In India, the British were able to establish this control through Governor-General & Viceroys.

Governor-General of Bengal (1773-1833): 

  • When East India Company came to India, it controlled Bengal through a post named as “Governor of Bengal” (first Governor of Bengal: Robert Clive).
  • Other Presidencies, Bombay and Madras, had their own Governor.
  • However, after the passing of Regulating Act 1773, the post of Governor of Bengal was converted into “Governor-General of Bengal” (1st Governor-General of Bengal was Warren Hastings).
  • Through this Act Governor of Bombay and Madras worked under the Governor-General of Bengal.

Governor-General of India (1833-58): 

  • By Charter Act of 1833, the post name of Governor-General of Bengal again converted into “Governor-General of India” (1st Governor-General of India was William Bentinck.
  • This post was mainly for administrative purposes and reported to the Court of Directors of the East India Company.

Viceroy of India (1858-1947): 

  • After the revolt of 1857, the company rule was abolished and India came under the direct control of the British crown.
  • Government of India Act 1858 passed which changed the name of post-Governor General of India by Viceroy of India.
  • The Viceroy was appointed directly by the British government.
  • The 1st Viceroy of India was Lord Canning.
Governors-General & ViceroysEvents During Regime
Warren Hastings (1773-1785)
  • Regulating Act of 1773
  • Pitt’s India Act of 1784
  • The Rohilla War of 1774
  • The First Maratha War in 1775-82 and the Treaty of Salbai in 1782
  • Second Mysore War in 1780-84
Lord Cornwallis (1786-1793)
  • Third Mysore War (1790-92) and Treaty of Seringapatam (1792)
  • Cornwallis Code (1793)
  • Permanent Settlement of Bengal, 1793
Lord Wellesley (1798-1805)
  • Introduction of the Subsidiary Alliance System (1798)
  • Fourth Mysore War (1799)
  • Second Maratha War (1803-05)
Lord Minto I (1807-1813)
  • Treaty of Amritsar with Ranjit Singh (1809)
Lord Hastings (1813-1823)
  • Anglo-Nepal War (1814-16) and the Treaty of Sagauli, 1816
  • Third Maratha War (1817-19) and dissolution of Maratha Confederacy
  • Establishment of Ryotwari System (1820)
Lord Amherst (1823-1828)
  • First Burmese War (1824-1826)
Lord William Bentinck (1828-1835)
  • Abolition of Sati System (1829)
  • Charter Act of 1833
Lord Auckland (1836-1842)
  • First Afghan War (1838-42)
Lord Hardinge I (1844-1848)
  • First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-46) and the Treaty of Lahore (1846).
  • Social reforms like the abolition of female infanticide
Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856)
  • Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49)
  • The annexation of Lower Burma (1852)
  • Introduction of the Doctrine of Lapse
  • Wood’s Despatch 1854
  • Laying down of first railway line connecting Bombay and Thane in 1853
  • Laying down of first railway line connecting Bombay and Thane in 1853
  • Establishment of PWD
Lord Canning (1856-1862)
  • Revolt of 1857
  • Establishment of three universities at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay in 1857
  • Abolition of East India Company and transfer of control to the Crown by the Government of India Act, 1858
  • Indian Councils Act of 1861
Lord John Lawrence (1864-1869)
  • Bhutan War (1865)
  • Establishment of the High Courts at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras (1865)
Lord Lytton (1876-1880)
  • The Vernacular Press Act (1878)
  • The Arms Act (1878)
  • The Second Afghan War (1878-80)
  • Queen Victoria assumed the title of ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ or Queen Empress of India
Lord Ripon (1880-1884)
  • Repeal of the Vernacular Press Act (1882)
  • The first Factory Act (1881)
  • Government resolution on local self-government (1882)
  • The Ilbert Bill controversy (1883-84)
  • Hunter Commission on education (1882)
Lord Dufferin (1884-1888)
  • The Third Burmese War (1885-86).
  • Establishment of the Indian National Congress (1885)
Lord Lansdowne (1888-1894)
  • Factory Act (1891).
  • Indian Councils Act (1892).
  • Setting up of Durand Commission (1893)
Lord Curzon (1899-1905)
  • Appointment of Police Commission (1902)
  • Appointment of Universities Commission (1902)
  • Indian Universities Act (1904).
  • Partition of Bengal (1905)
Lord Minto II (1905-1910)
  • Swadeshi Movements. (1905-11)
  • Surat Split of Congress (1907)
  • Establishment of Muslim League (1906)
  • Morley-Minto Reforms(1909)
Lord Hardinge II (1910-1916)
  • Annulment of Partition of Bengal (1911)
  • Transfer of capital from Calcutta to Delhi (1911).
  • Establishment of the Hindu Mahasabha (1915)
Lord Chelmsford (1916-1921)
  • Lucknow pact (1916)
  • Champaran Satyagraha (1917)
  • Montagu’s August Declaration (1917)
  • Government of India Act (1919)
  • The Rowlatt Act (1919)
  • Jallianwalla Bagh massacre (1919)
  • Launch of Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movements
Lord Reading (1921-1926)
  • Chauri Chaura incident (1922)
  • Withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement (1922)
  • Establishment of Swaraj Party(1922)
  • Kakori train robbery (1925)
Lord Irwin (1926-1931)
  • Simon Commission to India (1927)
  • Harcourt Butler Indian States Commission (1927)
  • Nehru Report (1928)
  • Deepavali Declaration (1929)
  • Lahore session of the Congress (Purna Swaraj Resolution) 1929
  • Dandi March and the Civil Disobedience Movement (1930)
  • First Round Table Conference (1930)
  • Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931)
Lord Willingdon (1931-1936)
  • Communal Award (1932)
  • Second & Third Round Table Conference (1932)
  • Poona Pact (1932)
  • Government of India Act of 1935
Lord Linlithgow (1936-1944)
  • Resignation of the Congress ministries after the outbreak of the Second World War (1939)
  • Tripuri Crisis & formation of Forward Bloc (1939)
  • Lahore Resolution of the Muslim League (demand for a separate state for Muslims) 1940
  • ‘August Offer’ (1940)
  • Formation of the Indian National Army (1941)
  • Cripps Mission (1942)
  • Quit India Movement (1942)
Lord Wavell (1944-1947)
  • C. Rajagopalachari’s CR Formula (1944)
  • Wavell Plan and the Simla Conference (1942)
  • Cabinet Mission (1946)
  • Direct Action Day (1946)
  • Announcement of end of British rule in India by Clement Attlee (1947)
Lord Mountbatten (1947-1948)
  • June Third Plan (1947)
  • Redcliff commission (1947)
  • India’s Independence (15 August 1947)
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (1948-1950)
  • Last Governor-General of India, before the office, was permanently abolished in 1950