Facts & Figures for UPSC Mains
GEOGRAPHY & RESOURCES
- About 75% of the country’s annual rainfall is received from the Southwest monsoon between June and September.
- A NITI Aayog report held that 21 major cities are expected to run out of groundwater as soon as 2020 which may affect nearly 100 million people.
- A World Bank report had predicted that ~60% of aquifers in India will be in a critical state by 2032.
- A hundred cities worldwide, including 30 in India, face the risk of ‘severe water scarcity’ by 2050, according to a recent report by World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF).
- India is one of the most flood-affected nations in the world, after Bangladesh.
- Floods constitute 52% of all-natural disasters in India, and the costliest as well, with over 63% of all damages attributed to it.
- According to the statistics
- 68% of India’s land is prone to drought,
- 60% to earthquakes,
- 12% to floods and
- 8% to cyclones
- India one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, affecting overall 85% of Indian land and more than 50 million people.
- Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment shows that manual scavenging has led to 376 deaths over the past five years, including 110 in 2019 alone in India.
- According to the latest SBI Ecowrap report, 35% of females in India are married before the age of 21 years. The situation is grave in some states.
- National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB)-2019
- Crime against Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) saw an increase of over 7% and 26% respectively in year 2019 compared to 2018
- A total of 51,56,172 cognizable crimes comprising 32,25,701 Indian Penal Code (IPC) ones and 19,30,471 Special and Local Laws (SLL) crimes were registered in 2019
- A total of 4,05,861 cases of crime against women were registered in 2019, showing an increase of 7.3%
- Cybercrimes increased by 63.5% in 2019
- Presently, nearly 65 per cent of countries have legal marriage age of 18 years only.
- Domestic Violence during Lockdown
- Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, Maharashtra, Haryana and Bihar make 70 per cent of the complains registered by women during the lockdown.
- 53 per cent of cases are from Uttar Pradesh and Delhi
- Not even one per cent of cases have been registered by women in the North-East States.
- A 2019 study commissioned by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment found that cannabis is the second-most commonly used substance in India after alcohol.
- Official records show that manual scavenging has led to 376 deaths over the past five years, including 110 in 2019 alone — a jump of 61 per cent from 2018.
- As per SBI estimates, the percentage of females doing graduation will increase by at least 5-7 percentage points from the current level of 9.8 per cent.
- Among states, the situation in West Bengal is the worst with the mean marriage age being only 20.9 years and almost 47 per cent of females getting married before the age of 21 years.
- According to the Global Childhood Report released by UK-based NGO Save the Children, in India even today child marriage prevalence is higher in rural areas as compared to urban areas as these figures are 14.1% and 6.9% for rural and urban areas respectively for age group 15-19 years.
INEQUALITY /GENDER GAP
- India also has one of the world’s highest gender gaps in access to technology. Only 21 % of women in India are mobile internet users, according to GSMA’s 2020 mobile gender gap report, while 42 percent of men have access.
CHILD RELATED ISSUES
- According to the UN, 37,000 girls under the age of 18 are married each day. We now have the greatest number of married girls and girls at-risk of child marriage than ever before
- 69% of the deaths of children under the age of 5 were attributed to malnutrition by UNICEF in State of World’s Children report.
- 1 in 3 girls in the developing world are married before 18; 1 in 9 are married before the age of 15
- If present trends continue, more than 140 million girls will be married before the age of 18 in the next decade
- According to Global Hunger Index 2020, 14 percent of India’s population is undernourished. It also says that the country recorded a child stunting (low height per weight) rate of 37.4 percent
- Globally, almost 400 million women now aged 20-49 were married before the age of 18.
- India has the largest number of children with Thalassemia major in the world, about 1 to 1.5 lakhs, and about 10,000-15,000 children having Thalassemia major are born every year.
- India has been ranked the second worst affected country in terms of predicted SCA(Sickle cell Anemia) births.
- According to Oxfam’s 2020 India Inequality Report — On Women’s Backs, in India, women’s contribution to the GDP is one of the lowest in the world at 17% while In China, women’s work contributes to 41% of the GDP.
- Women in Permanent Commission
- Recently Army selects 422 women officers considered for permanent commission.
- The women officers who have been selected for permanent commission belong to branches such as Engineers, Signals, Intelligence Corps, Army Air Defence, Army Aviation Corps, Army Ordnance Corps, Army Service Corps and Corps of Electronics and Mechanical Engineering.
- There are approximately 1,653 women officers serving in the Army currently out of a total of nearly 43,000 officers.
- India’s nursing workforce is about two-thirds of its health workforce. Its ratio of 7 nurses per 1,000 population is 43% less than the World Health Organization norm; it needs 2.4 million nurses to meet the norm. 91% of the nursing education institutions are private and weakly regulated.
- The World Health Organisation (WHO) stipulates that with a population of over 1.3 billion people, India needs more than 12 million units of blood annually but collects only about nine million.
- India ranked third in the world as per WHO Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation (GODT) in terms of organ donation.
- Child and maternal undernutrition is the single largest health risk factor in India, responsible for 15% of India’s total disease burden.
- The Fifteenth Finance Commission (FFC) has mooted a greater role for public-private partnerships (PPPs) to ramp up the health infrastructure and scale up public spending on health from 0.95% of GDP to 2.5% by 2024.
- India is home to almost one-third of all the world’s stunted children (46.6 million out of 149 million) and half the world’s wasted children.
- Based on the 2011 National Sample Survey, a recent paper published in the Food Policy showed that between 63 and 76 per cent of rural Indians could not afford nutritious diets.
- Tuberculosis (TB) remains the world’s top infectious disease killer, with more than 10 million people falling ill and 1.4 million people dying due to this disease in 2019.
- Now 21% of women and 19% of men in India are reported as being obese or overweight.
- India’s maternal mortality ratio has improved to 113 in 2016-18 from 130 in 2014-2016, it is still far below the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) target of 70 deaths per 1,00,000 live births.
- India’s general government expenditure on healthcare as a percent of GDP was just 1.0% in 2017, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data, placing it at number 165 out of 186 countries in terms of government expenditure on healthcare.
- Almost 50.4 & of women in the 15-49 age group suffer from iron deficiency anaemia, and only 55% of children are exclusively breastfed for six months.
- The Global Nutrition Report 2020 notes that India is among the 88 countries that will miss their global nutrition targets of 2025.
- Only 50 percent of pregnant and lactating women are enrolled in the maternity benefit scheme across states.
- The prevalence of anaemia in women (31 percent) is more than two and a half times that in men (12 percent).
- About 90 % of the world’s rural population depend on traditional herbal medicine for their primary health even today.
- Some studies revealed that only less than half the anganwadi children (47%) and about two-third (63%) of school children were getting some sort of dry rations and/or cash support.
- National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4)
- 58.4 % of children (6-59 months) are anaemic
- 53.1 % of women in the reproductive age group are anaemic
- 35.7 % of children under 5 are underweight
- India’s expenditure on R&D as a percent of GDP has continued to remain stagnant at 0.7% of GDP for three decades, with the public sector accounting for 51.8% of national R&D expenditure. This compares to around 2.8% of GDP for the USA, 2.1% of GDP for China, 4.4% of GDP for Korea and around 3% for Germany where the dominant sector by spending on R&D is the private sector.
- The Copenhagen Consensus estimates that every 1 Rupee spent on fortification results in 9 Rupees in benefits to the economy.
- According to The Remote Learning Reachability report by UNICEF, just 24 percent of Indian households have internet facility to access e-education.
- The United Nations estimates that at least 1 billion learners have been affected globally by the closure of schools due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
- The World Bank estimates, moreover, that close to 7 million young people could drop out of schools as a result of the pandemic.
- As per a global survey by Standard & Poor’s Financial Services LLC (S&P)
- less than 25% of adults are financially literate in South Asian countries.
- India is home to 17.5% of the world’s population but nearly 76% of its adult population does not understand even the basic financial concepts.
- 38 % of adults with tertiary education are financially literate; compared to 30% of adults with secondary education, and 18 % of adults with primary education.
CONSTITUTION, POLITY & GOVERNANCE
- According to data by PRS Legislative Research, while 60% of the Bills in the 14th Lok Sabha and 71% in the 15th Lok Sabha were referred to Department-related Standing Committees (DRSCs) concerned, this proportion came down to 27% in the 16th Lok Sabha.
- According to Parliamentary Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances, Law and Justice, almost 50% of lawyers, particularly in district courts in India, do not have any laptop or computer facility so their participation in the virtual courts will be either very less or not at all.
- Digital India
- India is faced with two challenges in terms of internet connectivity—quality of the internet and the digital divide.
- On quality, India ranks low in the global speed index (71st among 139 countries); while on broadband India is ranked 31st (of 174 countries), it is an urban phenomenon.
- India has made abysmal progress in getting the rural broadband infra with BharatNet.
- A report states that the target was to connect 2.5 lakh villages, but Wi-Fi is available only in about 23,000 gram panchayats.
- The bigger issue is the gap in internet penetration in urban and rural areas—urban penetration is 100%, rural is less than 30%.
- India is the only country on track among the G20 nations to meet its climate change mitigation commitments, according to the 2020 Climate Transparency report.
- ASEAN is one of the world’s most important trading blocs, with a population of 650 million and a combined GDP of over USD 3 trillion. USD 10.7 billion export opportunity from 5 ASEAN markets to India. India has a USD 8 billion opportunity to export to 5 ASEAN (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam) markets.
- OECD countries (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) are responsible for one-third of global emissions and their per capita emissions are twice the global average. Germany, the biggest contributor to carbon emissions in the European Union.
- China is the world’s largest contributing country to CO2 emissions.
- BRICS brings together five major emerging economies comprising
- 41% of the world’s population
- 24% of the global GDP
- 17 % of the share in world trade
- 50 % of the world economic growth
- 30% of the world land area
- 24% of the voting power
- 34% of India’s total imports are from the other four BRICS nations
- 9% of India’s export were to the BRICS nation
- However, even after three decades of rapid growth, “the total balance sheet of banks in India still constitutes less than 70 per cent of the GDP, which is much less compared to global peers” such as China, where this ratio is closer to 175%.
- Moreover, domestic bank credit to the private sector is just 50% of GDP when in economies such as China, Japan, the US and Korea it is upwards of 150 per cent.
- There is only one Indian bank in the top 100 banks globally by size. Further, Indian banks are also one of the least cost-efficient.
- Recently a report by Oxford Economics on said that India’s growth equilibrium will worsen over the medium term, and potential growth would average at 4.5% over 2020-25, as opposed to its pre-coronavirus forecast of 6.5.
- Oxford Economics has forecast that India’s potential growth is likely to average just 4.5 per cent between 2020-2025, as opposed to its pre-virus forecast of 6.5 per cent. It is important to note here that 6.5 per cent is already lower than the average annual growth (6.8 per cent) India achieved since economic liberalisation in 1992.
- Experts studies show that PDS suffers from nearly 61% error of exclusion and 25% error of inclusion of beneficiaries; misclassification of the poor as non-poor and vice-versa.
- The sea lanes of communication (SLOCs) are of vital importance for India since nearly 50% of India’s external trade and 80% of her energy imports transit these westward SLOCs in the Arabian Sea.
- According to a Niti Aayog report, India’s EVs market needs a minimum of 10 GW of cells by 2022, which would need to be expanded to about 50 GW by 2025.
- India ranks first in the world in arable land (156.46 million hectare),
- 3rd in production of cereals;
- 2nd in groundnut, fruits, vegetables, sugarcane, tea; and
- 1st in jute
- Worldwide as of 2016, the country had the largest herds of buffalo and ranked
- 2nd in cattle;
- 3rd in sheep
- 2nd in goat
- 6th in chicken population
- Largest producer of milk
- 3rd in production of eggs
- 6th in production of meat.
- Chemical industry in India
- Indian chemical industry is one of the largest worldwide, in terms of revenue
- 100 percent foreign direct investment
- India was a net exporter of agrochemicals
- Two-Thirds of the revenue generated by the agrochemical sector came from the organized sector
- Indian ranks 14th in export and 8th in import of chemicals (Excluding Pharmaceuticals products) globally
- Indian chemical industry employs more than 2 million people
- Third largest consumer of polymers in the world
- Fourth largest producer of agrochemicals in the world
- Sixth largest producer of chemicals in the world
- According to the International Labour Organization, of the 535 million labour force in India in 2019, some 398.6 million have poor quality jobs.
- Globally, Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications in agriculture reached a valuation of nearly $1 billion in 2019 and this is estimated to grow to almost $8 billion by 2030, a nearly 25% growth.
- FAO estimates that, while agriculture accounts for 70% of total global freshwater withdrawals, food production and supply chain consumes about 30% of global energy consumption.
- Only 7 % of climate finance – a fraction of what is needed – goes to small-scale farmers in developing countries despite their disproportionate vulnerability to the impacts of climate change, according to a report released by the UN’s International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) and Climate Policy Initiative (CPI)
- In the financial year 2019-20, Indian agri-food tech start-ups raised more than $1 billion through 133 deals. India’s exports of agricultural products rose to $37.4 billion in 2019.
- The Indian agri-tech market, presently valued at $204 million, has reached just 1 % of its estimated potential of $ 24 billion.
- According to NSS 70th Round, only 25 per cent of agricultural households sold their produce in the APMC mandis, whereas 65 per cent of households sold to private players.
- India’s agriculture sector continues to employ 49 % of the workforce and contributes 16 %t of the country’s GDP.
- It is estimated that AI in global agriculture could be a $4 billion-opportunity by 2026.
- India is leading fish producing country and second major producer of fish through aquaculture in the world. Fisheries sector in India provides direct employment to about 28 million fishers and fish farmers besides meeting the food and nutritional security and foreign exchange earnings. India contributes about 7.7% to the global fish production and country ranks 4thin global exports of fish products.
BIODIVERISTY & ENVIRONMENT
- South Asia is highly vulnerable to the social and economic impacts of climate-related hazards. Between 1990 and 2019, more than 1,000 climate-induced disasters in South Asia affected 1.7 billion people and caused more than $127 billion in damages. The World Bank estimates that climate change could drive 62 million people in South Asia into extreme poverty; floods alone could cost an estimated $215 billion annually by 2030.
- India is the third-largest emitter of CO2 in the world
- As many as 15 % deaths across the world due to the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can be linked to long-term exposure to air pollution.
- According to The Climate Risk Index 2020, an annual report by Germanwatch, India was ranked the fifth-most vulnerable country globally.
- The transport sector of India is the third most greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting sector, where the major contribution comes from the road transport sector. Out of the total carbon dioxide emissions in India, 13% come from the transport sector. These emissions have more than tripled since 1990. The increasing motorization and demand for mobility in India have contributed to air pollution, congestion, as well as the increase of greenhouse gas emissions, in the urban area.
- According to the International Council for Clean Transportation (ICCT), an estimated 74,000 premature deaths were attributable to air pollution from transportation tailpipe emissions in India in 2015.
- In India, CO2emitted per inhabitant was just about a twentieth of that of an average OECD country, yet, India’s transport CO2 emissions are likely to increase by almost 6% annually to 2030.
- In line with the commitment made by India in Conference of Parties (COP) 21 (Paris) total shift to electric traction will reduce Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emission of Railways by 24% till 2027-28.
- According to a study commissioned by the Central Pollution Control Board
- Indo-Gangetic Plain continues to be the most polluted region in the country – in fact in the whole world – in terms of PM 2.5 levels
- The rate of increase in pollution levels in southern and eastern India is far greater than the Gangetic plain between 2000 and 2019
- India has the largest number of wild Asian elephants, estimated at 29,964 — which is about 60 per cent of the species’ global population — according to the 2017 census by Project Elephant.
- According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), coral reefs provide at least half a billion people around the world with food security and livelihoods.
- Out of the 8,664 species that the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List has catalogued in India, about 13% are considered at high risk for extinction in the wild.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
- India is currently the world’s fastest growing OTT (over-the-top streaming) market, and is all set to emerge as the world’s sixth-largest by 2024.
- At present, the OTT platform’s valuation stands at 35 billion INR, with nearly 500 million internet users, expected to grow at 8% per year. With a market size of nearly Rs 500 crore at the end of March 2019, the online video streaming platforms may become a Rs 4000-crore revenue market by the end of 2025, according to reports.
- At the end of 2019, India had as many as 17 crore OTT platform users.
- Globally, 58% of men have access to internet, compared to 48% of women.
- The biotechnology sector in India has grown from $1.1 billion in 2003 to a mammoth $64 billion sector in 2019 and by 2024, it is expected to be a $100 billion industry.
- Currently, there are over 2,700 biotech start-ups and are expected to touch the 10,000-mark by 2024.
- Biotech has been recognised as the sunrise sector among 14 champion sectors under the ‘Make in India’ programme which has the potential to contribute to the $5-trillion economy goal of India.
- India accounts for approximately 3% of the global biotech industry.
- According to the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), in the recent past, over 130 significant chemical accidents have been reported in the country, which have resulted in 259 deaths and caused major injuries to more than 560 people.
- There are over 1861 Major Accident Hazard (MAH) units spread across 301 districts and 25 states and three Union Territories in all zones of the country.
MAJOR REPORTS & INDICES
ACCELERATING PROGRESS ON NUTRITION IN INDIA
- Recently, the NITI Aayog has released “Accelerating Progress on Nutrition In India: What Will It Take”.
- This is the third progress report on the National Nutrition Mission or the Poshan Abhiyaan by the NITI Aayog.
- The first two reports focused majorly on the mission’s preparedness and implementation by States and UTs, respectively.
- The third progress report (October 2019-April 2020) takes stock of the roll-out status on the ground and implementation challenges encountered at various levels through large scale datasets.
- The initial Reports I and II, focused majorly on the mission’s preparedness and implementation by States and UTs, respectively.
- On stunting, India’s targets are conservative as compared to the global target defined by the World Health Assembly (WHA), which is a prevalence rate of 5% of stunting as opposed to India’s goal of reducing stunting levels to 13.3% by 2022.
- The target of reducing prevalence levels of anaemia among pregnant women from 50.3% in 2016 to 34.4% in 2022 and among adolescent girls from 52.9% in 2016 to 39.66%, is also considered to be conservative as compared to the WHA’s target of halving prevalence levels.
- In the wake of the pandemic, experts warn that deepening poverty and hunger may delay achieving the goals defined under the Mission.
Suggestions by the NITI Aayog:
- It recommends that the government must implement interventions beyond the health sector and its focus on the distribution of IFA tablets.
- The Government must include efforts to improve socio-economic conditions, else India will “achieve modest improvements in anaemia” among women of reproductive age.
- It calls for a need to lay as much emphasis on complementary feeding as it does on breastfeeding, which it points out can help avert 60% of the total stunting cases in India.
- It recommends improved “water, sanitation, handwashing with soap and hygienic disposal of children’s stools” as other interventions which could help avert a quarter of the stunting cases.
- It recommends to include interventions that go beyond the treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and also address moderate wasting, and have the potential to achieve larger declines in wasting.
Back to basics
- Poshan Abhiyaan (National Nutrition Mission) was launched in 2018 by the Prime Minister in Jhunjhunu, Rajasthan.
- It targets to reduce level of under-nutrition and other related problems by ensuring convergence of various nutrition related schemes
- It also targets stunting, under-nutrition, anaemia (among young children, women and adolescent girls) and low birth rate.
- It will monitor and review implementation of all such schemes and utilize existing structural arrangements of line ministries wherever available.
- Its large component involves gradual scaling-up of interventions supported by on-going World Bank assisted Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Systems Strengthening and Nutrition Improvement Project (ISSNIP) to all districts in the country by 2022.
- Its vision is to ensure attainment of malnutrition free India by 2022.
DIABETES: A HIDDEN EPIDEMIC
- A new research published recently in Diabetologia (journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes) highlights the vulnerability of indian youth towards diabetes.
- More than half of men (55%) and two thirds (65%) of women aged 20 years in India are more likely to develop diabetes, with most of those cases (around 95%) likely to be type 2 diabetes (T2D) in their lifetime.
- Lifetime risk of developing diabetes in 20-year-old men and women free of diabetes today is 56% and 65%, respectively.
- Obesity has a significant impact on vulnerability to diabetes.
- 86% higher among 20-year-old women and 87% among men of metropolitan area.
- India currently has 77 million adults who have diabetes and this number is expected to almost double to 134 million by 2045.
- Women generally had a higher lifetime risk of developing diabetes across their lifespan.
- Remaining lifetime risk of developing diabetes declined with age. As per researchers, those currently aged 60 years and free of diabetes, are less likely to develop diabetes in their remaining life.
Back to Basics
- Diabetes is a Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (a hormone that regulates blood sugar, or glucose), or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces.
- Type I diabetes: It is also known as juvenile diabetes (as it mostly affects children of age 14-16 years), this type occurs when the body fails to produce sufficient insulin. People with type I diabetes are insulin-dependent, which means they must take artificial insulin daily to stay alive.
- Gestational diabetes: This type occurs in women during pregnancy when the body sometimes becomes less sensitive to insulin. Gestational diabetes does not occur in all women and usually resolves after giving birth.
- Type 2 diabetes: It affects the way the body uses insulin. While the body still makes insulin, unlike in type I, the cells in the body do not respond to it as effectively as they once did. The population with 45 and above age groups is the most affected with it. This is the most common type of diabetes and it has strong links with obesity.
AVERTING A LOST COVID GENERATION
- Recently, the UNICEF has released first report to comprehensively outlinethe dire and growing consequences for children as the pandemic goes on ahead of the 20th November i.e. World Children’s Day .
- Children and adolescents under the age of 20 years accounted for 1 in 9 of COVID-19 infections, that is 11% of the 25.7 million infections.
- 140 million children are living in monetary poor household due to COVID-19.
- Schools are not a main driver of community transmission, and children are more likely to get the virus outside of school settings.
- School closures due to COVID-19 affected almost 90 per cent of students around the world – including 743 million girls.
- Internet channels reach only 24 per cent of schoolchildren globally, reflecting socio-economic inequality and a deep digital divide.
- Refugees and asylum seekers are excluded from COVID-19-related social protection measures.
- 3 billion people globally have no access to a place to wash their hands; 700 children die every day from diseases caused by this lack of inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene.
- Gender-based violence is predicted to increase for every three months of COVID-19 lockdowns.
- Approximately 70 per cent of mental health services for children and adolescents are disrupted.
- One third of the countries witnessed a drop of at least 10% in coverage of health services.
- There was a 40% decline in the coverage of nutrition services for women and children across 135 countries.
- More than 250 million children under 5 could miss the life-protecting benefits of vitamin A supplementation programmes.
Cause of Concerns
- An estimated 2 million additional child deaths and 200,000 additional stillbirths could occur over a 12-month period with severe interruptions to services and rising malnutrition.
- An additional 6 to 7 million children under the age of 5 will suffer from wasting or acute malnutrition in 2020.
- A 14% rise in additional child deaths per month—mostly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
- Globally, the number of children living in multidimensional poverty (no access to education, health, housing, nutrition, sanitation or water) is estimated to have soared by 15% by mid-2020.
A six-point plan to protect children by UNIICEF:
- Ensure all children learn, including by closing the digital divide.
- Guarantee access to health and nutrition services and make vaccines affordable and available to every child.
- Support and protect the mental health of children and young people and bring an end to abuse, gender-based violence and neglect in childhood.
- Increase access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene and address environmental degradation and climate change.
- Reverse the rise in child poverty and ensure an inclusive recovery for all.
- Redouble efforts to protect and support children and their families living through conflict, disaster and displacement.
- Bridge the digital divide to ensure all children were able to access school learning and guaranteed provision of nutrition and health services.
- The governments around the world are required to adopt measures to curb rise in child poverty.
NATIONAL CRIME RECORD BUREAU’S 2019 ANNUAL REPORT
- Crime rate registered showed an increase from 21.2 (per lakh population) in 2018 to 22.8 in 2019
- CRIMES AGAINST women increased 7.3 per cent from 2018 to 2019
- Crimes against Scheduled Castes also went up 7.3 per cent in the same period
- Uttar Pradesh reported the highest number of cases in both these categories
- Assam reported the highest rate of crimes against women (per lakh population)
- Rajasthan had the highest rate of crimes against Scheduled Castes
- UP also had the highest number of crimes against girl children under the POCSO Act
- UP had the highest number of dowry cases
YOUGOV INDIA SURVEY
- 69% of Indian’s use their smartphone to shop online
- 17% on Indians consider having insurance as a top financial priority
- 37% of urban Indians considered saving their main financial goal in 2019 relative to 32% in 2018
- ‘Securing self or family through insurance’ and ‘savings or increasing investment’ were opted by 22% and 28%, respectively as their financial goals
- On a gender basis, more women over men felt savings is their main target