Election of Rajya Sabha
- It allowing for rank- based voting.
- The election follows the “system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote”, which basically means that the single vote cast by an MLA is transferable from one candidate to another in two scenarios-
(a) One is when a candidate obtains more than what is required for their win and therefore has an unnecessary surplus and
(b) The other is when a candidate polls so few votes that they have absolutely no chance.
- In both the cases, the votes are transferred so that there is no wastage.
Conditions when a ballot paper is considered invalid
- There are certain conditions when a ballot paper is deemed invalid. These include figure 1 not being marked or if figure 1 is assigned to the names of more than one candidate or is placed in a confusing manner.
- Other reasons include assigning two figures to one candidate or if there is any mark or writing by which the elector can be identified.
Disqualification criteria for MP and MLA
- Basic disqualification criteria for an MP are laid down in Article 102 of the Constitution, and for an MLA in Article 191.
They can be disqualified for:
(a) Holding an office of profit under government of India or state government
(b) Being of unsound mind
(c) Being an undischarged insolvent
(d) Not being an Indian citizen or for acquiring citizenship of another country
Enjoying office of profit
- According to the Constitution, Members of Parliament or legislators are prohibited from accepting government positions which carry some financial remuneration or any other benefit such as office space, accommodation, or even a car.
- Any violation of this provision attracts disqualification of the legislator for holding an office of profit.
- The aim of this provision is to preserve the independence of the legislature by keeping its members away from any temptations from the executive.
- Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB).
- Tuberculosis is spread through the air when people who have active TB in their lungs a cough, spit, speak, or sneeze.
- Tuberculosis also included in the Universal Immunization Programme of Health Ministry.
- In March 2018, Prime Minister launched a campaign to eradicate tuberculosis (TB) from India by 2025, five years ahead of a globally-set deadline (2030).
Various type of Motions in Parliament
- It is a self-contained, independent proposal made in reference to a subject which the mover wishes to bring forward.
- All resolutions, motions for election of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, and Motion of Thanks on the Address by the President etc are examples of substantive motions.
- It is a motion that is moved in substitution of an original motion and proposes an
alternative to it.
- If adopted by the House, it supersedes the original motion.
- It is a motion, by itself it has no meaning and is not capable of stating the decision of the House without reference to the original motion or proceedings of the House.
- It is divided into three subcategories:
(a) Ancillary Motion: It is used as the regular way of proceeding with various kinds of business.
(b) Superseding Motion: It is moved in the course of debate on another issue and seeks to
supersede that issue.
(c) Amendment: It seeks to modify or substitute only a part of the original motion.
- It is concerned with the breach of parliamentary privileges by a minister.
- It is moved by a member when he feels that a minister has committed a breach of privilege of the House or one or more of its members by withholding facts of a case or by giving wrong or distorted facts.
- Its purpose is to censure the concerned minister.
- It is introduced in the Parliament to draw attention of the House to a definite matter of urgent public importance and needs the support of 50 members to be admitted.
- As it interrupts the normal business of the House, it is regarded as an extraordinary device.
- It involves an element of censure against the government and hence Rajya Sabha is not permitted to make use of this device.
- The Lok Sabha can remove the ministry from office by passing a no-confidence motion.
- The motion needs the support of 50 members to be admitted.
- This motion can be moved only in the Lok Sabha and by the Opposition of the House.
- It can be moved against the Council of Ministers or an individual Minister or a group of Ministers for their failure to act or not to act or for their policy and may express regret, indignation or surprise of the House at the failure of the Minister or Ministers.
- If the Censure Motion is passed, the Council of Ministers is bound to seek the confidence of the Lok Sabha as early as possible.
India Development Foundation of Overseas Indians (IDF-OI)
- IDF-OI was set up by Government of India with the approval of Cabinet in 2008 as an autonomous not-for-profit Trust, to facilitate Overseas Indian philanthropy into social and development projects in India.
- Promotion of Government of India’s Flagship programmes –
(a) National Mission for Clean Ganga and Swachh Bharat Mission
(b) Social and Development projects identified by State Governments was added to the mandate of IDF-OI.
- El Nino is a periodic climate event that causes waters to warm up in east-central Pacific Ocean, which in turn causes huge changes in wind directions bringing less rain to south-east Asia and the Indian subcontinent, while increasing rain in other parts of the world.
- El Nino is accompanied by high air pressure in the western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern Pacific.
- The cool phase of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) is called “La Niña” with SST (Sea surface temperature) in the eastern Pacific below average and air pressures high in the eastern and low in western Pacific.
- The ENSO cycle, both El Niño and La Niña, cause global changes of both temperatures and rainfall.
National Health Protection Scheme
- The National Health Protection Scheme that will cover over 10 crore poor and vulnerable families, or around 50 crore people.
- The scheme, set to be the world’s largest government-funded healthcare programme.
- The coverage of up to ₹5 lakh a family a year will be provided for secondary- and tertiary-care hospitalisation.
- The scheme will also include pre- and post-hospitalisation expenses.
- Benefits of the scheme will be portable across the country and a beneficiary covered under Ayushman Bharat will be allowed to take cashless benefits from any public/private empanelled hospitals across the country.
- For rural areas, the families, included in the scheme, will need to match one of the following conditions-
(a) Households without shelter (b) Destitute (c) Living on alms (d) Manual scavenger families (e) Primitive tribal groups (f) Legally released bonded labour.
- For urban areas, there are 11 defined occupational categories that will be entitled under the scheme.
Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement
- A DTAA is a tax treaty signed between two or more countries.
- Its key objective is that tax-payers in these countries can avoid being taxed twice for the same income.
- A DTAA applies in cases where a tax-payer resides in one country and earns income in another.
- DTAAs can either be comprehensive to cover all sources of income or be limited to certain areas such as taxing of income from shipping, air transport, inheritance, etc.
General Anti Avoidance Rule
- GAAR is an anti-tax avoidance Rule of India.
- It is framed by the Department of Revenue under the Ministry of Finance.
- It is made to prevent intentional tax avoidance by manipulating tax laws.
- It empowers the Income Tax dept. to investigate any deal or joint ventures which involves huge capital.
- It prevents tax evaders, from routing investments through tax havens like Mauritius, Luxemburg, Switzerland.