Facts Corner-Part-45

Panchayati Raj system in India

  • The Panchayati Raj system was formalized in 1992 by the 73rd amendment to the Indian Constitution.
  • The acts of 1992 added two new parts to the constitution which are-
    (i) Parts IX and 
    (ii) Parts IX-A  
  • The act also added two new schedules which contains the lists of functional items of Panchayats and Municipalities. These are
    (a) Schedule 11 and 
    (b) Schedule 12
  • The system has three levels
    (a) Gram Panchayat (village level), 
    (b) Mandal Parishad or Block Samiti or Panchayat Samiti (Intermediate level)
    (c) Zila Parishad (district level)
  • In 1959 Rajasthan became the first state to adopt the Panchayati raj system, followed by Andhra Pradesh in the same year.

Important committees on Panchayati Raj

Balwant Rai Mehta (1957)

  • Important recommendation was-

(a) Establishment of a three-tier Panchayati Raj system in India

Ashok Mehta Committee (1978)

  • Important recommendations were-

(a) Three-tier system to be replaced by a two-tier system.
(b) Constitutional recognition to be given to Panchayati Raj institutions.

G.V.K. Rao Committee (1985)

Dr. L.M. Singhvi Committee (1986)

  • Important recommendations were-
    (a) Constitutional recognition for PRI institutions
    (b) Nyaya Panchayats to be established for clusters of villages

Water Strider:

  • Scientists from the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) have discovered a new species of water strider from Nagaland.
  • The species, named Ptilomera nagalanda Jehamalar and Chandra, was found in the river Intanki, Peren district.
  • Water striders are a group of insects adapted to life on the surface of water, using surface tension to their advantage.
  • Other than being a good indicator of water quality, water striders also play an important role in the food chain by feeding on mosquito larvae.

Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication

  • The SWIFT is a global member-owned cooperative that is headquartered in Brussels, Belgium.
  • It was founded in 1973 by a group of 239 banks from 15 countries which formed a co-operative utility to develop a secure electronic messaging service and common standards to facilitate cross-border payments.

International Energy Agency

  • The International Energy Agency (IEA) is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
  • IEA member countries are required to maintain total oil stock levels equivalent to at least 90 days of the previous year’s net imports.
  • Currently there are 29 states are part of it.
  • India is not a member of it.

International Energy Forum (IEF)

  • It is the world’s largest recurring gathering of energy ministers.
  • It is unique in that participants not only include IEA and OPEC countries, but also key international actors such as Brazil, China, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa.
  • The IEF is promoted by a permanent Secretariat based in the Diplomatic Quarter of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

KUSUM Scheme – harnessing solar power for rural India

  • The Government of India is in the process of formulating a Scheme ‘Kisan Urja Suraksha evam Utthaan Mahabhiyan (KUSUM)’.
  • The scheme will provide-
    (a) Installation of grid-connected solar power plants each of capacity up to 2 MW in the rural areas
    (b) Installation of standalone off-grid solar water pumps to fulfil irrigation needs of farmers not connected to grid
    (c) Solarization of existing grid-connected agriculture pumps to make farmers independent of grid supply and also enable them to sell surplus solar power generated to DISCOM and get extra income
    (d) Solarization of tube-wells and lift irrigation projects of Government sector.

Motions in Parliament

  • During the time of voting on the demand for grants, Members of Parliament can also move motions to reduce any demand for grant.
  • Such motions are
    Policy Cut Motion: – It represents the disapproval of the policy underlying the demand and the amount of the demand be reduced to Re 1.
    2. Economy Cut Motion: – In this amount of the demand is reduced by a specified amount.
    3. Token Cut Motion: – In this motion the amount of the demand reduced to Rs.100 to ventilate a specific grievance, which is within the sphere of responsibility of the Government of India.

Appropriation Bill

  • It is introduced in Lok Sabha After passing of demand for grants to give authority to Government to incur expenditure from and out of the Consolidated Fund of India.
  • No money shall be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of India except under appropriation made by law (Article- 266).

Finance Bill

  • It is introduced in Lok Sabha after passing of Appropriation Bill to give effect to the Government’s taxation proposals which are introduced in Lok Sabha immediately after the presentation of the General Budget

Type of Finance Bill    

Money Bills

  • These are financial bills which contain provisions related to matters listed in Article-110 (1) (a).
  • It required the prior recommendation of President of before presented in Lok Sabha.
  • Only Minister can introduce it in Lok Sabha.
  • Lok Sabha only having the power to Vote in case of Money Bill. Rajya Sabha only can advise Lok Sabha.
  • There is no provision of Joint sitting in case of Money Bills.

Finance Bills category-I

  • It required the prior recommendation of President of before presented in Lok Sabha.
  • But in this case, Rajya Sabha has the power to reject this bill.
  • There is a provision of Joint sitting in these types of Bills.

Finance Bills category-I

  • These are financial bills which do not contain provisions related to matters listed in Article-110.

Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System

  • RIMES, an inter-governmental body registered under the United Nations, is owned and managed by 45 collaborating countries in the Asia Pacific and African Region.
  • It was established on 30 April 2009 to provide user-relevant early warning services to its Member States and others.
  • It is governed by a Council, composed of heads of National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) presently chaired by India.
  • Council decisions are carried out by the RIMES Administrative Secretariat, which is currently the Maldives.

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