including mining.
Despite a 20GW demand for solar cell manufacturing, India’s current average annual capacity is only around 3GW. Nearly 80% of the inputs and components are imported from China as it was the top exporter of solar cells and modules to India in the Financial Year 2019-20, accounting for USD1.68 billion of the product into the country.
The number of taxpayers in India is significantly low with only 1.5 Crore paying taxes in a country of 130 Crore people.
A new study, recently published by Seattle-based Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) predicts that India will be the most populated country in the world. Its population will peak by 2050 by reaching 1.64 billion and thereafter it will decline to 1.09 billion by 2100. The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) projects that India’s population will be 1.64 billion by 2050. The UNDP predicts a population of 1.45 billion by 2100 instead of 1.09 billion by the IHME.
Fertilizer has produced more than 400 dead zones in the oceans, equalling an area greater than the size of the United Kingdom.
India is the fifth largest contributor of uniformed personnel to the UN Peacekeeping Forces.
Handloom sector in India is key to women empowerment as over 70% of handloom weavers and allied workers are women.
According to the recently released UN Report on the Impact of Covid-19 on Children, almost 24 million children could drop out or not have access to school next year due to the economic impact of Covid-19. An estimated 42-66 million children could fall into extreme poverty as a result of pandemic.
The value of global assets exposed to coastal flooding is projected to be between USD 6,000-9,000 billion or 12-20% of the global GDP. Globally, of the 68% area that is prone to coastal flooding, over 32% can be attributed to regional Sea Level Rise (SLR).
Delhi was on top of the chart with the highest prisoner occupancy in the country at 174.9%. Rajasthan has the highest number of prisons for women (7) but Delhi has the highest number of women inmates.
Chandigarh has more than 35% of its geographical area under forest and tree cover, making it one of the greenest cities of India.
India’s country-level social cost of carbon emission was estimated to be the highest at $86 per tonne of CO2. It means the Indian economy will lose $86 by emitting each additional tonne of CO2. India is followed by the US, where the economic damages would be $48 per tonne of CO2 emission. Saudi Arabia is close behind at $47 per tonne of CO2 emission.
Before COVID, it was estimated that India needs over USD 2.6 trillion to meet the SDG targets by 2030.
As per UNICEF report an estimated 463 million children have been unable to access remote learning amid the COVID-19 pandemic and widespread school closures. At least one-third of the world’s school children lack the equipment or electronic access that would allow them to pursue distance education.
As per a report of the National Commission for Protection of Child Rights, almost 40% of girls aged 15-18 do not attend school. Nearly 65% of these girls are engaged in non-remunerative work.
According RBI Annual Report 2019-20, Public sector banks accounted for 80% of the ₹1.85 trillion reported as frauds in FY20, followed by private sector banks at 18%.
As per a report by Centre for Science and Environment, India recycles just one per cent of its construction and demolition (C&D) waste. India generates an estimated 150 million tonnes of C&D waste every year.
As per the National Cancer Registry Programme Report 2020, the cancer cases in the country are likely to increase by 12% from current estimated cases.
India has been among the top three defence importers in the world in the recent past. As per Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), India was the second largest importer between 2014 and 2019 with US$ 16.75 billion worth of imports during this period.
According to NCBC, there are 2514 OBC castes in the country and scientific subcategorization by analyzing each caste could be challenging.
In 2019, India exported USD 38.7 billion of agricultural goods, which is only 7% of Indian agriculture production. India’s agricultural export has the potential to grow from USD 40 billion to USD 70 billion in a few years. Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for 58 per cent of India’s population and the sector contributed 16.5 per cent to India’s Gross Value Added (GVA) in 2018-2019.
Thermal power plants are source of 60% of industrial particulate matter, 45% of SO2, and 30% of NOx emissions in the country, apart from 80% of mercury as a pollutant. It accounts for some 80% of India’s industrial emissions of sulfur- and nitrous-oxides in India, which cause lung diseases, acid rain and smog.
Coal accounts for 205 GW (56%) of the total installed power generation capacity in the country—and for 77% of the current electricity supply in the country and India needs to ensure that this capacity is made cleaner.
About 10-15% of rice and maize grown area is affected by the flash droughts each year in India.
According to the Global Mangroves Alliance, 67 per cent of mangroves have been lost or degraded to date, and an additional one per cent being lost each year. Without mangroves, 39 per cent more people would face threat of floods annually and flood damage would increase by more than 16 per cent. Every $1 invested in mangrove conservation and restoration generates a benefit of $3.
Drylands are found in tropical and temperate latitudes and account for 41.3% of the global terrestrial area.
Land degradation affects between 25% and 30% of all land on the planet, and over 40% of all agricultural land. The global cost of land degradation has been estimated at US$ 6.3–10.6 trillion or between US$ 870 and 1,450 per person per year.
India faces a severe problem of land degradation, or soil becoming unfit for cultivation. About 29% or about 96.4 million hectares are considered degraded.
India accounts for close to 7.3 per cent of around 152 million children worldwide engaged in child labour. 80% of working children live in India’s villages, where most of them work in agriculture. According to census data of 2011, around 10.1 million children were engaged in child labour in India.
India’s trade with countries in South Asia has remained less than 4% of its global trade since the late 1980s while China has increased its exports to the region by 546%, from $8 billion in 2005 to $52 billion in 2018. South Asia remains one of the least economically integrated regions in the world. India’s largest export market in the region is Bangladesh, followed by Sri Lanka and Nepal, whereas the largest imports by value come from Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.
Hepatitis B and C together are the most common causeof deaths, with 1.3 million lives lost each year. 40 million people are chronically infected with Hepatitis B virus and 6 to 12 million with Hepatitis C virus.
About one in five persons in developing regions lives on less than US$1.25 per day. Globally, 18,000 children still die each day from poverty-related causes.
Precision agriculture integrating GNSS and EO data can achieve yield increases over 10%, and reduce other fuel, fertilizer, and pesticide inputs by up to 20%.
According to an analysis by the Association for Democratic Reforms(ADR), about 24% of the sitting Rajya Sabha members have declared criminal cases against themselves. Analysis of 229 of the 233 Rajya Sabha seats showed that 54 MPs had declared criminal cases. According to the finding of Association of Democratic Reforms, about 43% of members elected to 17th Lok Sabha are facing criminal charges in court of law, while 84% have self-declared assets worth more than Rs. 1 crore.
According to a paper published by Stimson Center,86% of the equipment, weapons and platforms currently in military service in India are of Russian For the Navy, more than 41% equipment is of Russian origin while two-thirds for the Indian Air Force (IAF). The figure for the Army is 90%, as it assigns around 10,000 pieces of military hardware from Russia.
The G20 membership comprises a mix of the world’s largest advanced and emerging economies, representing about two-thirds of the world’s population, 85% of global gross domestic product, 80% of global investment and over 75% of global trade.
India has 6.73 million hectares of salt affected land and is also the largest producer of Casuarinain the world which makes the production of these clones a significant achievement.
If Basmati loses its premium tag it will deprive over 20 lakh farmers of seven states from the economic premium of growing this unique product. So, the commercial considerations cannot, therefore, be allowed to be sacrificed at the altar of expanding the area of GI.
About 3% of multidimensionally poor people live in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. 84.2 percent of multidimensionally poor people live in rural areas, where they are more vulnerable to environmental shocks.
Maternal Mortality Ratio of India has declined to 113in 2016-18 from 122 in 2015-17 and 130 in 2014-2016.
The number of working-age adults aged 20-64 in India is projected to fall from around 762 million in 2017 to around 578 million in 2100.
According to a recent analysis by the Lancet, India’s population is forecasted to peak around 1.6 billion in 2048 from 1.38 billion in 2017. It will be followed by a 32% decline to around 1.09 billion in 2100.
India’s installed capacity for power generation recorded a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.9%, an increase from 124 GW to 344 GW between 2006 and 2018.
Scientists have predicted that the India’s population may peak to about 1.6 billion in 2048, and decline by 32 per cent to around 1.09 billion in 2100, when it is also expected to be the world’s most populous country.
India’s Pharmaceutical Industry is third largest in the world, in terms of volume, behind China and Italy,and fourteenth largest in terms of value.
State police forces had 24% vacancies (about 5.5 lakh vacancies) in January 2016. The sanctioned police strength was 181 police per lakh persons in 2016, the actual strength was 137 police. United Nations’ recommended standard of 222 police per lakh persons.
Nearly 70% of the world’s youth are affected by school closures.
India, with 17 per cent of the world’s humanity and 2.4 per cent of the land area, is also home to a multitudinous array of development challenges that cut across sectors of health, nutrition, education, urbanization and climate action.
As per the data from the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, theUSA remained India’s top trading partner for the second consecutive fiscal year in 2019-20.
India contributes 6% of rice production in the worldand ranks second after China.
Zoonotic diseases represent up to 75 %of all emerging infectious diseases.
Pangolins are the most trafficked wild mammalsin the world, with the seizure of their scales increasing 10 times between 2014 and 2018.
Recently, a study conducted by the Centre for Global Health Research (CGHR)at the University of Toronto (Canada), with Indian and United Kingdom as partners, has revealed that India recorded 1.2 million snakebite deaths from 2000 to 2019 (i.e. an average of annual 58,000 deaths).
India spends 4.6% of its total GDP on education and ranks 62nd in total public expenditure on education per student.
India has just 2% of the world’s landmass and 16% of the global population. It is the second-most populous country in the world with an estimated population of around 1.37 billion by 2019.
According to the current estimates nearly 690 million people are hungry, or 9 percent of the world population which is up by 10 million people in last one year and by nearly 60 million in last five years. An estimated 2 billion people in the world did not have regular access to safe, nutritious and sufficient food in 2019.
Around 60% of women across the world earn their livelihood by working in the informal sector, according to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
More than two-third of the ST population is concentrated only in the seven States: Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
The country’s average IMR stands at 32 per 1,000 live births which includes an average 36 deaths for rural and 23 for urban areas. Uttar Pradesh has the next highest rate of 43 and Kerala has 7, the lowest among the bigger States.
Nearly 40 million tons of carbon dioxide is prevented from going into the environment, due to the LED bulb.
More than 1.3 million children acquire measles infection and around 49000 infected children die each year, contributing nearly 36% to the global figures.
According to the Economic Survey of India 2019, about 90% of India’s total workforce of about 500 million workers is engaged in the informal sector.
India has achieved a reduction of 21% in emission intensity of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP)between 2005 and 2014, thereby on its way to achieving its voluntary target under its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC).
India is the second largest source of the foreign students in the USA after China.
Niti Aayog’s strategy for New India @75envisages many targets in railway infrastructure such as increasing the speed of infrastructure creation from the present 7 km/day to 19 km/day, 100% electrification of broad-gauge track by 2022-23.
Natural wetlands are responsible for approximately 80% of global methane emissions from natural
Global e-waste — discarded electrical and electronic equipment — will increase by 38 per cent in the decade between 2020 and 2030, according to a new United Nations University (UNU) report.
India accounts for 45.8 million of the world’s 142.6 million “missing females” over the past 50 years, a report by the United Nations.
There are over 50,000 Indian students currently studying in various European Universities, many of whom are under EU’s Erasmus Mundus scholarship programme for higher education.
In India, at present, there are about 55.8 million enterprises in various industries, employing close to 124 million people. Of these, nearly 14 per cent are women led enterprises, and close to 59.5 per cent are based in rural areas.
Transport emits around 23% of the energy related CO2 that feeds global warming.
In India agriculture and livestock accounts for 18% of gross national emissions, the third-highest sector after energy and industry.
Tropical regions in three continents, Africa, Asia and South America, were responsible for 64% of the entire planet’s emissions, while temperate regions and the Arctic contributed to 32% and four per cent respectively.
The desertification and land degradation atlas of India, brought out by the ISRO in 2016, revealed that Gujarat, Rajasthan and Delhi were among states/UT where more than 50% of the total area was degraded land and those under the threat of desertification.
Waste plastic makes up 80% of all marine debris from surface waters to deep-sea sediments.
At 2,967, India hosts 70% of the world’s tigers. Tigers were observed to be increasing at a rate of 6% per annum (2006 to 2018). Nearly a third of India’s tigers are living outside tiger reserves.
According to Indian Labour Report, in India only 4 % of the young labour force receives formal vocational education and 6 % in the informal sector.
Over 90 percent of Indians have their medical records only in the physical form.
National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data highlights that between 2001 and 2018, only 26 policemen were convicted of custodial violence despite 1,727 such deaths being recorded in India as most such deaths were attributed to reasons other than custodial torture such as suicide. Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra recorded zero convictions despite recording more than 100 custodial deaths in the period.
Indian diaspora, estimated at nearly 7 lakh is the fastest growing in Australia and has become positive factor in bilateral relations.
As per the Census 2011, the percentage of minorities in the country is about 3% of the total population of the country.
The government aims to increase the domestic value addition for mobile phones by 35-40 per cent by 2025
It is estimated that India can reduce 6.5% of power sector CO2 emissions during the 2015-2040 period if the potential for cross-border electricity trade is effectively exploited.
India has the highest suicide rate in the South-East Asian region, according to the World Health Organization report 2019. India’s suicide rate is at 5 suicides per 100,000 people. India also had the third-highest female suicide rate (14.7) in the world.
India ranked among the top 10 for FDI in 2019 and has rank 63 in World Bank’s ‘Ease of Doing Business 2020, still the foreign investment has remained at 2 per cent of GDP.
Over 60% of the world’s Cobalt is mined in the Democratic Republic of the Congo while over 75% of global Lithium is mined in Australia and Chile.
FDI-equity inflows to India during 2019- 20 were $49.9 billion, substantially lower than the annual flow of remittances of $83 billion in the same period.
India has set a policy target of increasing the share of natural gas in India’s energy basket from current 5% to 15% by 2030.
According to Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change, Desertification, land degradation and drought cost India about 2.5% of gross domestic product in 2014-15.
India is also third largest economy in terms of its PPP-based share in global Actual Individual Consumption and Global Gross Capital Formation. India is second largest economy in Asia-Pacific, accounting for 20.83% of regional GDP in terms of PPPs with China first and Indonesia third.
India is currently importing around $250 billion of fossil fuel annually (oil, diesel, LNG, coking and thermal coal).
The findings of the“Magnitude of Substance Abuse in India” report 2019, revealed the estimated 16 crore alcohol consumers in the 10-75 years in the country, as many as 19% of them were dependent on alcohol.
India is the third largest economy, accounted for 6.7 % of global Gross Domestic Productin terms of PPPs as against China (16.4%) and United States (16.3%).
India is also third largest economy in terms of its PPP-based share in global Actual Individual Consumption and Global Gross Capital Formation.
In 2017, India retained its regional position, as the second largest economy, accounted for 20.83 % (HK$ 48,395 billion out of Asia-Pacific total of HK$ 232,344 billion) of Regional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in terms of PPPs where China was at 50.76% (first) and Indonesia at 7.49% (third).
India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world, with per capita availability of milk 394 grams per day during 2018-19. As per the latest and 20th Livestock census, the total livestock population is 535.78 million.
The digital economy today comprises 14-15% of India’s total economy, and is targeted to reach 20% by 2024.
Textile Sector accounts for 7% of India’s manufacturing output, 2% of GDP, 12% of exports and employs directly and indirectly about 10 crore people. India is largest producer of cotton, accounting for 25% of the global output. The world’s second-largest producer of textiles and garments after China. The second-largest producer of man-made fibres — polyester and viscose.
The number of girls missing at birth due to the practice of gender biased sex selection in India has been estimated at 0.46 million girls per year for the period 2001-12 (which is 5.52 million girl children, missing at birth for the 12-year period).
Pollination contributes to one-third of the world’s agricultural crop production and pollinators can increase crop yield by 24% in small diverse farms and its reduction can pose an immediate threat to mankind’s food and nutrition.
India is also second largest economy in terms of its PPP-based share in regional Actual Individual Consumption and regional Gross Capital Formation.
The police in India works at 77% of its sanctioned strength and even at full capacity, India will be one of the weakest policed countries in the world. Police personnel work for 14 hours a day on an average, with about 80% police personnel working for more than 8 hours a day.
Together, the Russia-India-China (RIC) countries occupy over 19 percent of the global landmass and contribute to over 33 percent of global GDP.
Nearly 80 million people were forcibly displaced by the end of 2019 — which is nearly 1% of the global population. 80% of the world’s displaced people are in countries or territories affected by acute food insecurity and malnutrition – many of them facing climate and other disaster risk.
As per a NITI Aayog document, of the total pulses, oilseeds and cotton produced in the country, 80% pulses, 73% oilseeds and 68% cotton come from rain-fed agriculture.
India jumped from 12th position in 2018 to 9th in 2019 on the list of the World’s top FDI recipient Singapore is the largest source of FDI in India during the last fiscal. It was followed by Mauritius, the Netherlands, the US, Caymen Islands, Japan and France.
India has the second-largest online users in the world, with over 560 million internet users.
The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is India’s largest regional-bloc trading partner, which accounted for $104 billion of trade in 2017–18, nearly a 7 per cent increase from $97 billion the previous year. This is higher than both India– ASEAN trade ($81 billion) and India–EU trade ($102 billion) in 2017-18.
The mangrove cover in the country is 4,975 sq km, which is 0.15% of the country’s total geographical area. West Bengal has 42.45% of India’s mangrove cover, followed by Gujarat (23.66%) and A&N Islands (12.39%). About 40% of world’s Mangrove Cover is found in South East Asia and South Asia. India has about 3% of the total Mangrove cover in South Asia.
Global FDI flows will decrease by up to 40% in 2020, from their 2019 value of $1.54 trillion due to COVID-19 lockdown, supply chain disruptions and economic slowdown.
India has the world’s fourth largest coal reserve and is second largest producer after China, still India stands as second largest coal importer.
According to Census 2011, 17.7% of urban population comprising 65 million people lives in slums. India’s urban population has grown rapidly over the last century from 25 million in 1901 to 377 million in 2011 which constitute 31.2% of the total population in the country.
In 2019, the FDI inflows into India jumped over 20% to $51 billion.
Travel and tourism account for approximately 8.1% of the total employment opportunities. In 2019, it contributed 9.3% to India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and received 5.9% of total investments.
As per Brookings India, currently only 57% of the social enterprises have access to debt and equity, which is barrier to growth and sustainability. India has more than 2 million social enterprises (non-profits, for-profits and hybrid model), which needs careful planning while designing a social stock exchange.
Health-care costs and productivity losses from pollution are as much as 8.5% of GDP, according to the World Bank.
Between 1979 and 2018, the sea ice has been declining at a rate of -4.7 per cent per decade, while its rate was found to be -13 per cent in July 2019.
Indian Ocean is home to 30% of the world’s coral reefs and 13% of global wild-catch Sea ice covers about 7% of the Earth’s surface and about 12% of the world’s oceans.
Oxfam India estimates the economic loss from women losing their jobs during the pandemic at about $216 billion, around 8% of the GDP. According to the ILO, 81% of Indian women work in the informal economy. According to government data, 55% of women report not using public health services. Out-of-pocket health expenditures are higher for women than for men in most developing countries.
Internet usage in India is still a “male preserve”, with only 29 per cent of online users being females, thus underlining a “digital gender gap”, says a study by the United Nations. Globally, 12 per cent more men than women used the Internet in 2017. In India, less than one third of Internet users are females.
India has 5 hospital beds per 10,000 citizens, one doctor for every 1,445 citizens (WHO’s prescribed norm is 1:1000) and 1.7 nurses per 1,000 people (WHO’s prescribed norm is 3:1000) which makes the situation more complicated.
Over the last few decades India has emerged as the pharmaceutical hub of the world but it still imports 68-69 percent of its Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) requirements from china. Of all healthcare spending, only 7% was spent on preventive healthcare, while more than 80% was spent on treatment and cure. In fiscal year 2018, the value of public health expenditure by states and union territories together is estimated to be around 1.28 percent of the country’s GDP.
Cyanobacteria are aquatic and photosynthetic, that is, they live in the water, and can manufacture their own food. Because they are bacteria, they are quite small and usually unicellular, though they often grow in colonies large enough to see. They have the distinction of being theoldest known fossils, more than 3.5 billion years old.
According to annual India Tuberculosis Report 2020, 2.4 million cases of tuberculosis (TB) were reported in 2019 (14% higher than last year) and 79,000 deaths.
India accounts for 45.8 million of the world’s 142.6 million “missing females” over the past 50 years, a report by the United Nations. Of this global figure, India accounted for 45.8 million missing females as of 2020 and China accounted for 72.3 million. China and India together account for about 90-95 per cent of the estimated 1.2 million to 1.5 million missing female births annually worldwide due to gender-biased (prenatal) sex selection.
Today, the forest is rich in biodiversity with 23 plant species, 29 bird species, 15 butterfly species, 10 reptiles and 3 mammal species. Development of Urban Forests will contribute to India’s decision to sequester 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in the country’s forests. They will also function as urban lungs. The Warje Urban Forest is now a role model for the rest of the country. India is endowed with rich biodiversity having several species of animals and plants and hosts 4 of the 35 global bio-diversity hotspots containing several endemic species. India has 16% of world’s human & cattle population, both require land, water & food. But we have only 5% of world’s landmass & 4% of natural water resources. Still, we are able to preserve 8% of world’s biodiversity.
India is far behind from its target of achieving manufacturing sector contribution of 25% of the GDP.
According to State of India’s Environment 2020 in Figures ’reportreport was published by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), India had around 50 lakh internal displacements caused by disasters and extreme weather conditions like floods, cyclones and drought in 2019. India faces major challenges in achieving all of the 17 SDGs, especially SDG1 (No Poverty) and SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation).
In the age group of 15-18 years, India has around 23 million working children. This means one in eleven children between the ages of 5-18 years in the country are working. Child labour is concentrated primarily in agriculture and allied activities (71%), 17% in services; and 12% in the industrial sector. 152 million children between the ages of 5-17 were in child labour, almost half them, 73 million, in hazardous child labour.
India’s unemployment rate inched lower to 5.8 per cent in 2018-19 (July-June) from 6.1 per cent a year ago, the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) released by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI). Unemployment rate, however, rose among Scheduled Castes to 6.4 per cent from 6.3 per cent, and for Scheduled Tribes to 4.5 per cent from 4.3 per cent. But unemployment rate among Other Backward Classes inched lower to 5.9 per cent from 6 per cent.
India’s unemployment rate fell between July 2018 and June 2019 to 5.8% from 6.1% during the same period of 2017-18, even as the labour force participation rate rose to 37.5% from 36.9%. 2. The worker population ratio also increased, to 35.3% as against 34.7% in the 2017-18. 3. Urban unemployment rate reduced to 7.7% in 2018-19 from 7.8% and in rural India to 5% from 5.3%. 4. Female participation rate improved in both urban and rural India during the period under review, going up to 18.6% in 2018-19 from 17.5% the year before.
With around 63.4 million units throughout the geographical expanse of the country, MSMEs contribute around 11% of the manufacturing GDP and 24.63% of the GDP from service activities as well as 33.4% of India’s manufacturing output. They have been able to provide employment to around 120 million persons and contribute around 45% of the overall exports from India. About 20% of the MSMEs are based out of rural areas, which indicates the deployment of significant rural workforce in the MSME sector.
In India, CO2emitted per inhabitant was just about a twentieth of that of an average OECD country, yet, India’s transport CO2 emissions are likely to increase by almost 6% annually to 2030. The transport sector of India is the third most greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting sector, where the major contribution comes from the road transport sector. Out of the total carbon dioxide emissions in India, 13% come from the transport sector. These emissions have more than tripled since 1990. The increasing motorization and demand for mobility in India have contributed to air pollution, congestion, as well as the increase of greenhouse gas emissions, in the urban area.
According to the 2016 UN World Wildlife Crime report, criminals are illegally trading products derived from over 7,000 species of wild animals and plants across the world.
Seoul, Singapore and Bangkok have built green corridors that provide space for nature and wildlife while improving the lives of city dwellers. Such initiatives are imperative, given cities will host 68% of the world’s population by 2050, according to the United Nations.