Facts Corner-Part-37

Rare Disease

  • A rare disease, also referred to as an orphan disease, is any disease that affects a small percentage of the population.
  • Most rare diseases are genetic, and are present throughout a person’s entire life, even if symptoms do not immediately appear. In Europe a disease or disorder is defined as rare when it affects less than 1 in 2000 citizens.
  • Rare diseases are characterised by a wide diversity of symptoms and signs that vary not only from disease to disease but also from patient to patient suffering from the same disease. Relatively common symptoms can hide underlying rare diseases, leading to misdiagnosis.


  • The third-generation Fire and Forget ATGM Nag is equipped with many advanced technologies including IIR Seeker with integrated avionics, a capability possessed by few nations in the world.
  • The missile is developed to support both mechanised infantry and airborne forces of the Indian Army.
  • The missile incorporates an advanced passive homing guidance system and possesses high single-shot kill probability.
  • It is designed to destroy modern main battle tanks and other heavily armoured targets.


  • It is the joint military exercise between the Indian Army and Seychelles People’s Defence Forces.
  • This exercise is the eighth in the series of bilateral exercises being conducted in the beautiful island nation.
  • The exercise is named “Lamitye” which in the local dialect ‘Creole’, means friendship.
  • India and Seychelles have been conducting this joint exercise since 2001 with the aim of enhancing military cooperation and interoperability between the armies of the two countries.

Centre for Biodiversity and Policy and Law

  • Government of India in collaboration with the Norwegian Government has established a “Centre for Biodiversity Policy and Law (CEBPOL)” in the National Biodiversity Authority (NBA), Chennai, to develop professional expertise in biodiversity policies and laws and develop capacity building.
  • This Centre is focusing on biodiversity policies and laws that cater to the needs of national and international rule-making and subsequent implementation on issues of biodiversity.
  • Collect, collate, analyse and disseminate information relating to biodiversity policy and law at regional, 
    national and international levels

National Biodiversity Authority

  • The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was established by the Central Government in 2003 to implement India’s Biological Diversity Act (2002).
  • The NBA is a Statutory Body and it performs facilitative, regulatory and advisory functions for the Government of India on issues of conservation, sustainable use of biological resources and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out of the use of biological resources.

Conservation Assured | Tiger Standards (CA|TS)

  • CA|TS is a set of criteria which allows tiger sites to check if their management will lead to successful tiger conservation.
  • CA|TS is organised under seven pillars and 17 elements of critical management activity.
  • Officially launched in 2013, CA|TS is an important part of Tx2, the global goal to double wild tiger numbers by the year 2022.
  • Developed by WWF and partners, the Global Tiger Forum (GTF) has endorsed CA|TS and has requested member countries to establish National Review Committees for purpose of initiating CA|TS.
  • CA|TS is an important tool in the achievement of the CBD’s Global Aichi Targets, in particular Aichi Target 11 and 12, and contributes to the implementation of the Programme of Work on Protected Areas, particularly the last goal related to Standards, Assessment and Monitoring.

Black tip Sharks

  • Black tip sharks that gather off the South Florida every year coast are shrinking in number.
  • The Blacktip Shark is widespread in warm temperate, subtropical and tropical waters.

The species are found over the following areas,

  1. In the western Atlantic it ranges from United States to southern Brazil
  2. In the eastern Atlantic it is known from the Mediterranean Sea southwards to central Africa
  3. In the Indian Ocean from South Africa to western Australia, including the Red Sea and Persian Gulf
  4. In the Pacific Ocean it is recorded from throughout the Indo-Australian Archipelago
  5. In the eastern Pacific from California, USA, to Peru
  • Black tip Shark meat is primarily consumed locally and fins are dried and shipped to the Far East where they are used in preparing shark-fin soup.
  • It is a near threatened species under the IUCN red list.

Kuthiyottam Ritual

  • The Kerala State Commission for the Protection of Child Rights registered a suo motu case in connection with the Kuthiyottam ritual.
  • The Kuthiyottam ritual is usually performed every year during the Pongala festival at the Attukal Bhagavathy Temple in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala.
  • The Attukal Pongala festival is the largest congregation of women for a festival in the world.
  • Pongala, which means ‘to boil over’, is a ritual in which women prepare a pudding made from rice, jaggery, coconut and plantains cooked together, and offer it to the goddess.
  • Young boys undertake a seven-day penance before Pongala day by being within the temple, sleeping on the floor, observing strict diet restrictions and bathing three times a day.
  • The ritual also reportedly involves piercing the child’s side with a small hook and knotting a thread through it to symbolize their bond with the Goddess.

Swajal Yojana

  • Union Minister of Drinking Water and Sanitation launched the Swajal pilot project at Rajasthan recently.
  • Swajal is a community owned drinking water programme for sustained drinking water supply.
  • The project ensures the availability of clean drinking water to every household round the year and also generates employment.
  • Under the scheme, 90% of the project cost will be taken care by the Government and the remaining 10% of the project cost will be contributed by the community.
  • The Operations and management of the project will be taken care by the local villagers.

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