Facts Corner-Part-50

Lingayats and Veerashaiva Lingayats

  • Lingayats and Veerashaiva Lingayats are those who believe in the philosophy of Basaveshwara, 12th century social reformer.
  • The demand for a separate religion tag to Veerashaiva/ Lingayat faiths has surfaced from the community, amidst resentment from within over projecting the two communities as the same.


  • Lingayatism is a distinct Shaivite religious tradition in India.
  • Its worship is centered on Hindu god Shiva as the universal god in the iconographic form of Ishtalinga.
  • The adherents of this faith are known as Lingayats.
  • Lingayatism was founded by the 12th-century philosopher and statesman Basava and spread by his followers, called Sharanas.
  • Lingayatism emphasizes qualified monism and bhakti (loving devotion) to Shiva.
  • The terms Lingayatism and Veerashaivism have been used synonymously, and Lingayats also referred to as Veerashaivas.
  • Lingayatism shares beliefs with Indian religions, such as about reincarnation, samsara and karma.

Abel Prize

  • Named after the 19th century Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel, the prize was established by the Norwegian government in 2002.
  • These awards are presented to honour outstanding scientific work in the field of mathematics.

Higher Educational Financing Agency

  • HEFA was approved in September 2016 as a Special Purpose Vehicle.
  • HEFA provide funding for world-class infrastructure at the IITs, IIMs, the National Institutes of Technology (NITs) and such other institutions.
  • The agency is also expected to mobilise Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) funds from public sector units (PSUs) and corporates.
  • These would be released as grants to eligible institutions for promoting research and innovation.
  • HEFA has been set up to finance civil and laboratory infrastructure projects through 10-year loans.
  • The principal portion of the loan will be repaid through internal accruals, to be earned by the institutions through fee receipts and research earnings.


  • ‘IMPRINT India’, a Pan-IIT and IISc joint initiative to develop a roadmap for research to solve major engineering and technology challenges in ten technology domains (including security and defence, information technology, energy etc).
  • It was launched in November 2015.
  • The objectives of programme are- 
    (1) Identify areas of immediate relevance to society requiring innovation
    (2) Direct scientific research into identified areas
    (3) Ensure higher funding support for research into these areas and 
    (4) Measure outcomes of the research effort with reference to impact on the standard of living in the rural/urban areas.


  • Kerala is home to a number of speciality rice varieties such as Pokkali, a saltwater-tolerant organic rice having medicinal properties and special taste; Jeerakasala and Gandhakasala (scented rice varieties); Black Njavara and Golden Njavara (medicinal rice varieties extensively used in the Ayurveda).
  • Researchers at the Rice Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University, Kochi, compared these varieties with two widely cultivated rice varieties, Jyothi and Uma, for nutrition value and acceptability by people.
  • It was found that Pokkali rice has all the desired qualities, including nutritional values.
  • It was rated among the best in terms of fibre and protein content, antioxidants with benefits of vitamin E, and minerals such as iron, boron and sulphur.
  • It had the lowest carbohydrate content (along with Gandhakasala) making it most suitable for persons with diabetes or those advised low-sugar diet.  

Cold fusion

  • Cold fusion is a hypothetical process in which hydrogen fusion supposedly occurs at room temperature. The topic is controversial, because the notion appears to defy the laws of physics. Some scientists believe that cold fusion represents a real phenomenon and that it will someday form the basis for an abundant, cheap source of energy. Others maintain that cold fusion, like perpetual motion, is impossible.
  • Hydrogen fusion as it is currently known is the process responsible for the energy output of the sun and most other stars.
  • It does not ordinarily take place unless there is extreme heat (millions of degrees Celsius ) and extreme pressure. The only officially documented examples of human-generated fusion involve the explosions of hydrogen bombs.
  • In the hydrogen fusion process, the nuclei of hydrogen atoms are driven together to form helium nuclei. It takes four hydrogen nuclei to ultimately produce a single helium nucleus . Energy, and certain subatomic particles, are emitted as byproducts.

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