Global Tuberculosis (TB) Report-2019

Context :

  • Recently the tuberculosis incidence rate in India has decreased by almost 50,000 patients over the past one year, according to the World Health Organization (WHO)-2019 edition of the Global Tuberculosis (TB) Report.

Key Findings of the Report

  • Report notes that in 2017, India had 27.4 lakh TB patients which came down to 26.9 lakh in 2018. Incidence per 1,00,000 population has decreased from 204 in 2017 to 199 in 2018. The number of patients being tested for rifampicin resistance has increased from 32% in 2017 to 46% in 2018. And the treatment success rate has increased to 81% for new and relapse cases (drug sensitive) in 2017, which was 69% in 2016.
  • The report provides a comprehensive and up-to-date assessment of the TB epidemic and progress in the response at global, regional and country levels for India.

Global Scenario

  • The world is not on track to reach the 2020 milestones of the End TB Strategy. The END TB strategy by the WHO aimed to reduce TB by 20 per cent from 2015-18.
  • “The global decline in the total number of TB deaths between 2015 and 2018 was 11 per cent, less than one-third of the way towards the End TB Strategy milestone of 35 per cent decrease by 2020,” the report noted. 

Challenges

  • Severe underfunding
  • Drug resistance remains another impediment to ending TB
  • Fragile health infrastructure and workforce shortage
  • Weak reporting systems 

Global TB targets : SDG 3.3 includes a target of ending the TB epidemic by 2030

The World Health Assembly-approved Global TB Strategy aims for a 90 per cent reduction in TB deaths and an 80 per cent reduction in the TB incidence rate by 2030 compared with 2015 levels. The Strategy established milestones for 2020 of a 35% reduction in TB deaths and a 20% reduction in the TB incidence rate from 2015 levels.

The UN Political Declaration on TB in 2018 includes 4 new global targets

  • Treat 40 million people for TB disease in the 5-year period 2018-22 (7 million in 2018)
  • Reach at least 30 million people with TB preventive treatment for a latent TB infection in the 5-year period 2018-22
  • Mobilize at least US$13 billion annually for universal access to TB diagnosis, treatment and care by 2022
  • Mobilize at least US$2 billion annually for TB research

TB Facts

  • Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that most often affect the lungs. Tuberculosis is curable and preventable.
  • About one-quarter of the world’s population has latent TB, which means people have been infected by TB bacteria but are not (yet) ill with the disease and cannot transmit it.
  • The highest burden of TB in 2018 is in 8 countries: Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, and South Africa.
  • Brazil, China, the Russian Federation and Zimbabwe, which all have high TB burdens, achieved treatment coverage levels of more than 80 per cent.

Source: TH & Downtoearth