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IAS Abhiyan Prelims inFocus-March 2021

  1. Recently, Special Forces of India and the USA conducted the joint military exercise ‘VAJRA PRAHAR 2021’ in Himachal Pradesh. Other exercised: Exercise Yudh Abhyas (Army), Cope India (Air Force)., Red Flag (USA’s multilateral air exercise), Malabar Exercise (trilateral naval exercise of India, USA and Japan).
  2. Earth Hour is the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF)’s annual initiative that began in 2007.
  3. The Commerce and Industry Ministry has launched the national GIS-enabled land bank system, which will help investors to get real-time information about the availability of industrial land and resources. The system is being developed by integrating the Industrial Information System (IIS) with state GIS (Geographic Information System). The IIS portal is a GIS-enabled database of industrial areas/clusters across the states. The Land Bank System could eliminate the need for investors to visit multiple platforms/offices to gather information and obtain clearances from different stakeholders.
  4. World Commission on Dams (WCD) is a global multi-stakeholder body established by the World Bank and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in 1998 to investigate the effectiveness and performance of large dams around the world.
  5. Africa’s forest and savanna elephants are now ‘critically endangered’ and ‘endangered’ due to population declines caused primarily by poaching and habitat loss, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) said March 25, 2021. Both species were earlier listed as ‘vulnerable’. The numbers of Savanna elephants had also been stable or growing for decades, especially in the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area, which harboured the largest subpopulation of this species on the continent.
  6. Recently, the Kathakali actor Guru Chemancheri Kunhiraman Nair died at the age of 105 in Kozhikode, Kerala.
  7. Forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) occur in the tropical forests of Central Africa and in a range of habitats in West Africa. They rarely overlap with the range of the savanna elephant, which prefers open country and is found in a variety of habitats in sub-Saharan Africa including grasslands and deserts. The forest elephant, which has a more restricted natural distribution, is thought to occupy only a quarter of its historic range today, with the largest remaining populations found in Gabon and the Republic of the Congo.
  8. The Logistics Performance Index (LPI),developed by the World Bank Group, is an interactive benchmarking tool created to help countries identify the challenges and opportunities they face in their performance on trade logistics and what they can do to improve their performance.
  9. Recently, Government is planning to replace the Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme (TEQIP)with a new programme MERITE Project. TEQIP was started in 2002 by the Ministry of Human Resources and Development with the assistance of the World Bank and is being implemented in a phased manner. It aims to upscale the quality of technical education and enhance capacities of institutions. The MERITE Project has an objective to improve technical education like the TEQIP.
  10. The Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) launched the Simplified Proforma for Incorporating Company Electronically Plus (SPICe+) web form.  It offers a bunch of services including incorporation, Director Identification Number (DIN) allotment,mandatory issue of Permanent Account Number (PAN), besides allotment of Goods and Service Tax Identification Number – GSTIN (if applied for).
  11. Covid-19 Global Gender Response Tracker is an initiative of UNDP and UN Women which shows that social protection and jobs response to the pandemic has largely overlooked women’s needs.
  12. Recently, the TransUnion CIBILin partnership with the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation (MoSPI) has launched MSME Credit Health Index to provide a measure of the growth and strength of the MSME sector in India.
  13. The father of the nation of Bangladesh Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and the late Sultan of Oman, Qaboos bin Said Al Said are to be awarded the Gandhi Peace Prize for 2020 and 2019
  14. The Global Initiative on Sharing Avian Influenza Data (GISAID) Initiative promotes the rapid sharing of data from all influenza viruses and the coronavirus causing Covid-19. The GISAID platform was launched on the occasion of the Sixty-first World Health Assembly in May 2008.
  15. Article 93 of the Constitution provides for the Lok Sabha to select two of its members as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
  16. The 69thamendment to the Constitution of India inserted Article 239AA, which declared the Union Territory of Delhi to be administered by a L-G who works on ‘aid and advice of elected legislative assembly.
  17. The five rhino range nations (India, Bhutan, Nepal, Indonesia and Malaysia) have signed a declaration ‘The New Delhi Declaration on Asian Rhinos 2019’ for the conservation and protection of the species.
  18. The Union Minister of Ports, Shipping and Waterways has flagged off an all-women crew onboard Shipping Corporation of India (SCI) vessel MT Swarna Krishna.
  19. Kallanai Dam in Tamil Nadu is the oldest dam of India. It is built on the Kaveri river and is about 2000 years old.
  20. As a part of India’s initiatives to engage with neighbouring countries to develop S&T partnerships, the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India has launched India Science and Research Fellowship (ISRF) Programme for Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand researchers to work in Indian Universities and Research Institutions. It has been implemented since 2015.
  21. One of the follow-up actions to the Armistice Agreement in the Korean War was the establishment of a Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission. India was chosen as the Chair of the NNRC, with Poland and Czechoslovakia representing the Communist bloc and Sweden and Switzerland representing the Western world.
  22. The National Chambal Sanctuary is located along river Chambal on the tri-junction of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. It is known for critically endangered gharial, the red-crowned roof turtle, and the endangered Ganges river dolphin.
  23. High-nutrient cereals – bajra (pearl millet), jowar (sorghum), ragi (finger millet), kodo (kodo millet), kutki (little millet), kakun (foxtail millet), sanwa (barnyard millet), cheena (proso millet), kuttu (buckwheat) and chaulai (amaranth).
  24. The Union Agriculture Ministry, in April 2018, declared millets as “Nutri-Cereals”, considering their “high nutritive value” and also “anti-diabetic properties”. 2018 was observed as ‘National Year of Millets”. The UN General Assembly too, earlier this month, adopted an India-sponsored resolution to mark 2023 as the “International Year of Millets”.
  25. India and Japan are already working on a joint lunar polar exploration (LUPEX) mission and the two space agencies have been working on the mission that aims to send a lander and rover to the Moon’s south pole around 2024.
  26. Minister of State for Tourism and Culture (Independent Charge) and, Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh inaugurated the ‘Maharaja Chhatrasal Convention Centre at Khajuraho developed under Swadesh Darshan Scheme of Ministry of Tourism in Khajuraho, Madhya Pradesh. The Khajuraho Group of Monumentsis listed as a UNESCO world heritage site. The temples are famous for their nagara-style architectural symbolism and their erotic sculptures.
  27. Kumbh Mela comes under UNESCO’s Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. Kumbh Mela in Haridwar is being held after 11 years — not the usual 12 — because of specific auspicious dates. In fact, this is the first time in 80 years that such a phenomenon has happened.
  28. Seaweed Mission has been recently, launched by Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC).
  29. Augmenting Writing Skills for Articulating Research (AWSAR) is an initiative that aims to disseminate Indian research stories among the masses in an easy to understand and interesting format. Conduct training Workshops for Early Career Researchers (PhD Scholars and PDFs) in popular science writing.
  30. Pilibhit Tiger Reserve is located in Pilibhit District, Lakhimpur Kheri District and Bahraich District in the state of Uttar Pradesh. It forms part of the Terai Arc Landscape in the upper Gangetic Plain along the India-Nepal border. The habitat is characterized by sal forests, tall grasslands and swamp maintained by periodic flooding from rivers. The Sharda Sagar Dam extending up to a length of 22 km is on the boundary of the reserve. The tiger reserve got the first International award TX2 for doubling the tiger population in a stipulated time. The northeastern boundary of the reserve is the River Sharda, which defines the Indo-Nepal border, while the southwest boundary is marked by the River Sharda and the River Ghaghara. PTR was the first to receive the award among 13 tiger range countries.
  31. The difference between the average interest rate that governments pay on their debt and the nominal growth rateof the economy is known as ‘Interest-Growth Differential’.
  32. The Consolidated Sinking Fundin India was established by the Reserve Bank in 1999–2000 to enable states to repay their debt easily. 
  33. Plinian is an intensely violent kind of volcanic eruption.In this type of eruption, gases boiling out of gas-rich magma generate enormous and nearly continuous jetting blasts that core out the magma conduit and rip it apart.
  34. Switzerland’s traditional foreign policy of neutrality has become attractive again because of the changing political reality in the world.
  35. The Lokpal was established under the provisions of Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013 on 23rdMarch, 2019 when Sh. Justice Pinaki Chandra Ghose (a retired Supreme Court Judge) was administered the oath of office by the Hon’ble President of India in Rashtrapati Bhawan.  Subsequently, on 27th March, 2019, four judicial members and four other members were administered the oath of office by the Chairperson Shri Justice Pinaki Chandra Ghose.
  36. RURITAGE is a European project that aims at demonstrating how cultural and natural heritage can emerge as a driver of sustainable development and competitiveness of rural areas. The project has recently launched the call of interest for local actors in rural areas for joining the project as additional Role Models. The RURITAGE project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.
  37. DigitalSky is a Ministry of Civil Aviation initiative, a highly secure and scalable platform which supports technology frameworks such as “No-Permission-No-Takeoff’ (NPNT) designed for enabling flight permission digitally and managing Unmanned Aircraft operations and traffic efficiently.
  38. The ‘World Rule of Law Index’ published by the World Justice Project provides a cross country comparison on various aspects of regulatory enforcement. 
  39. The World Governance Index is released by the World Bank. The data published by the World Justice Project is used by the World Bank in its World Governance Indicators. 
  40. Guru Shikhar Peak on Mount Abu is the highest peak in the Aravalli Range. The Aravalli hills spanning Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi are an ecologically sensitive zone but have for years borne the brunt of quarrying and environmental degradation.
  41. Section 24 of the RTI Act which exempts information related to security and intelligence organisations — except allegations of corruption and human rights violations — was also frequently used, with one in five permissible rejections coming under this category.
  42. The Government has followed a policy of issuing wheat and rice to States and Union Territories through TPDS at uniform Central issue prices (CIPs). Any difference in the economic cost of foodgrains and their respective CIPs is reimbursed to the FCI by the Central Government. Any changes in the MSPs and economic cost of foodgrains affect the level of subsidy. The CIP is the price at which the government makes available foodgrains for beneficiaries of the National Food Security Act, 2013 and other welfare schemes to the states from the central pool.
  43. Net zero emissions’ refers to achieving an overall balance between greenhouse gas emissions produced and greenhouse gas emissions taken out of the atmosphere.
  44. India has enacted Recycling of Ships Act, 2019 and accedes to the Hong Kong International Convention in 2019. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted the Hong Kong International Convention for the Safe and Environmentally Sound Recycling of Ships in 2009, which is aimed at ensuring that ships being recycled after reaching the end of their operational lives do not pose any unnecessary risks to human health, safety and to the environment.
  45. Raman Thermometry  is a thermal characterization technique which makes use of Raman scattering phenomena to determine the local temperature in microelectronics systems.
  46. spread in government bonds is the difference between yields on differing debt instruments of varying maturities, credit ratings, issuer, or risk level, calculated by deducting the yield of one instrument from the other.
  47. Recently, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has proposed a Temporary Basic Income (TBI) for poor women in developing countries to help them cope with the effects of the coronavirus pandemic and alleviate the economic pressures they face every day.
  48. Kerala was one of the first states in the country to formulate and implement a welfare policy for transgender persons in 2015.
  49. Glinka World Soil Prizeis conferred by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in line with soil. It is an annual award for dynamic change-makers dedicated to solving one of our world’s most pressing environmental issues, i.e. soil degradation.
  50. The Mullaperiyar, is located on the confluence of the Mullayar and Periyar rivers in Kerala’s Idukki district. It is operated and maintained by the Tamil Nadu for meeting the drinking water and irrigation requirements of five of its southern districts. The dam intends to divert the waters of the west-flowing river Periyar eastward to the arid rain shadow regions of the Tamil Nadu. It is a masonry gravity dam.
  51. Only parties registered under the Representation of the People Act 1951could receive donations through electoral bonds, and they also should not have secured less than 1% of the votes polled in the previous elections.
  52. Mutation is an alteration in the genetic material (the genome) of a cell of a living organism or of a virus that is more or less permanent and that can be transmitted to the cells or the virus’s descendants.
  53. On March 21, the largest asteroid predicted to pass by Earth in 2021 will be at its closest.  It is called 2001 FO32.
  54. surcharge is discussed under Article 270 and 271 of the Indian Constitution. Unlike a cess, which is meant to raise revenue for a temporary need, surcharge is usually permanent in nature.
  55. The Sunderbans Delta is the only mangrove forest in the world inhabited by tigers.
  56. ‘Solow-Swan Model’ highlights that output per worker mainly depends on savings, population growth and technological progress. The theory states that economic growth is the result of three factors—labor, capital, and technology. While an economy has limited resources in terms of capital and labor, the contribution from technology to growth is boundless.
  57. Ex Desert Flag is an annual multi-national large force employment warfare exercise hosted by the United Arab Emirates Air Force. The Indian Air Force is participating for the first time in Exercise Desert Flag-VI along with air forces of United Arab Emirates, United States of America, France, Saudi Arabia, South Korea and Bahrain.
  58. ‘Statue of Unity’ at Kevadia in Gujarat’s Narmada district located on the Sadhu Bet island on the Narmada river, which flows between the Satpura and the Vindhya mountain ranges.
  59. Tehri Dam in Uttarakhand is the highest dam in India built on Bhagirathi river where as Hirakud Dam in Odisha built on river Mahanadi is the longest dam of India.
  60. Istanbul Convention seeks to prevent violence against women, including domestic violence. The 2011 agreement, commonly referred to as the Istanbul Convention, was drafted by the Council of Europe in the Turkish city in 2011. It is a legal frameworkseeking to protect women and promote gender equality through legislation, education, and spreading awareness. The convention was signed by 45 European countries, plus the EU as an institution. On 12 March 2012, Turkey became the first country to ratify the convention. Recently, Turkey withdraws from the Istanbul Convention.
  61. Shaheed Diwas, observed on March 23, marks the day when Indian freedom fighters Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were executed by the British government for their acts of ‘dramatic violence’, and their role in the struggle for Indian independence.
  62. In 1928, Bhagat Singh changed the name of Hindustan Republican Association to Hindustan Socialist Republic Association (HSRA).
  63. Diphtheria is primarily caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae and is mainly spread by coughs and sneezes, or through close contact with someone infected. In most cases, the bacteria cause acute infections, driven by the diphtheria toxin — the key target of the vaccine. However, non-toxigenic  diphtheria can also cause disease, often in the form of systemic infections. Diphtheria is a highly contagious infection. It can affect the nose and throat and sometimes the skin. If left untreated it can prove fatal. The main disease-causing component of C. diphtheriae is the diphtheria toxin, which is encoded by the `tox’ gene. It is this component that is targeted by vaccines. In total, the researchers found 18 different variants of the `tox’ gene, of which several had the potential to change the structure of the toxin. Diphtheria infections can usually be treated with several classes of antibiotics. While C. diphtheriae’s resistance to antibiotics have been reported, the extent of such resistance remains largely unknown.
  64. Grey water is defined as wastewater that is produced from household processes. Grey water can contain harmful bacteria and even faecal matter that contaminates soil and groundwater.
  65. Every Year, 22nd March was celebrated as World Water Day around the world since Theme of 2021: “Valuing Water”.
  66. The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which is ratified by India creates an obligation on the State parties to enact a law to compensate the victims of such miscarriage of justice.
  67. Joule heating (also referred to as resistive or ohmic heating) describes the process where the energy of an electric current is converted into heat as it flows through a resistance.
  68. World Water Development Reportis released each year on or near World Water Day, to provide decision-makers with tools to formulate and implement sustainable water policies. This report is coordinated by UNESCO’s World Water Development Programme (WWAP) on behalf of UN-Water.
  69. Inert waste is waste which is neither biologically nor chemically reactive and is waste which will not decompose or decompose very slowly. Inert waste includes, but is not limited to: construction and demolition material such as metal, wood, bricks, masonry and cement concrete; asphalt concrete; metal; tree branches; bottom ash from coal fired boilers; and waste coal fines from air pollution control equipment. These wastes usually don’t pose a threat to the environment, or the health of animals or other people and will not endanger the quality of watercourses. However, when there is a large amount of this type of waste, it can become an issue as it begins to take up a lot of space.
  70. Kalladikodan style gives equal importance to the three aspects of nritta (the dance movements in their basic form), nritya (expressional component i.e. mudras or gestures) and natya (the dramatic element of the dance i.e. the imitation of characters).
  71. Frontier technologies include artificial intelligence, the internet of things, big data, blockchain, fifth-generation mobile telephony, three-dimensional printing, robotics, drones (remotely controlled flights), gene-editing, nanotechnology and solar power — the ones that take advantage of digitalisation and connectivity.
  72. Supplementary, additional, excess and exceptional grants and vote of credit are regulated by the same procedure which is applicable in the case of a regular budget.
  73. The Ranthambore forest reserve consists of highly fragmented forest patches, ravines, river streams, and agricultural land. The Ranthambore Tiger Reserve is connected to the Kuno-Palpur landscape in Madhya Pradesh through parts of the Kailadevi Wildlife Sanctuary, the ravine habitats of Chambal and the forest patches of Sheopur. Tributaries of river Chambal provide easy passage for tigers to move towards the Kuno National Park.
  74. United Nations Refugee Convention 1951 is a United Nations multilateral treaty thatdefines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum. It also set out which people do not qualify as refugees, such as war criminals. It grants certain rights to people fleeing persecution because of race, religion, nationality, affiliation to a particular social group, or political opinion. The Convention also provides for some visa-free travel for holders of travel documents issued under the convention. India is not a member of this convention.
  75. Gluten offers a variety of functional culinary benefits and is responsible for the soft, chewy texture that is characteristic of many gluten-containing, grain-based foods. Gluten offers a variety of functional culinary benefits and is responsible for the soft, chewy texture that is characteristic of many gluten-containing, grain-based foods. Celiac disease, also spelled as coeliac disease, is the most severe form of gluten intolerance.
  76. The Hadauti plateau in Rajasthan occurs in the upper catchment of the Chambal River to the southeast of the Mewar Plains.
  77. ISRO has launched capacity building programme on nano satellite development, named as UNNATI (UNispace Nanosatellite Assembly & Training by ISRO) as an initiative of UNISPACE+50 (the 50th Anniversary of the first United Nations conference on the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space).
  78. Established in the year 2000, the ‘Stop TB Partnership’ is mandated to eliminate Tuberculosis as a public health problem. The organization was conceived following the meeting of the First Session of the Ad Hoc Committee on the Tuberculosis Epidemic held in London in March 1998. In its inaugural year itself, the Stop TB Partnership through the Amsterdam Declaration gave a call for collaborative action from ministerial delegations from 20 countries that bear the highest burden of TB. It has 1500 partner organizations which include international, non-governmental and governmental organizations and patient groups. The Secretariat is based at Geneva, Switzerland.
  79. Primary Deficit refers to the difference between the current year’s fiscal deficit and interest payment on previous borrowings. It indicates the borrowing requirements of the government, excluding interest.
  80. Rule curve in a dam decides the fluctuating storage levels in a reservoir. The gate opening schedule of a dam is based on the rule curve. It is part of the “core safety” mechanism in a dam.
  81. The India-Brazil-South Africa (IBSA) Trilateral Cooperation Forum is a unique platform which brings together India, Brazil and South Africa, three large democracies and major economies from three different continents. All three partners are developing pluralistic, multi-cultural, multi-ethnic, multi-lingual and multi-religious nations. IBSA is committed to inclusive sustainable development, in pursuit of the well-being for their citizens and those from the other developing nations. The principles, norms and values underpinning the IBSA Dialogue Forum are participatory democracy, respect for human rights, the Rule of Law and the strengthening of multilateralism. IBSA lays efforts in the South-South cooperation beyond the conventional areas of exchange of experts and training. 
  82. The ‘Act East Policy’ announced in November, 2014 is the upgrade of the “Look East Policy” which was promulgated in 1992.  It aims at promoting economic cooperation, cultural ties and develop a strategic relationship with countries in Indo-pacific region with a proactive and pragmatic approach and thereby improving the economic development of North Eastern Region (NER) which is a gateway to South East Asia Region.    The policy has been continuously evolving since early 1990s and involves intensive and continuous engagement with South East Asian countries in the field of connectivity, trade, culture, defence and people-to-people-contact at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels.
  83. Recently, the second edition of India-Uzbekistan joint military exercise “Dustlik-II” started in Chaubatia, Uttarakhand. The broad aim of the exercise is Counter Insurgency (CI) and Counter Terrorism (CT) operations in mountainous, rural and urban scenarios under United Nations (UN) mandate and the Army will share the experiences and lessons it has gained in Kashmir. Uzbekistan is important to India for security and connectivity to Central Asian region and also Iran. The Army’s 13 Kumaon regiment, also called the Rezang La battalion for its heroic action in the 1962 war with China, has been nominated from the Indian side for the company level CI, CT exercise being held at Chaubatia, near Ranikhet in Uttarakhand.
  84. Xinjiang is technically an autonomous region within China, its largest region, rich in minerals, and sharing borders with eight countries, including India, Pakistan, Russia and Afghanistan.
  85. The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) is an 810 km stretch between the river Yamuna in the west and the river Bhagmati in the east. The landscape comprises the Shivalik hills, the adjoining bhabhar areas and the Terai flood plains. It is spread across the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, and the low-lying hills of Nepal. It boasts of some of India’s most well-known Tiger Reserves and Protected Areas such as Corbett Tiger Reserve (Uttarakhand), Rajaji National Park (Uttarakhand), Dudhwa Tiger Reserve (Uttar Pradesh), Valmiki Tiger Reserve (Bihar).
  86. A certificate of deposit (CDs) is a product offered by banks and credit unions that provides an interest rate premium in exchange for the customer agreeing to leave a lump-sum deposit untouched for a predetermined period of time.
  87. Vaccine Maitri Initiative is an initiative launched by India to give Covid-19 vaccines to neighbouring countries.
  88. The Office of the Principal Scientific Adviser to the Government of India under its “Waste to Wealth” Mission launched the “Swachhta Saarthi Fellowship” to recognize students, community workers/self-help groups, and municipal/sanitary workers who are engaged in tackling the enormous challenge of waste management, scientifically and sustainably. The Waste to Wealth Mission is one of the nine national missions of the Prime Minister’s Science, Technology, and Innovation Advisory Council (PM-STIAC).
  89. Bureau of Pharma PSUs of India (BPPI) is the implementing agency of Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP).
  90. In June 2005 the WCO Council adopted the SAFE Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade (SAFE Framework) that would act as a deterrent to international terrorism, secure revenue collections and promote trade facilitation worldwide. In 2007, the WCO’s flagship Customs-Business partnership programme – the Authorized Economic Operators (AEO) Programme – was introduced. The SAFE Framework has emerged as the global Customs community’s concerted response to threats to the supply chain security, equally supporting facilitation of legitimate and secure businesses.
  91. The Director of Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is appointed as per section 4A of the Delhi Special Police Establishment Act of 1946 through the high-power selection committee of the Prime Minister, the Chief Justice of India and the Leader of the Opposition. It is also the nodal police agency in India which coordinates investigation on behalf of Interpol Member countries.
  92. Registration of political parties is governed by the provisions of section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951. A party seeking registration under the said section with the Commission has to submit an application to the Commission within a period of 30 days following the date of its formation as per guidelines prescribed by the Commission in exercise of the powers conferred by Article 324 of the Constitution of India and Section 29A of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
  93. Accessible and Affordable Justice has been enshrined in Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP) under Article 39 (A).
  94. The provision of All India Judicial Services (AIJS) was included in Article 312 of the Constitution through the 42nd Amendment in 1976.
  95. Article 247 of the Constitution speaks of the power of the Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional courts in respect of matters under the Union List.
  96. Traditional toy clusters of India– Varanasi, Channapatna, Kondapalli, Jaipur, Narsapura, Kinnal, Asharikandi and Etikopakka, provided users with insights on the art and craft of traditional toy making. 
  97. Better Than Cash Alliance: Alliance has 75 members. United Nations Capital Development Fund serves as the secretariat. Committed to digitizing payments in order to boost efficiency, transparency, women’s economic participation and financial inclusion, helping build economies that are digital and inclusive. Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Citi, MasterCard, Omidyar Network, USAID, and Visa Inc. India became a member of the Better Than Cash Alliance in 2015 to digitize payments to achieve financial inclusion and to share success stories from Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana, the world’s largest financial inclusion program.
  98. Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) will be implemented by the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) through National Centre for Coastal Research (NCCR) for India. MSP is globally identified as a tool for sustainable andintegrated ocean management. It is a noted area for work in India’s (draft) Blue Economic Policy being developed by MoES.
  99. Situated in the Tiruvannamalai district of Tamil Nadu, Jawadhu hills is an extension of the Eastern Ghats. The Malayali tribal people constitute 92.60% of the total population in this block and their mainstay is through the non-timber forest produce and a variety of trees grown on this patta land such as tamarind, jackfruit, coconut, lemon and plantain and gooseberry.
  100. Many Indian mangoes have GI tags. Alphonso of Ratnagiri, Kesar of Gir (Gujarat) and Marathwada, Bangnapalli in Andhra Pradesh, Zardalu of Bhagalpur, Appamidi of Karnataka, Himsagar of Malda (West Bengal), Laxman Bhog and Fazli. Gaurjit, Banarsi Langrha, Chausa and Rataul mango varieties.
  101. In order to facilitate the ‘One Nation One Ration Card’ system in the country, the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution has launched the ‘Mera Ration’ mobile app to benefit citizens in identifying the nearest Fair Price Shop (FPS). This app will benefit especially those ration card holders who move to new areas for livelihoods. The app is developed by the National Informatics Center (NIC). The application is currently available in English and Hindi.
  102. Ecuador’s Sangay volcano recently erupted. The sky of Riobamba, the capital of the province of Chimborazo, was overcast by an ash cloud. Ecuador, part of the Pacific Rim’s “Ring of Fire” region, has eight volcanoes in its territory. Sangay volcano is one of the highest active volcanoes in the world and one of Ecuador’s most active ones. Sangay is the southernmost stratovolcano (a volcano built up of alternate layers of lava and ash) in the northern volcanic zone of the Andes.
  103. A rumbling volcano on Indonesia’s Sumatra island unleashed an avalanche of searing gas clouds flowing down its slopes during eruption. Mount Sinabung is located in Karo regency, North Sumatra. Sinabung is among more than 120 active volcanoes in Indonesia, which is prone to seismic upheaval due to its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire. Earlier, other volcanoes of Indonesia- Merapi volcano and Semeru volcano- had erupted.
  104. India has participated in the first phase of development of Shahid Beheshti port of Chabahar.
  105. Hardit Singh Malik first arrived in the UK in 1908 as a 14-year-old to Balliol College at the University of Oxford and went on to become a member of the Royal Flying Corps during World War I. As the first Indian and turbaned pilot with a specialised helmet, he became famous as the “Flying Sikh”. Malik also played cricket for Sussex and was also the Indian Ambassador to France after a long and distinguished career in the Indian Civil Service. But it is as a fighter pilot during 1917-19 that he is best known.
  106. The Government had constituted a sub-committee of Insolvency Law Committee (ILC) in June, 2020 under the chairmanship of Dr. M. S. Sahoo, Chairperson, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) to make recommendation on Pre-Pack Insolvency Resolution Process (PPIRP).
  107. National Institute of Oceanography is a multi-disciplinary oceanographic research institute and is one of the constituent laboratories of the Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi.
  108. The Targalas or Nayaks have been itinerant drama troupes in Gujarat who moved from village to village to perform ‘Bhavai’, a folk dance theatre form.
  109. In western India in the Kutch region, there are a group of pastoral nomads known as the Maldhari. The word Maldhari means in the local Kutchi language means an “owner of animal stock”.
  110. Prime Minister of India will receive the CERAWeek Global Energy and Environment Leadership Award. CERAWeek was founded in 1983 by Dr. Daniel Yergin. It has been organized in Houston in March every year since 1983 and is considered the world’s premier annual energy platform. CERAWeek Global Energy and Environment Leadership Award was instituted in 2016. It recognizes the commitment of leadership on the future of global energy & environment and for offering solutions and policies for energy access, affordability & environmental stewardship.
  111. In a major boost to India’s rice exports potential, the first consignment of ‘red rice’ was flagged off today to the USA. Iron rich ‘red rice’ is grown in Brahmaputra valley of Assam, without the use of any chemical fertilizer. The rice variety is referred as ‘Bao-dhaan’, which is an integral part of the Assamese food.
  112. Various dance forms: Purulia Chau (West Bengal), KinnauriNati (Himachal Pradesh), Rathwa Dance (Gujarat), Kashmiri Rouff Dance (Kashmir), BrijRas/ Barsanakiholi (Uttar Pradesh).
  113. Fold Dances in News: ‘Baul Gaan’, ‘Alkup Gaan’, ‘Leto gaan’, ‘Jhumuriya’ and Ranpa folk dances.
  114. GI Tags: Kangra Paintings from Himachal Pradesh, Phulkari embroidery from Punjab and Bilal Mohammad’s Bagh printing work from Madhya Pradesh.
  115. 12 Indian institutions have made it to the top 100 of the world – IIT Bombay, IIT Delhi, IIT Madras, IIT Kharagpur, IISC Bangalore, IIT Guwahati, IIM Bangalore, IIM Ahmedabad, JNU, Anna University, University of Delhi, and O.P Jindal University in the QS Subject Rankings for the year 2021.
  116. The Ease of Living Index (EoLI) is an assessment tool that evaluates the quality of life and the impact of various initiatives for urban development. It provides a comprehensive understanding of participating cities across India based on quality of life, economic-ability of a city, and its sustainability and resilience. The assessment also incorporates the residents’ view on the services provided by city administration through a Citizen Perception Survey.
  117. The Municipal Performance Index (MPI) was launched as an accompaniment to the Ease of Living Index. It seeks to examine local government practice in municipalities across areas of services, finance, policy, technology and governance. It seeks to simplify and evaluate the complexities in local governance practice and promote the ethos of transparency and accountability.
  118. Recently, CSIR Floriculture Mission has been approved for implementation in 21 States and Union Territories. This Mission is being implemented in collaboration with Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR)-Directorate of Floriculture; Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC); Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), Ministry of Commerce; Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India Ltd. (TRIFED); Fragrance and Flavour Development Centre (FFDC), Kannauj, Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) and Universities.
  119. India-Sweden joint initiative – the Leadership Group on Indus-try Transition (LeadIT) was launched during the UN Climate Action Summit in September 2019 in New York.
  120. Mud Hive Technology is a combination of wall hive & wooden hive technology, with a habitat like wall hive. It has inbuilt provision for putting frames inside the mud hive and more favorable conditions, especially temperature for bees throughout the year as compared to wooden hives.
  121. The bridge ‘Maitri Setu’ has been built over Feni river which flows between Indian boundary in Tripura State and Bangladesh. The name ‘Maitri Setu’ symbolizes growing bilateral relations and friendly ties between India and Bangladesh. With this inauguration, Tripura is set to become the ‘Gateway of North East’ with access to Chittagong Port of Bangladesh, which is just 80 Kms from Sabroom.
  122. At present, India has 42 sites listed under Tentative List which is a pre-requisite condition for inscription as World Heritage Site. ‘Dholavira: A Harappan City’ has been submitted for nomination of World Heritage Site in 2019-2020. Nomination dossiers of ‘Santiniketan, India’ and ‘Sacred Ensemble of Hoysalas’ have been submitted to UNESCO for the year 2021-22 cycle. At present, India has 38 World Heritage Properties. All the sites under the Ministry are conserved as per ASI’s Conservation Policy and are in good shape.
  123. The objective of Stand Up India Scheme is to facilitate bank loans between Rs.10 lakh and Rs.1 crore to at least one Scheduled Caste (SC) or Scheduled Tribe (ST) borrower and at least one woman borrower per bank branch of SCBs for setting up a Greenfield enterprise.
  124. India’s northeast states are connected with the rest of India only through the Siliguri corridor, or the “chicken’s neck”.
  125. New citizen Services have been launched by National Crime Records Bureau on its portal digitalpolicecitizenservice.gov.in relevant for cases of Crimes against Women. These services include functionalities like ‘Missing Person Search’ that helps citizens find their missing kin from the national database of recovered unidentified found person/unidentified dead bodies. Another service is the ‘Proclaimed offenders’ functionality that helps to provide online information on proclaimed offenders to citizens.
  126. Government of India is implementing Command Area Development and Water Management (CADWM) Programme which was brought under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana (PMKSY) – Har Khet Ko Pani 2015-16 onwards. The main objectives of CADWM program are: (a) utilize irrigation potential created (IPC) under the project soon after its creation; (b) improve water use efficiency; (c) increase agricultural productivity and production; and (d) bring sustainability in the irrigated agriculture in a participatory environment.
  127. The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) is implementing Pradhan Mantri YUVA (PM YUVA) Yojana,a pilot scheme, for creating an enabling ecosystem through entrepreneurship education, training, advocacy and easy access to entrepreneurship network.The scheme covers 10 States and 2 Union Territories (viz. i.e. Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam, Meghalaya, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Kerala, Delhi and Puducherry).
  128. The Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) is implementing Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), Scheme of Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS) for Skill Development and National Apprenticeship Promotion Scheme (NAPS) across the country under Skill India Mission.
  129. Equally unique is the exquisite form of embroidery practised by the Toda tribes of the Nilgiri hills in Tamil Nadu.  A pastoral community, mainly dependent on their buffalos and milk, the Todas have been living in the hills for over 3500 years.  A small community with only 1500 members, the Todas have managed to preserve their culture and ethnicity in terms of religion and customs. The clothing of the Todas, for centuries, has been a single unstitched garment which gave way to a set of two unstitched garments during the last century. A waist cloth or ‘Torp’ plus a cloak or shawl called Poothukuli forms most of their attire. Men and women, both wore the same garments, only draped differently. But with both styles, the drape shows off the rich embroidery. The Poothukuli holds a high cultural and ceremonial significance and therefore was embroidered. This is a handicraft form practised exclusively by women of the tribes – the Toda embroidery is now a GI tagged product and also adorns dining tableware, bed covers, bags and other merchandise, besides of course the shawl.
  130. Korku, Nihali, Kolami, Vadi, Halpati, Dungra Bhili, Dhavadi, Dhatti, Thali, Nahal and Seheriya languages are some of the endangered tribal languages.
  131. Saksham Anganwadi and POSHAN 2.0– Umbrella ICDS – Anganwadi Services, Poshan Abhiyan, Scheme for Adolescent Girls, National Creche Scheme
  132. Mission VATSALYA– Child Protection Services and Child Welfare Services
  133. Mission Shakti (Mission for Protection and Empowerment for Women)- SAMBAL (One Stop Centre, Mahila Police Volunteer, Women’s Helpline/Swadhar/Ujjawala/Widow Homes etc.) & SAMARTHYA (Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, Creche, Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana/ Gender Budgeting/Research.
  134. ‘Police’ and ‘Public Order’ are State subjects as per the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution of India. States/UTs are primarily responsible for the prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution of crimes through their Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs).
  135. The Indian Council of Agricultural (ICAR) received the prestigious “King Bhumibol World Soil Day – 2020 Award” of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) on the eve of World Soil Day.
  136. The Indo-French joint satellite mission called MEGHA-TROPIQUES was launched in 2011 for the study of the tropical atmosphere and climate related to aspects such as monsoons, cyclones, etc.
  137. National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme is the central nodal agency for prevention and control of six vector borne diseases i.e. Malaria, Dengue, Lymphatic Filariasis, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis and Chikungunya in India.
  138. The Motor Vehicles Agreement (MVA) between Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal (known as the BBIN countries), signed in 2015, seeks to facilitate the unrestricted cross-border movement of cargo, passenger, and personal vehicles between BBIN countries. Under the agreement, trucks carrying export-import or transit cargo can move inside the territories of other countries without transshipping to local trucks at border land ports.
  139. Equine Herpes Virus is a common DNA virus that occurs in horse populations worldwide. It is very contagious and there have been casualties, many of them at competition venues. This strain causes neurological problems, leading to paralysis and in some cases, death. Horses that contract this virus can develop a lack of coordination, weakness, loss of appetite and are unable to stand. The other reason for concern is the high transmission levels. Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy (EHM) is another name for the neurologic disease associated with Equine Herpes Virus (EHV) infections. Treatments may include anti-inflammatory drugs.
  140. India–Bangladesh border at Petrapole–Benapole, the most important border post between the two countries.
  141. Incheon Declaration: Declaration on education adopted at the World Education Forum in Incheon, South Korea on 15 May 2015. It is the logical continuation of the Education For All (EFA) movement and the Millennium Development Goals on Education. The Education 2030 Framework for Action, adopted at Incheon in May 2015, recognises reaffirmed the commitments outlined in the Education for All initiative, became part of the Sustainable Development Goals as SDG4 and was adopted by the United Nations.
  142. The National Social Assistance Programme (NSAP) is a welfare programme being administered by the Ministry of Rural Development. This programme is being implemented in rural as well as urban areas. The programme was first launched on 15th August 1995 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme. It was brought within the umbrella of ‘Core of Core’ schemes of the Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS) in 2016. The National Maternity Benefit Scheme (NMBS) was part of NSAP and was subsequently transferred from the Ministry of Rural development to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  143. The International Air Transport Association — the global trade body representing airlines — is developing an app called IATA Travel Pass that will provide airlines and other aviation industry stakeholders with a common platform to check for the proof of vaccination and its validity.
  144. The Uighurs are a predominantly Muslim minority Turkic ethnic group, whose origins can be traced to Central and East Asia. The Uighurs are considered to be one of the 55 officially recognized ethnic minority communities in China. Currently, the largest population of the Uighur ethnic community lives in Xinjiang region of China.
  145. Asola-Bhati Wildlife Sanctuary is located on the Southern Delhi Ridge of Aravalli hill range on Delhi-Haryana border lies in Southern Delhi as well as northern parts of Faridabad and Gurugram districts of Haryana state. Biodiversity significance of Ridge lies in its merger with Indo-Gangetic plains, as it is the part of the Northern Aravalli leopard wildlife corridor, an important wildlife corridor which starts from the Sariska National Park in Rajasthan, passes through Nuh, Faridabad and Gurugram districts of Haryana and ends at Delhi Ridge. It is contiguous to the seasonal waterfalls in Pali-Dhuaj-Kot villages of Faridabad and the sacred Mangar Bani.
  146. The launch of Brazil’s Amazonia-1 satellite by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) comes weeks after India allowed the export of COVID-19 vaccine to Brazil, as part of its “vaccine maitri” diplomacy.
  147. The West Container Terminal (WCT) is strategically located next to a $500-million Chinese-run container jetty within Colombo’s sprawling port.
  148. Central Revenues Control Laboratory (CRCL), New Delhi, under the Central Board of Indirect Taxes & Customs, was recognized as a Regional Customs Laboratory (RCL) of the World Customs Organisation (WCO) for Asia-Pacific Region. With its recognition as RCL, CRCL joins a select group of Customs Laboratories in the region like those in Japan & Korea.
  149. In 2016, the Centre launched Aroma Mission to boost cultivation of plants like lavender which have aromatic medicinal properties.
  150. NDC synthesis report is flagship report of UNFCCC.
  151. Recently, a solitary black-browed babbler (Malacocincla perspicillata) was spotted and captured alive by two local residents in southeastern Kalimantan, the part of Borneo that is administered by Indonesia. The conservation status of the species is listed in the “Data Deficient” category in the IUCN red list. IUCN says “the global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as possibly extinct and known only from a single specimen.
  152. The Suryakiran Aerobatic Team (SKAT) team, also known as 52 Squadron or The Sharks, is based in Bidar. The team was born in 1996 with Kiran Mk-II aircraft and had enthralled spectators across the country till 2011. It was revived in 2015 with Hawk trainers initially with four aircraft and grew to the nine aircraft formation. Since its inception, the SKAT team has carried out over 600 displays all around the country, It has also represented India across southeast Asia including China.
  153. Rashtriya Sanskriti Mahotsav is the flagship festival of the Ministry of Culture. It has been organized since 2015 with the active participation of Seven Zonal Culture Centres. It was started with an intention to exhibit the rich cultural heritage of the country in all its rich and varied dimensions namely, Handicrafts, Cuisine, Painting, Sculpture and Performing Arts- Folk, Tribal, Classical and Contemporary- all at one place.
  154. WHO declared El Salvador as free from malaria by issuing a certificate, making it the first Central American and third in all the Americas to be declared so in recent years. The country becomes the first in Central America to be declared malaria free.
  155. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has developed a Comprehensive Environmental Pollution Index (CEPI). CPCB has done a nationwide environmental assessment of Industrial Clusters based on CEPI and 43 such industrial clusters having CEPI greater than 70, on a scale of 0 to 100, has been identified as critically polluted.
  156. A report titled Forest Governance by Indigenous and Tribal Peoples has been jointly published by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the Fund for the Development of Indigenous Peoples of Latin America and the Caribbean (FILAC).
  157. Monoculture refers to the cultivation of a single variety of plant species in a large-scale, often replacing the natural growth of the area. The practice is known to cause loss of biodiversity and other ecological disturbances.
  158. The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 prohibits the felling of forests for any “non-forestry” use without prior clearance by the central government.
  159. The Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI), Durgapur is a constituent laboratory of India’s Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). 
  160. The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has issued draft eco-sensitive zone notifications for areas around Silent Valley National Park, Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary, Parambikulam Tiger Reserve and Choolannur Pea Fowl Sanctuary in Malappuram and Palakkad districts of Kerala.
  161. Under Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, also known as FRA, Gram Sabhas can collectively claim ownership and management rights over traditionally used forest land and water bodies. Forest dwellers, under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) [FRA] Act, 2006, cannot be displaced unless their rights have been settled under the law. 
  162. FSSAI has not mandated conducting Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) tests to detect adulteration in honey. NMR allows rapid, database-driven detection and quantification of various chemical compounds, especially for authenticating the origin of a sample of honey and no such database exists at present for Indian honey.
  163. Kerala’s second-largest river Bharathapuzha has turned into a trickle in most parts of Palakkad, the state’s traditional rice bowl to which the river is a lifeline. 
  164. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are more soluble when sea surface temperatures are low, according to the researchers. CFCs are stringently controlled after 196 countries in the United Nations came together under the 1987 Montreal Protocol to protect the ozone layer. But the CFC levels coming out of the ocean will be high by the first half of the 22nd century.
  165. Asia and the Pacific SDG Progress Report, 2021 is recently published by UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP).
  166. The Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR)-Food by the European Commission categorised emissions data by sector, greenhouse gas and country. It incorporated key land-use data for over 245 countries that has been compiled by the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
  167. Hilly areas of Similipal are the original home of many ethnic groups such as Birhors, Hill Khadias and Mankidias. Among the other tribal communities found in Similipal are Santal, Kolha, Bathudi, Mahali, Bhuyan, etc.
  168. The Gambier Islands are an archipelago in French Polynesia, located at the southeast terminus of the Tuamotu archipelago.
  169. River Tawi originates in Kailash Kund glacier located in Jammu’s Bhaderwah. It flows through Doda and Udhampur districts before draining into Chenab river.
  170. Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives (GAIA) is a worldwide alliance of more than 800 grassroots groups, non-governmental organizations, and individuals in over 90 countries. GAIA members strategize together about key goals and targets, share information online and in regional meetings, campaign toward common goals, lead trainings and skillshares, and provide a community of support for one another.
  171. Donkey meat is not categorised as an “animal food” under the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India’s Food Safety and Standards, 2011, making its slaughter and consumption illegal.

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