Global TB Report 2017

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Context:

Recently a Global TB Report 2017 was released by World Health Organisation (WHO) which states that, India continues to have the highest number of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the world.

Facts & Figures:

  • India has topped list of seven countries, accounting for 64% of the over 10 million new tuberculosis (TB) cases worldwide in year 2016. India was followed by Indonesia, China, Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria and South Africa.
  • India along with China and Russia accounted for almost half of around 5 lakh multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases registered in 2016.
  • There were estimated 600000 new cases with resistance to rifampicin, the most effective first-line drug, of which 490000 had MDR- TB.
  • The report highlighted that underreporting and underdiagnosis of TB cases continue to be a challenge, especially in countries with large unregulated private sectors and weak health systems, including India.
  • Shortfalls in TB funding are one of the main reasons why progress is not fast enough to be on track to reach the end TB targets.
  • TB is also the main cause of deaths related to antimicrobial resistance and the leading killer of people with HIV.
  • Progress in most countries is stalling and is not fast enough to reach global targets or close persistent gaps in TB care and prevention.

Multidrug-resistant TB & XDR TB:

  • Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) is caused by an organism that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, the two most potent TB drugs.
  • These drugs are used to treat all persons with TB disease.
  • Extensively drug resistant TB (XDR TB) is a rare type of MDR TB that is resistant to isoniazid and rifampin, plus any fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs (i.e., amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin).
  • Because XDR TB is resistant to the most potent TB drugs, patients are left with treatment options that are much less effective.
  • XDR TB is of special concern for persons with HIV infection or other conditions that can weaken the immune system. These persons are more likely to develop TB disease once they are infected, and also have a higher risk of death once they develop TB.

Tuberculosis (TB):

  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by bacteria that are spread from person to person through the air.
  • TB usually affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, the kidneys, or the spine.
  • In most cases, TB is treatable and curable; however, persons with TB can die if they do not get proper treatment.

Source:TH