IAS Abhiyan Prelims inFocus-June 2023

IAS Abhiyan is now on Telegram:

IAS Abhiyan Official Telegram Channel: Click Here to Join

For Mains Value Edition (Facts, Quotes, Best Practices, Case Studies): Click Here to Join

IAS Abhiyan Prelims inFocus-September 2021


IAS Abhiyan Prelims inFocus-June 2023

  1. The International Solar Alliance (ISA)is a collaborative platform for increased deployment of solar energy technologies as a means for bringing energy access, ensuring energy security, and driving energy transition in its member countries. It is an international organisation with 93 Member countries and 115 Signatory countries and the first international intergovernmental organisation to be headquartered in India. The ISA strives to develop and deploy cost-effective and transformational energy solutions powered by the sun to help member countries develop low-carbon growth trajectories, with particular focus on delivering impact in countries categorized as Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and the Small Island Developing States (SIDS). Being a global platform, ISA’s partnerships with multilateral development banks (MDBs), development financial institutions (DFIs), private and public sector organizations, civil society and other international institutions is key to delivering the change it seeks to see in the world going ahead. The ISA is guided by its ‘Towards 1000’ strategy which aims to mobilise USD 1,000 billion of investments in solar energy solutions by 2030, while delivering energy access to 1,000 million people using clean energy solutions and resulting in installation of 1,000 GW of solar energy capacity. This would help mitigate global solar emissions to the tune of 1,000 million tonnes of CO2 every year.
  2. The theme of this year’s World Environment Day celebrated on June 05 every year will focus on solutions to plastic pollution under the campaign #BeatPlasticPollution.
  3. An exoplanet is any planet beyond the solar system and the planet discovered by scientists from India, Germany, Switzerland and the USA is with a density of ~14 g/cm3. Massive giant exoplanets are those having mass greater than four times that of Jupiter.
  4. Zardozi or Zar-douzi is an elaborate style of hand embroidery popular in Iran, India and Pakistan. The zardozi garments worn by the royal begums of the court were as priceless as they were exquisite. Pure gold was beaten into fine metal taar (thread) that was used to embroider motifs on silk, satin and velvet. This would be further enhanced with the addition of precious gems such as diamonds, emeralds, and pearls, which would be sewn into the fabric as part of the embroidery. Zardozi has also found its way into accessories like bangles, headpieces, even shoes. There are also zardozi cushion covers and draperies. Agra, Jaipur, Lucknow, Delhi, Benares and Bareilly are the hubs for original handmade zardozi. 
  5. Dimethyl Ether is a synthetically produced alternative to dieselfor use in specially designed compression ignition diesel engines. It can be produced indigenously, and several countries, like Japan, USA, China, Sweden, Denmark, and Korea, are already using DME to power their vehicles. The DME-fuelled engine emitted extremely low particulate and soot emissions and almost no smoke without using expensive exhaust gas after-treatment devices and advanced engine technologies. It can be a viable alternative fuel and engine technology to adapt to conventional diesel engines used in India’s economy’s agricultural and transport sectors. It has a very high cetane number, which is a measure of the fuel’s ignitibility in compression ignition engines. Under normal atmospheric conditions, DME is a colorless gas. It is used extensively in the chemical industry and as an aerosol propellant. It is used in chemical industries and also to produce dyes and plastics.
  6. Electronic interlocking (EI) is an advanced version of signalling that uses computer-based systems and electronic equipment to control signals, points and level-crossing gates. The Indian Railways defines it as a “microprocessor-based interlocking equipment to read the yard and panel inputs; process them in a ‘fail-safe’ manner and generate required output.” Unlike the conventional relay interlocking system, the “interlocking logic” in an EI system is managed via software and electronic components. It ensures all elements work together in proper sequence so that trains can move without coming in the way of one another. The three components that form the basis of an electronic interlocking signal system are: Signal: Based on the status of the track ahead, light signals direct a train to stop (red light), proceed (green), or exercise caution (yellow). Point: These are moveable sections of a track which allow a train to change track by guiding the wheels towards a straight or diverging line. For instance, if a train has to change lines, the point is activated ahead of time and locked. Electric point machines lock and unlock point switches in the desired position. Track circuit: Electrical circuits are installed on tracks to detect the presence of a train between two points. These verify whether it is safe for a train to proceed over it.
  7. The Indian Railways is the fourth largest railway network in the world under one management, carrying an average of around eight billion passengers annually — earning the sobriquet of ‘lifeline of the nation’. The network is stretched over 68,000 km and comprises more than 7,000 stations with a running track of 1,02,831 km. The total track length, which includes sidings, yards and crossings, stands at 1,28,305 km, as of March 31, 2022.
  8. The UN Secretary-General recently appointed Indian-origin satellite industry expert Aarti Holla-Maini as Director of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA).
  9. Sunflower is the fourth largest consumed oil (2-2.5 mt), behind mustard (3-3.5 mt), soyabean (4.5-5 mt) and palm (8-8.5 mt).
  10. A local fish species known as ‘Kashir gaad’ or ‘Snowtrouts’, from the Dal lake.
  11. Alkalinity measures the ability of the water body to neutralize acids and bases to maintain a fairly stable pH level (acid-water ratio), essential for fish and other aquatic life.
  12. Amchang Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the state of Assam. It stretches from the Brahmaputra River in the northto the hilly forests of Meghalaya in the south, forming a continuous forest belt through Meghalaya’s Maradakdola Reserve Forests.
  13. Iran’s state television reported that the missile — called Fattah, or “Conqueror” in Farsi — had a range of up to 1,400 kilometres (870 miles). Hypersonic weapons, which fly at speeds in excess of Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound, could pose crucial challenges to missile defense systems because of their speed and manoeuvrability.
  14. The 105th Constitutional Amendment as another achievement.  The 2021 Amendment had reaffirmed the right of State governments to declare their own lists of Socially and Educationally Backward Classes. 
  15. Variable Rate Reverse Repo (VRRR): A reverse repo is a fixed or variable interest rate at which banks lend to RBI. It is the subdivision of reverse repo. The VRRR auction is undertaken to reduce surplus liquidity in the system by withdrawing existing cash.
  16. Paroleis a system of releasing a prisoner with the suspension of the sentence. The release is conditional, usually subject to behaviour, and requires periodic reporting to the authorities for a set period of time. In India, parole (as well as furlough) are covered under The Prisons Act of 1894. Prisoners convicted of multiple murders or under the anti-terror Unlawful Activities Prevention Act (UAPA) are not eligible for parole.  Since prisons are a State subject in the Constitution, the Prisons Act of each state government defines the rules under which parole is granted in that state. State governments have their own Prisoner Release on Parole Rules.
  17. Recently, the Egyptian President conferred the country’s highest state honour “Order of the Nile” award to the Prime Minister of India.
  18. The main aim of Copernicus Climate Change services (C3S) is to support adaptation and mitigation policies of the European Union. Its impact can be seen in environmentally responsible water management undertaken by a popular brewery in the Netherlands, and identification of climate sensitive areas in Costa Rica as part of an intenational partnership.
  19. ‘Biparjoy’ was suggested by Bangladesh and the word means ‘disaster’ or ‘calamity’ in Bengali. The naming of cyclones is done by countries on a rotational basis, following certain existing guidelines.
  20. Protosterol Biota is the microscopic organism, belongs to the family of organisms called eukaryotes. These are discovered inside a rock at the bottom of the ocean near what is now the Northern Territory in Australia. They have a complex structure combining mitochondria.
  21. A supercapacitor device consists of an electrode, electrolyte and a current collector. 
  22. The CBI is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Personnel, Pension & Public Grievances, Government of India. It is the premier investigating police agency in India. Many offices of the CBI network, including that of the Joint Director and Head of Chennai Zone, Anti-Corruption Bureau, Special Crime Branch, Economic Offences Branch, Special Unit, and Scientific Aid Unit are located in Chennai and Madurai of Tamil Nadu. As per Section 6 of the DSPE Act, 1946, the CBI needs consent from the respective State governments for conducting the investigation in their jurisdiction. A general consent to CBI granted by State governments enables the central agency to carry out investigations without such hindrances.
  23. Mayon Volcano is a highly active stratovolcano in the southeastern Luzon, Philippines. It is called the world’s most perfect volcanic cone because of the symmetry of its shape. It is located at the centre of Mayon Volcano National Park. It is located on the Pacific Ring of Fire, the rim of seismic faults where most of the world’s earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
  24. Captagon is a highly addictive amphetamine-type drug, which is produced mainly in Syria and widely smuggled across West Asia. They were manufactured to help treat attention deficit disorders, narcolepsy and other conditions. The original Captagon contained fenetylline, a synthetic drug of the phenethylamine family to which amphetamine also belongs. Captagon pills, like other amphetamine-based drugs, stimulate the central nervous system, providing “a boost of energy, enhance someone’s focus, let someone stay awake for longer periods of time, and produce a feeling of euphoria.” They, however, don’t help someone gain “superhuman alertness, bravery, strength, or pain resistance” — a person consuming any amphetamine-based drug might feel some sort of placebo effect though, which could lead to erratic behaviours. Captagon or other amphetamine-type drugs usually stay in the blood for around 36 hours. When taken orally, their peak effect occurs one to three hours after consumption, and effects last for as long as seven to 12 hours. Consumption of amphetamines can cause loss of appetite and weight, heart problems such as fast heart rate, irregular heartbeat, increased blood pressure, and heart attack, which can lead to death. They can also cause high body temperature, skin flushing, memory loss, problems thinking clearly, and stroke.
  25. Anaemia is linked to insufficient healthy red cells (haemoglobin) that carry oxygen in the body. Reasons for anaemia include iron deficiency, deficiencies in folate, Vitamin B12, Vitamin A, chronic conditions such as diabetes or inherited genetic disorders. There are several documented types of anaemia, with some being: aplastic anaemia; iron deficiency anaemia; sickle cell anaemia; thalassemia; vitamin deficiency anaemia. Anaemia extracts a significant physical and emotional toll, causing fatigue, heart problems, pregnancy complications and life-threatening consequences due to chronic anaemia.
  26. A skin bank — a first for North India — was inaugurated in Delhi’s Safdarjung Hospital. The country has 16 skin banks — a facility where the skin of deceased persons can be donated — with seven in Maharashtra, four in Chennai, three in Karnataka, and one each in Madhya Pradesh and Odisha.
  27. According to the UN Website, Yoga is an ancient physical, mental and spiritual practice that originated in India. The word ‘yoga’ derives from Sanskrit and means to join or to unite, symbolizing the union of body and consciousness. Recognizing its universal appeal, on 11 December 2014, the United Nations proclaimed 21 June as the International Day of Yoga by resolution 69/131. The International Day of Yoga aims to raise awareness worldwide of the many benefits of practicing yoga. The draft resolution establishing the International Day of Yoga was proposed by India and endorsed by a record 175 member states.
  28. Organisms on planet earth are broadly divided into prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The former are unicellular, do not have any organelles such as mitochondria, and their DNA is not packaged into a nucleus. Eukaryotes have mitochondria, their DNA is packaged into a nucleus, and most eukaryotes are complex, multicellular beings.
  29. The Director of the Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park recently bagged UNESCO’s Michel Batisse Award for 2023.
  30. Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), which regulates fisheries, is comprised of 26 member countriesplus the EU. They include the United States, Russia, China, the UK, France, India, Japan, host Chile, Brazil and South Africa. It was established by an international convention in 1982.
  31. Earth spins around an imaginary axis which passes through the north pole, its centre of mass and the south pole — just like a top spins around its spindle. Scientists for years have known that the poles and the axis keep shifting naturally as the mass distribution in and on the planet changes. This phenomenon is known as “polar motion”. There are several other reasons responsible for polar motion like ocean currents and even hurricanes. But this phenomenon is also impacted by human activities.
  32. The term Halogen in Greek means salt-producing because it reacts with many metals to produce salts. They are a group of elements located in Group 17 of the periodic table, which includes fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). In 1826, Swedish chemist Jons Berzelius coined the term halogen for the entire group of elements. Unlike metals, they exist in all three different states of matter in their standard state. For example, fluorine is found naturally as a gas, bromine as a liquid, and the larger iodine is found naturally as a solid. Halogens are the most reactive nonmetals on the periodic table and are powerful oxidising agents.
  33. In quantum theory, every type of particle is associated with an antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges. For example, the antiparticle of the electron is the positron.
  34. Shravanabelagola, is a Jain pilgrimage centre located near Channarayapatna of Hassan district in Karnataka, about 144 kms from state capital Bengaluru.
  35. Indian Navy divers and Marine Commandos are in the Maldives for the sixth edition of Exercise Ekatha. It is an annual exercise conducted between the navies of India and Maldives. The exercise aims to enhance interoperability in diving and special operations.
  36. An elephant image shot at Anamalai Tiger Reserve (ATR) has emerged as the winner in the Wildlife category of the Siena Drone Photo Awards 2023, announced recently.
  37. The Railway Protection Force (RPF) recently conducted a successful operation named “Amanat,” resulting in the retrieval of lost or left-behind luggage and valuable articles.
  38. JATAN virtual museum builder is a digital collection management systemfor Indian museums. It has been designed and developed by the Human Centres Design and Computing Group, Centre for Development of Smart Computing, Pune. It is a client-server application with features such as image cropping, watermarking, unique numbering, and management of digital objects with multimedia representations. It can create 3D virtual galleries and provide public access through web, mobile or touchscreen kiosks.
  39. The Uttar Pradesh state government has decided to gift GI-tagged Gulabi meenakari handicrafts to the visiting delegates from G20 nations. Gulabi meenakari handicraft is one of the rarest crafts in India that is practised in the by lanes of Varanasi, near Gai Ghat. It is an art form from Persia and involves colouring the surface of metals by fusing different colours.
  40. Recently, ‘Rugose Spiralling Whitefly’ – an invasive insect which attacks palms, coconut and banana trees among others – has been spotted in Pune city. The pest not only affects the productivity of coconut trees, it also impacts the nutritional value of the fruit. While the impact of the insect is not yet palpable, it could soon escalate as the pest spreads at a fast clip according to agricultural experts. So far, it has impacted coconut farming in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. The pest has now reached Maharashtra where farmers and citizens from the Konkan region, too, have spotted it, according to Lolage. The whitefly starts attacking the lower leaves of the coconut palm. It drains the sap from the underside of the leaf, producing a significant amount of honeydew which settles on the upper surface of the next lower leaf, leading to the growth of black, sooty mold. 
  41. Kharchi Puja is one of the main festivals of Tripura.
  42. Located in the heartland of the environment-loving community of Bishnois, the Shri Guru Jambeshwar Wildlife Sanctuary near Abohar is unique as it is owned entirely by private individuals or panchayats. A cluster of 13 villages in Sito Gunno tehsil was declared a wildlife sanctuary in 1989 on the community’s demand to protect wild animals in their private lands. Since the land ownership inside the sanctuary is mostly private, sand dunes are being flattened to make way for agricultural fields and kinnow orchards and it has resulted in the loss of grassland habitats which are crucial for blackbucks. It requires a mosaic of different habitats to meet their needs for shelter, feeding, and breeding.
  43. Joha rice, aromatic rice cultivated in the Northeastern region of India is effective in lowering the blood glucose and preventing diabetes onset and hence is an effective nutraceutical of choice in diabetes management. Joha is a short-grain winter paddy known for its significant aroma and noteworthy taste. The traditional claims are that the consumers of Joha rice have low incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, but these needed scientific validation. Besides, Joha rice is also rich in several antioxidants, flavonoids, and phenolics. Some of the reported bioactive compounds are oryzanol, ferulic acid, tocotrienol, caffeic acid, catechuic acid, gallic acid, tricin, and so on, each with reported antioxidant, hypoglycaemic and cardio-protective effects.
  44. The 3M22 Zircon, or the SS-N-33, is a manoeuvring anti-ship hypersonic cruise missile developed in Russia. It can reach speeds of over 9,500 kilometres per hour (6,000 miles per hour), around nine times faster than the speed of sound. It’s a two-stage missile that uses solid fuel in the first stage and a scramjet motor in the second stage. It can accurately pinpoint targets at a range of more than 1,000 kilometres (620 miles). Guidance System: Active and Passive Radar Seeker.
  45. Malcha Mahal is a Tughlaq-era hunting lodgebuilt by Feroz Shah Tughlaq in the 14th century. It came to be known as Wilayat Mahal after Begum Wilayat Mahal of Awadh, who was reportedly given the place by the government of India in May 1985.
  46. With the Artemis programme, NASA aims to land humans on the moon by 2024, and it also plans to land the first woman and first person of colour on the moon.
  47. The Commission of Railway Safety Working Under the Ministry of Civil Aviation of the Government of India. It deals with matters pertaining to the safety of rail travel and train operation. It is charged with certain statutory functions as laid down in the Railway Act(1989), which are of inspectorial, investigatory and advisory nature. The key responsibility of CRS is investigating serious train accidents. It is headquartered in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh.
  48. Taurine is a naturally occurring sulfur-containing amino acid. It’s particularly concentrated in your brain, eyes, heart, and muscles. Taurine occurs naturally in foods with protein, such as meat or fish.
  49. The cerebellum, which stands for “little brain”, is a structure of the central nervous system. It is a part of your brain located at the back of your head, just above and behind, where your spinal cord connects to your brain itself. It only accounts for around10% of total brain weight but contains as many as 80% of all neurons in the brain.
  50. Leptospirosis is a potentially fatal zoonotic bacterial disease. The disease is caused by a bacterium called Leptospira interrogans, or Leptospira. It is more prevalent in warm, humid countries and both urban and rural areas.  It is a contagious disease in animals but is occasionally transmitted to humans in certain environmental conditions. The carriers of the disease can be either wild or domestic animals, including rodents, cattle, pigs, and dogs. The cycle of disease transmission begins with the shedding of Leptospira, usually in the urine of infected animals.
  51. Established under Article 14 of the Paris Agreement, the Global Stocktake is designed “to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of the Paris Agreement and its long-term goals.” Those goals include: cutting greenhouse gas emissions to limit global temperature rise to well below 2 degrees C and ideally 1.5 degrees C building resilience to climate impacts and aligning financial support with the scale and scope needed to tackle the climate crisis.
  52. Kodumanal is located on the northern banks of the Noyyal River and made it to the archaeology map in 1961 when the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) started the first dig after noticing antique materials scattered across the barren land of the village.
  53. Recently, European regulators have approved the region’s first vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The shot, called Arexvy, is made by British drugmaker GSK and is designed to protect people aged 60 and over.
  54. Pharma major Lupin Limited (Lupin) announced the launch of Darunavir Tablets, 600 mg and 800 mg to market a generic equivalent of Prezista Tablets.
  55. Article 25 lays down an individual’s fundamental right to religion; Article 26(b) upholds the right of each religious denomination or any section thereof to “manage its own affairs in matters of religion”; Article 29 defines the right to conserve distinctive culture. An individual’s freedom of religion under Article 25 is subject to “public order, health, morality” and other provisions relating to fundamental rights, but a group’s freedom under Article 26 has not been subjected to other fundamental rights.
  56. Betelgeuse, a red supergiant star at a distance of 724 lightyears from the Earth is nearly 50 percent brighter than usual, leading astronomers to suggest that the star may explode in a violent supernova within tens of years.
  57. Pulsars are rotating neutron stars observed to have pulses of radiation at very regular intervals that typically range from milliseconds to seconds. Pulsars have very strong magnetic fields which funnel jets of particles out along the two magnetic poles. These accelerated particles produce very powerful beams of light.  Often, the magnetic field is not aligned with the spin axis, so those beams of particles and light are swept around as the star rotates. Pulsars are among the few celestial objects that emit circular polarised light.
  58. Iran has recently unveiled its first-ever hypersonic missile, Fattah, which it says can penetrate missile defence systems and will give it a military edge.
  59. Foot rot disease is also known as Bakanae Disease. It is a soil and seed-borne deadly fungus which is seen only in the Basmati variety of paddy. It is caused by ‘Fusarium verticillioides’ fungi. The infected saplings turn pale yellow and become elongated and later, the saplings start drying and usually die. Symptoms sometimes appear after transplantation and the infected plants first grow way taller than the normal plants and die after a few days.
  60. In India, historically oppressed and disadvantaged communities have a right to affirmative action policies. Reservation in education and employment can be divided into two broad categories, namely, vertical and horizontal. Vertical reservations are provisions aimed at addressing social asymmetry arising out of caste hierarchy, and in the case of OBCs, social and educational “backwardness”. These include reservations for Scheduled Castes (SC), Scheduled Tribes (ST) and Other Backward Classes (OBC). Horizontal reservation, on the other hand, cuts across all vertical groups to provide affirmative policies for disadvantaged groups within categories. For example, disabled persons are guaranteed horizontal reservation in all the aforementioned vertical categories, general and reserved (vertical) alike, by the Central government. States like Uttarakhand and Bihar have also rolled out policies that guarantee horizontal reservation for women. This means that a woman who belongs to the SC category should be able to avail reservation based on both caste and gender.
  61. Researchers have devised a tool that enables appropriate agroforestry and aids systematic ecosystem restoration. Diversity for Restoration (D4R) tool, devised by Bioversity International, was later modified by another team of researchers to adapt it to the Indian context.
  62. West Bengal has been ranked 60th most climate vulnerable among 2,600 regions in the world, with villages in Sunderbans being the most affected. 
  63. Oceans do more than just absorbing carbon dioxide and moderating the climate. They also cool the planet by releasing short-lived halogens such as chlorine, bromine and iodine. Short-lived halogens, which have a lifetime of less than six months in the atmosphere, are naturally produced by the oceans.
  64. Tropical mammals residing even in protected areas are not safe from the impact of human activities happening outside their boundaries, new research has found. The protected areas that were studied included Udzungwa Mountains National Park, Tanzania; Pasoh Forest Reserve in South East Asia; Bwindi Impenetrable National Park in Uganda; Yasuni National Park in South America; Caxiuana National Forest, Brazil; Cocha Cashu-Manu National Park in Peru and Korup National Park in Cameroon, among others.
  65. Three Gyps species namely long-billed vulture (Gyps indicus), oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis) and slender-billed vulture (Gyps tenuirostris) found in India are critically endangered.
  66. A forex (FX) hedge is the difference between the price at which a foreign currency can be bought with local currency in the future (forward rate) and the price at which it can be bought today (spot rate), which can be expressed as an annual percentage cost. 
  67. A supercapacitor is an electrochemical charge storage device with a fast charging/discharging cycle, high power density and a longer lifecycle. 
  68. The alligator gar is a close relative of the bowfin species. It is a ray-finned euryhaline fish and is one of the biggest freshwater fish in North America and the largest species in the ‘gar’ family. The Indian Biological Diversity Act 2002 prohibits the presence of any kind of invasive fish species that can be hazardous to natural fish fauna. Gar fishes are euryhaline and can grow up to eight feet. They can be dangerous for indigenous fish species. During winter, they can even sustain in the cold waters of Dal because the temperature they mostly live in is 11-23 degrees Celsius.
  69. World Day to Combat Desertification and Droughtis observed every year on the 17th of June. The theme for this year is “Her Land. Her Rights” which focuses on women’s land rights, essential for achieving the interconnected global goals of gender equality and land degradation neutrality by 2030 and contributing to the advancement of several other Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
  70. The seven bacterial pathogens considered in the study were: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA), Escherichia coli (E coli), Enterococcus faecalisHaemophilus influenzaeKlebsiella pneumoniaePseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
  71. India is one of the largest producers and consumers of fertilisers in the world, and fertiliser consumption has increased significantly over the years.
  72. Bhopal in Madhya Pradesh has become the first city in India to adopt the localisation of the United Nations-mandated sustainable development goals (SDG). MP’s capital city will now have voluntary local reviews (VLR) demonstrate local government’s capacity and commitments.
  73. The theme for World Environment Day 2023 is “beating the plastic pollution” and the entire world is deliberating ways of dealing with plastic pollution. 
  74. Credit Information Bureaus: They maintain the credit information of borrowers (including individuals, corporations, and SMEs) which can be accessed by banks and other lending institutions. They collect information from a variety of credit providers including banks, credit card companies and non-bank financial institutions. They rate the borrowers in a scale of 300-900 with 900 being the highest rating. Banks and finance companies normally take decisions on the rating given by the credit bureaus. They levy charges on enquiries even if they have no data on the entity. 
  75. Mosquirix is a vaccine that is given to children aged 6 weeks to 17 months to help protect against malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The vaccine should only be used in areas of the world where Plasmodium falciparum malaria is widespread, and only in accordance with government advice in those countries. Mosquirix also helps protect against hepatitis B virus infection of the liver, however, it should not be used solely for this purpose.
  76. The annual summit of the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 2022, under the chairmanship of Cambodia. Its major pillars that helps lay out a blueprint for cooperation are Political-Security Community (APSC), Economic Community (AEC) and Socio-Cultural Community (ASCC). India is part of the ASEAN Plus Six grouping, which includes China, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand and Australia as well.
  77. In a reversal of its earlier decision, the government on Wednesday decided to defer the decision to include international credit card spends outside India under the Liberalised Remittance Scheme (LRS). This, in effect, means there will be no levy of Tax Collected at Source (TCS) on international credit card spends outside India as of now. The usage of an international credit card to make payments towards meeting expenses during a trip abroad was not covered under the LRS. The spendings through international credit cards were excluded from LRS by way of Rule 7 of the Foreign Exchange Management (Current Account Transaction) Rules, 2000. With the latest notification, Rule 7 has now been omitted, paving way for the inclusion of such spendings under LRS.
  78. Article 239AA specifically excludes land, police and public order from the purview of the legislative powers of the Delhi government. The court acknowledged that these three issues can also have some overlap with “services” “The legislative and executive power of Delhi over Entry 41 (services) shall not extend over to services related to public order, police and land. However, legislative and executive power over such services such as Indian administrative services, or joint card of services, which are relevant for the implementation of policies and vision of NCT of Delhi in terms of day to day administration of the region, shall live with Delhi,” the court said.
  79. Article 164 (1)of the Constitution states that the Chief Minister shall be appointed by the Governor and “the other Ministers shall be appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister, and the Ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the Governor”.
  80. Four generic COVID drugs produced in India – Primovir, Paxista, Molnunat, and Molnatris — have been listed for sale in recent weeks. Primovir and Paxista are both generic versions of Paxlovid, while the other two are generic versions of Molnipiravir. All four drugs appear to have been approved for emergency use by the Indian authorities but are not legal for use in China.

To Read Previous Months Monthly Prelims inFocus: Click here

To Download our Monthly Current Affairs Digest (Free Prelims inFocus): Click here