- A neutrino is a subatomic particle that is very similar to an electron but has no electrical charge and a very small mass, which might even be zero.
- Neutrinos are one of the fundamental particles which make up the universe.
- These are only particle other than gravitational waves that can zip through the universe at speeds very close to that of light.
- The largest nuclear reactor that most life on earth derives energy from is the sun.
- Like all nuclear reactors, in addition to giving out energy, the sun also emits neutrinos.
- There are three types of neutrinos differing based on mass, these are-
(a) Electron neutrinos (ve)
(b) Muon neutrinos(vu)
(c) tau neutrinos(vT)
POSHAN (PM’s Overarching Scheme for Holistic Nourishment) scheme
- POSHAN Abhiyaan was launched by the Prime Minister in Jhunjhunu on 8th March 2018.
- The Executive Committee is the Apex body under the POSHAN Abhiyaan.
- National Council on India’s nutritional challenges under, NITI Aayog, also has been set up under the POSHAN Abhiyaan.
- National Council on India’s nutritional challenges under chairmanship of Vice Chairman, NITI Aayog, has been set up under the POSHAN Abhiyaan.
- POSHAN Abhiyaan has been set up with a three-year budget of Rs.9046.17 crore commencing from 2017-18.
- All States and Union Territories to be targeted in a phased manner.
- The following nutrition strategies and interventions includes under Abhiyaan-
- (a) Supplementary nutrition
(b) Adolescent nutrition
(c) IYCF (Infant and Young Child Feeding) immunisation
(d) Maternal health etc.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)
- SIPRI is an international institute, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
- It was established in 1966.
- It is based in Stockholm, Sweden.
- Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
- Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
- Tuberculosis is spread through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs cough, spit, speak, or sneeze.
- Mission Indradhanush is a health mission of the government of India.
- It was launched on 25 December 2014.
- It aims to immunize all children under the age of 2 years, as well as all pregnant women, against seven vaccine preventable diseases.
- The diseases being targeted are diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, measles and Hepatitis B.
- In 2016, four new diseases have been made namely Rubella, Japanese Encephalitis, Injectable Polio Vaccine Bivalent and Rotavirus.
- In 2017, pneumonia was added to the Mission by incorporating Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine under Universal Immunization Programme.
World Hindi Secretariat (WHS)
- The World Hindi Secretariat is the name of an international organisation representing countries and regions where Hindi is the first (“mother”) or customary language.
- The main objective of the WHS is to promote Hindi as an international language and further its cause for recognition at the United Nations as an Official Language.
- The organisation was set up by the governments of India and Mauritius to promote Hindi across the world.
Letter of undertaking (LoU)
- An LoU is a document whereby the issuing bank guarantees its payment to overseas supplier, on behalf of Bank’s customer.
Letter of comfort (LoC)
- A letter of comfort is typically provided by a bank to assure the financial soundness of its customer to repay its debt.
Letters of Credit (LC)
- An LC ensures that a bank honours the financial obligation of a buyer if he fails to pay the seller.
- A bank guarantee is a kind of surety given by a bank to a third party on behalf of its customer, assuring the beneficiary that it will affect payment on default of obligation.
Difference between LoU and LC
- The LoU is useful to give undertaking in banks/ financial institutions/ organisations.
- However, LC offers facility to trade partners to transact with unknown partners or in newly established trade relationships.
Kyasanur Forest Disease
- KFD, referred to as Makad Taap in local language, is a tick-borne viral hemorrhagic fever endemic to South Asia.
- The disease is caused by a virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae, which also includes yellow fever and dengue fever.
- The disease was first detected in 1957 at the Kyasanur forest in Karnataka’s Shimoga district and was later named after the place.
- The disease first manifested as an epizootic outbreak among monkeys killing several of them in the year 1957.
- Hence the disease is also locally known as monkey disease or monkey fever.
- The KFD infection, which starts with high fever and bodyache, results in hemorrhage, similar to that in dengue. People already suffering from kidney, heart and liver related issues are more vulnerable to KFD infection.
- Both human beings and monkeys are victims of the disease, but once a monkey gets infected with the tick bite, it generally dies. The mortality rate in monkeys is very high as compared to human beings.
- EWay Bill is an electronic way bill for movement of goods which can be generated on the eWay Bill Portal. Transport of goods of more than Rs. 50,000 in value in a vehicle cannot be made by a registered person without an eway bill.
- eWay bill will be generated when there is a movement of goods in a vehicle/ conveyance of value more than Rs. 50,000( either each Invoice or in aggregate of all Invoices in a vehicle/ Conveyance ) .
- A registered person, unregistered person and a transporter should generate an eway bill.
- Losar festival, which has its origin in the 15th century, celebrates the Ladakhi or Tibetan New Year.
- It is said to last 15 days, but the first 3 days are the most important ones.
- Losar is characterized especially by dancing, music, and a general spirit of merrymaking.
Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP)
- It is a campaign launched by the Department of Pharmaceuticals, Govt. Of India to provide quality medicines at affordable prices to the masses.
- The medicine will provide to masses through special kendra’s known as Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Jan Aushadhi Kendra (PMBJK).
- PMBJK have been set up to provide generic drugs, which are available at lesser prices but are equivalent in quality and efficacy as expensive branded drugs.
Global Status Report 2017
- The Global Status Report 2017 has listed The Energy Management Centre (EMC), an autonomous institution under the Kerala government as one of the recent achievements in the deployment of key technologies for energy-efficiency in buildings.
- The ‘Global Status Report 2017: Towards a zero-emission, efficient, and resilient buildings and construction sector,’ has been published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
- Built with assistance from the Global Environment Fund, the EMC campus is the only LEED Gold certified building in the government sector in Kerala. Up to 94% of the built-up space is daylight illuminated.
World Justice Project Index
- The World Justice Project Index takes into account 44 indicators in 113 countries, and India’s rank in 2017-18 was a dismal 62.
- The WJP is an independent, multidisciplinary organization working to advance the rule of law worldwide.
- The WJP’s works through three programs — Research and Scholarship, the WJP Rule of Law Index, and Engagement — WJP seeks to increase public awareness about the foundational importance of the rule of law, stimulate government reforms, and develop practical programs at the community level.
The WJP Rule of Law Index
- It measures rule of law adherence in 113 countries and jurisdictions worldwide based on more than 110,000 household and 3,000 expert surveys.
- Featuring primary data, the WJP Rule of Law Index measures countries’ rule of law performance across eight factors: Constraints on Government Powers, Absence of Corruption, Open Government, Fundamental Rights, Order and Security, Regulatory Enforcement, Civil Justice, and Criminal Justice.
- India ranked 66th among 113 countries in the sixth World Justice Project’s Rule of Law Index, better than its BRICS peers China (80) and Russia (92), but below Brazil (52) and South Africa (43).
- According to the report, Rule of law in a country affects business environments, public works, public participation and conflict resolution, the report said.