Facts Corner-Part-14

World Economic Forum at Davos 2018:

  • The theme of the Forum, “Creating a Shared Future in a Fractured World”.
  • The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland. Recognised in 2015 by the Swiss authorities as an “other international body” under Switzerland’s Host State Act 2007.
  • The forum is best known for its annual meeting at the end of January in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland.

Global Risks Report:

  • The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies global catastrophic risks. The report also explores the interconnectedness of risks, and considers how the strategies for the mitigation of global risks might be structured.
  • Sources for the report include an assessment by several major insurance and reinsurance companies and focus workshops, interviews and a survey of internationally recognised experts. The report is intended to raise awareness about the need for a multi-stakeholder approach to the mitigation of global risk.

Nuclear Command Authority (NCA):

  • It is responsible for command, control and operational decisions regarding India’s nuclear weapons programme.
  • Organisational structure of NCA includes Political Council and Executive Council.
  • Executive Council is headed by National Security Advisor and Political Council is headed by Prime Minister.
  • The Executive Council gives its opinion to the Political Council, which authorises a nuclear attack when deemed necessary.
  • This kind of organisational structure is created to prevent the accidental or unauthorised use of nuclear weapons.
  • Strategic Forces Command is a part of Nuclear Command Authority, responsible to operationalize the directives of NCA and for the management and administration of the country’s tactical and strategic nuclear weapons stockpile.
  • SFC is headed by Commander-in-chief of the rank of Air Marshal.
  • It will have the sole responsibility of initiating the process of delivering nuclear weapons and warheads, after acquiring explicit approval from the NCA.

42nd Amendment Act, 1976:

  • The 42nd Amendment Act, 1976 is the most comprehensive amendment made so far to the Constitution; it is known as ‘Mini-Constitution’’; it gave effect to the recommendations of Swaran Singh Committee. Certain recommendations of the Committee (with respect to Fundamental Duties) were not accepted by the Congress Party and hence, not incorporated in the Constitution. These include:
  • The Parliament  may  provide  for  the  imposition  of  such  penalty  or  punishment  as  may  be considered appropriate for any non-compliance with or refusal to observe any of the duties.
  • No law  imposing  such  penalty  or  punishment  shall  be  called  in  question  in  any  court  on  the ground  of  infringement  of  any  of  Fundamental  Rights  or  on  the  ground  of  repugnancy  to  any other provision of the Constitution.
  • Duty to pay taxes should also be a Fundamental Duty of the citizens.

91st Constitutional Amendment Act, 2003:

  • The 91st Amendment mainly deals with two aspects of the structure of governance – size of the Council of Ministers; and restricting defection among parties. 
  • Article 74 of the Constitution – It states that the total number of Ministers including Prime Minister, in the COM (Council of Ministers) shall not exceed 15% of the total members of Lower house of Parliament
  • Accepting the suggestions made by Parliamentary standing committee on Home Affairs and the law passed by Lower house and Upper House of parliament in the year 2003, the constitution 91st amendment received president assent and is described as below
  • 91st amendment act, 2003 – Relates to the anti defection laws and Restricting the size of the council of ministers to aid and advice the President.
  • 91st amendment act sates that the size of the council of ministers and in the respective state governments should not be more than 15% (Fifteen Percent) of the total members of lower house (i.e. 15% strength of Lok Sabha in the parliament and 15% strength of lower houses of respective states legislatures (the minimum strength in the case of small states (Sikkim, Mizoram, Goa) is being 12 due to lower strength of the Legislative assembly of that states) Sikkim – 32, Mizoram – 40, Goa – 40
  • 91st Amendment act of Indian constitution also state that person who is disqualified under anti-defection law (Schedule 10th of Indian constitution) shall not be appointed as a minister nor hold and remunerative political post from the period of disqualification
  • Before the 91st amendment act Prime Minister under his discretion can appoint any number of members in his council of ministers
  • With this 91st amendment act the prime minister can’t appoint the any number of ministers into his council.

Dam Safety Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP):

  • India hosted the International Dam Safety Conference – 2018 at Thiruvananthapuram.
  • Dam safety conferences are organized as an annual event under the Dam Safety Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP) project being run by the Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation  (MoWR,RD & GR) in the seven states of Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, and Uttarakhand.
  • Launched in the year 2012 with the help of World Bank aided project aims at  the rehabilitation of old dams in the country that may be experiencing distress and are in need of attention for ensuring their structural safety and operational efficiency.
  • The project also aims to strengthen the institutional capacity and project management in this area. 
  • As part of this exercise, DRIP has been engaged in bringing greater awareness on dam safety issues and finding novel solutions to address them by pooling the best technologies, knowledge and experience available around the world.
  • In this direction, Dam Safety Conferences are being organized as annual events in the different DRIP states.
  • A software programme – Dam Health and Rehabilitation Monitoring Application (DHARMA)-  will also be launched during the conference. DHARMA is a web tool to digitize all dam related data effectively.
  • It will help to document authentic asset and health information pertaining to the large dams in the country, enabling appropriate actions to ensure need based rehabilitation. It is a new stride in asset management aspect by India.

Patient Navigation:

  • Patient Navigation is a rapidly growing and evolving healthcare profession.
  • The aim of initiating a patient navigation program is to create a trained taskforce to facilitate patient’s journey right from entry to the Hospital to follow-up and getting back to normalcy; taking care in addition of emotional, economic and various other needs in a holistic way.
  • This Patient Navigation Program – KEVAT, initiated by TMC (a grant-in-aid institution under the Department of Atomic Energy) is one of the first in India to focus on an emerging patient navigation model that can be applied across all cancer care institutions.
  • The course will address the need for a structured patient support system for cancer care that will form a bridge between patients and access to care.

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