IAS Abhiyan Prelims inFocus-March 2022

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IAS Abhiyan Prelims inFocus-September 2021

IAS Abhiyan Prelims inFocus-March 2022

  1. Ritual dance Agni Kandakarnan Theyyam performing at the Kaliyattam festival in Kannur, Kerala.
  2. The theme of International Women’s Day 2022 is ‘Gender Equality Today for a Sustainable Tomorrow’.
  3. China is the AIIB’s largest shareholder with a 26.5% voting share. India is the second-largest, with 7.5%, followed by Russia, which has a 5.97% voting share. Belarus is also a member of the bank, which is headed by China’s Jin Liqun. Former Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor Urjit Patel is a Vice President of the bank.
  4. A scintillating Perini dance performance by artistes at Shiva Stuthi, a cultural event, held at Gudi Cheruvu area in Telegana state. Perini Sivathandavam is an ancient dance form, from Telangana, which has been revived in recent times. It originated and prospered in Telangana, during the Kakatiya dynasty. One can find evidence of this dance in the sculptures near Garbha Gudi (Sanctum Sanctorum) of the Ramappa Temple at Warangal. The Perini siva Thandavam is a dance form usually performed by males. It is called ‘Dance of Warriors’. Warriors before leaving to the battlefield enact this dance before the idol of Lord Śiva (Siva).
  5. Historically, an oligarchy is a form of governance where a group of few rich and powerful people rule, with the ruler being called an ‘oligarch’ However, over passage of time, the term has gotten a particular meaning in Russia, referring to a group of many influential businesspeople close to the ruling establishment in the country. The U.S. formulated the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) law to impose sanctions on individuals and entities, who are placed under a list.
  6. Belgorod is a Russian city situated near the Ukraine border and it is believed that the flamethrower was being deployed to be used in the ongoing invasion. 
  7. Palladium is often used as an alternative to gold in making various devices as the metal is highly malleable and resistant to corrosion. The rare metal is considered to be softer than gold, but is still much harder and durable than the yellow metal. This quality of palladium gives it more protection against an impact and a greater resistance to denting. So, automobile makers, electronics manufacturers and biomedical device producers prefer the silvery-white metal. Russia and South Africa are the two largest producers of palladium. While platinum and rhodium could be substituted for palladium, Russia is also a leading producer of the other platinum group metals. Palladium is used in nearly all electronic devices, and the metal is a key to make chipsets and circuit boards. It is used to make multi-layer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs), which are important to make smartphone screens, stereo systems, and power circuit breakers.
  8. In December 2021, the World Health Assembly adopted a decision titled “The World Together” at its second special session since it was founded in 1948.
  9. The West Bengal government’s ambitious Deocha Pachami coal block mining project at Mohammad Bazar in Birbhum district has run into hurdles over land acquisition and other issues.
  10. The International Pollutants Elimination Network(IPEN), a global network of non-profits dedicated to the common aim of eliminating pollutants. IPEN is composed of public interest non-governmental organizations who support a common platform for the global elimination of POPs via the Stockholm Convention, work to influence the implementation of the Rotterdam and Basel conventions, as well as the Minimata Convention on Mercury.
  11. Leopards are extremely versatile and occur in almost every kind of habitat, from the rainforests of the tropics to deserts and temperate regions. The Indian subspecies, Panthera pardus fusca, is found in all habitats of India, absent only in the arid Thar desert and Sundarban mangroves. They serve as major predators in most of the forested landscapes in India and are sympatric with tigers, lions and dhole. Protection: IUCN- Vulnerable, CITES- Appendix I, Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972- Schedule I.
  12. Russia is the world’s largest wheat exporter. For rice, China (24 per cent), India (19 per cent), Bangladesh (7 per cent), Indonesia (6 per cent) and Vietnam (5 per cent) top the world in production. India is the world’s largest rice exporter. The US, China and Brazil account for 32 per cent, 22 per cent and 10 per cent, respectively, of the world’s total maize production, with the former being the largest exporter.
  13. Australia was promoting policies that are driving “massive investment” in plastic waste fuel, also known as refuse-driven fuel (RDF). RDF plastic can generate highly toxic dioxins and furans when burnt, the report mentioned. These contaminate local food chains and result in the burden of RDF imports being disproportionately placed on local communities, whose environment and health were being compromised.
  14. A changing climate and changes in land use poses major threats to sustainable herding of reindeer near the Arctic Circle in northern Sweden. The Saami, the indigenous inhabitants of the areas around the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia, have traditionally engaged in a semi-nomadic lifestyle of herding reindeer. Reindeer-herding is also recognised as an indigenous right. It is protected by the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of 11 Indigenous Peoples, several UN conventions and through Swedish national legislation.
  15. The Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP or DOTROIP) is a legally non-binding resolution passed by the United Nations in 2007. 
  16. Ministry of MSME also launched two special initiatives – ‘Sambhav’ and ‘Svavlamban’ to promote entrepreneurship amongst youth, especially in aspirational Districts all across the country.
  17. Ukrainians are battling on in the port of Kherson, the first sizeable city Russia claimed to have seized, while air strikes and bombardment caused further devastation in other cities, especially Kharkiv in the east.
  18. Kharkiv, also known as Kharkov, is the second-largest city and municipality in Ukraine. Located in the northeast of the country, it is the largest city of the historic Slobozhanshchyna region. Kharkiv is located at the banks of the Kharkiv, Lopan, and Udy rivers, where they flow into the Seversky Donets watershed in the north-eastern region of Ukraine.
  19. Nepal’s House of Representatives passed by voice vote the Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Nepal Compact, a $500 million grant from the US to build power and road infrastructure projects. MCC is an independent bilateral foreign aid agency established by the US Congress in 2004.
  20. Facility for Low Carbon Technology Deployment (FLCTD) project is financed by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and implemented by the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) in collaboration with the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE).
  21. The executive must cogently answer its actions – especially when fundamental rights such as free speech are curtailed. India’s Constitution does not give a free hand to the executive to pass arbitrary orders violating such rights. When an action is alleged to have curtailed fundamental rights, the court is bound to examine the legality of the action through the lens of proportionality. A court that sits as a mute spectator to any executive action is a crude manifestation of democratic decay.
  22. The Supreme Court of India has repeatedly held that judicial review of executive action is the basic feature of the Constitution. The decisions in Minerva Mills vs Union of India (1980) and L. Chandra Kumar vs Union of India (1997) reiterated this fundamental principle. If the executive wishes to limit rights — in this case, censor or restrict speech — it must show that the test of reasonable restrictions is satisfied. This principle is the bedrock of judicial review.
  23. Every year, the Wildlife Department of Forests and Wildlife Preservation, Punjab, conducts waterbirds census exercise in six major and most biodiverse wetlands, which include the Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary, the Ropar Conservation Reserve, the Harike Wildlife Sanctuary, the Kanjli Wetland, the Keshopur-Miani Community Reserve and the Ranjit Sagar Conservation Reserve.
  24. The Asian Waterbird Census (AWC) is an integral part of the global waterbird monitoring programme, the International Waterbird Census (IWC), coordinated by Wetlands International South Asia and Bombay Natural History Society in India.
  25. You can site Black-necked cranes in Arunachal Pradesh’s Sangti and Zemithang valleys. Black-necked cranes are the only cranes to live in mountains. Since they inhabit remote areas of the Tibetan plateau, it was only in 1876 when the Russian military commander and explorer, Nikolay Przhevalsky, described them did they come under the scientific gaze. In late March, some fly for a week over the Himalaya to breed in the marshes adjoining rivers and lakes of Ladakh, the only crane species to migrate between winter and summer grounds. According to the Changpa pastoralists of the area, seeing these birds brings good luck.  The people of Chushul had believe that the species gives birth to bar-headed geese one year and to cranes in the next. There might be something to that tale.
  26. Silicosis is a chronic respiratory ailment caused by inhaling silica dust over a long period of time. Silica is the most abundant mineral compound of sand and many types of rock; silicosis develops when fragments of silica, smaller than 0.5 microns, are inhaled or ingested during silica mining or while working in factories that use silica. The particles get embedded in the alveoli and accumulate in the lungs and respiratory passages causing a thickening of the lungs; symptoms include tightness of chest and shortness of breath.
  27. Along the Indian coast, varied bleaching and recovery pattern among corals was observed during the 2016 bleaching episode. Bleaching was high in Acropora(86.36 per cent), followed by Porites (65.45 per cent), while moderate to no bleaching was observed in Favites Symphyllia , Favia , Platygyra and Goniastrea.
  28. Recently, the Government of Kerala has proposed a draft to amend the ‘Kerala Head Load Workers Act, 1978’, in which there is a provision of imprisonment up to 2 years for the workers demanding Nokku-kooli. Nokkukooli is a word of Malayalam language, which means- ‘wage for gawking.’ This is a practice prevalent in Kerala, under which some head load workers demand wages without doing any work.
  29. The Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) is a global policy framework to foster the sound management of chemicals. The SAICM Secretariat is hosted by the United Nations Environment Programme. It was adopted by the International Conference on Chemicals Management in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The Strategic Approach supports the achievement of the goal agreed at the 2002 Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development of ensuring that, by the year 2020, chemicals will be produced and used in ways that minimize significant adverse impacts on the environment and human health.
  30. Government implements the Market Intervention Scheme (MIS) for procurement of agricultural and horticultural commodities which are perishable in nature and are not covered under the Price Support Scheme (PSS). The objective of intervention is to protect the growers of these commodities from making distress sale in the event of a bumper crop during the peak arrival period when the prices tend to fall below economic levels and cost of production.
  31. On June 9, 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) included snakebite into the list of ‘Neglected Tropical Diseases’. The existing Indian antivenoms are produced exclusively against the so-called ‘big four’ Indian snakes: the spectacled cobra (Naja naja), common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii) and saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus).
  32. It is for Parliament to set up three organs of the State, i.e. legislature, executive and judiciary, which are essential to the State administration.
  33. Indian Railways’ 1st Gati Shakti Cargo Terminal commissioned in Asansol Division of Eastern Railway.
  34. As part of the Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Textiles are organizing “Jharokha-Compendium of Indian handicraft/ handloom, art and culture”. It will be a PAN India celebration which will be held at 16 locations in 13 states and UTs. Jharokha is acelebration of the traditional Indian handicrafts, handlooms, and art & culture. The first event under this celebration is being organized in Bhopal, Madhya Pradeshstarting from 8th March 2022 on the occasion of International Women’s Day. It will be organized at Rani Kamlapati Railway Station which is named after the brave and fearless Queen Kamlapati of the Gond kingdom of Madhya Pradesh.
  35. ‘Theyyam’, is a method of worship performed in the form of dance. It is also performed during the ‘Kaliyattam festival’. It is a popular tradition of thousands of years old based on dance prayer performed in temples of South India, especially Kerala and Karnataka. Theyyam is usually performed by men during the Kaliyattam festival. It has different types depending on different places. This festival is dedicated to Goddess Bhadrakali. Theyyam incorporates aspects of tribal and primitive religion through the worship of deities, warriors, tribal gods and Muslim characters based on ancient fables. During the performance artists do a lot of adornment and wear royal clothes and jewellery.
  36. The International Criminal Court (ICC) and the International Court of Justice (ICJ) have roles upholding the rules of war. The ICJ rules on disputes between states, but cannot prosecute individuals. The ICC investigates and prosecutes individual war criminals who are not before the courts of individual states. War crimes are defined as serious violations of humanitarian laws during a conflict. The definition, established by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) is derived from the 1949 Geneva Conventions and is based on the idea that individuals can be held liable for the actions of a state or its military. The UN Office on Genocide Prevention and the Responsibility to Protect separates war crimes from genocide and crimes against humanity. War crimes are defined as occurring in a domestic conflict or a war between two states, while genocide and crimes against humanity can happen in peacetime or during the unilateral aggression of a military towards a group of unarmed people.
  37. In India, the National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority under the Department of Pharmaceuticals regulates the prices of all drugs, whether branded or generic. While it fixes the ceiling price of scheduled medicines specified in the first schedule of the Drugs (Prices Control) Order, 2013, in case of non-scheduled medicines, the manufactures are free to fix the maximum retail price (MRP) of the drug.
  38. Pharmaceuticals & Medical Devices Bureau of India (PMBI), the implementing agency of Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP). “Janaushadhi Sugam” a mobile application for Pradhan Mantri Bhartiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana (PMBJP) facilitates the public by providing a digital platform at the tip of their fingers. Under the Scheme, medicines are procured from World Health Organization – Good Manufacturing Practices (WHO-GMP) certified suppliers for ensuring the quality of the products. Apart from this, each batch of drug is tested at laboratories accredited by ‘National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories’ (NABL). Only after passing the quality tests, the medicines are dispatched to PMBJP Kendras.
  39. National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & Healthcare Providers), abbreviated as NABH, is a constituent board of Quality Council of India (QCI), set up to establish and operate accreditation programme for healthcare organizations. Formed in 2005, it is the principal accreditation for hospitals in India.
  40. All nuclear power stations in operation in India and other countries had facilities to store new as well as spent (used) fuel. The scheme for the storage of spent fuel in a nuclear power plant was two-fold —one facility is located within the reactor building/service building, generally known as the spent fuel storage pool/bay, and the other is located away from the reactor, called the Away From Reactor (AFR) Spent Fuel Storage Facility, but within the plant’s premises. The AFR Spent Fuel Storage Facility is not needed from day one and can be constructed as and when a need arises. There are two AFRs in operation at Tarapur near Mumbai in Maharashtra and one at Rawatbhata near Kota in Rajasthan. An AFR is being constructed at Rawatbhata. The spent fuel storage pool inside the reactor building has a limited capacity and is used for immediate storage of the spent fuel removed from the reactor during refuelling. The fuel remains in the pool initially for a few years for it to be cooled sufficiently before it is shifted to the facility. The AFR Spent Fuel Storage Facility is functionally similar to the ‘Spent Fuel Pool’ inside the reactor building, except in terms of capacity.
  41. A team searching for the wreckage of polar explorer Ernest Shackleton’s ship “Endurance” has successfully located it in the Weddell Sea. The aim of the “Endurance” expedition was to achieve the first crossing of the Antarctic from the Weddell Sea to the Ross Sea via the South Pole.
  42. Olive Ridley Turtle– ‘vulnerable’ in the IUCN Red list. Green sea turtle and hawksbill turtle are listed as ‘endangered’ and ‘critically endangered’ respectively in the IUCN Red List.
  43. Deemed as one of Arunachal Pradesh’s most beautiful high-altitude valleys, Ziro is known for an array of rare moth and butterfly species such as the Kaiser-i-Hind, Apatani glory, Bhutan glory, Brown gorgon and Paris peacock. Other important faunal species in the valley include the clouded leopard, Himalayan bear, brown bear, flying squirrel and the white-bellied heron.
  44. TRAFFIC was established in 1976 by WWF and IUCN as a wildlife trade monitoring network to undertake data collection, analysis, and provision of recommendations to inform decision making on wildlife trade. 
  45. India is home to about 36 species of owls, all protected under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. However, very little information is available on the status of species level counts, thus making them vulnerable. Not just the hunting, trading, or any other form of utilization of owls is a punishable offense as per the provisions of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972; all owl species found in India are enlisted under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which restricts their international trade. Asian Barred Owlet, Barn Owl, Brown Fish Owl, Brown Hawk Owl, Brown Wood-owl, Collared Owlet, Collared Scops-owl, Dusky Eagle Owl, Eastern Grass-owl, Jungle Owlet, Mottled Wood-owl, Oriental Scops-owl, Rock Eagle-owl, Spot-bellied Eagle-owl, Spotted Owlet and Tawny Fish-owl. 
  46. A pair of ruddy shelducks was recently sighted at Sholinganallur, but this species still remains a reluctant visitor to the southern parts of the country. The bird was shown at close quarters in Kolleru, Andhra Pradesh and Gajoldoba, West Bengal.
  47. Lead is able to reach the bloodstream once it’s inhaled as dust, or ingested, or consumed in water and is able to pass through the blood-brain barrier, which otherwise, effectively keeps out a lot of toxicants and pathogens out of the brain, but not all of them. Lead is neurotoxic and can erode brain cells after it enters the body. 
  48. NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and ISRO’s Chandrayaan-2 orbiter are two active lunar missions that are capable of observing the crater and picturing it. The location of the impact – on the far side of the moon – has made it difficult for the crater to be pictured and studied immediately.
  49. Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) satellite was launched by SpaceX on Falcon 9 rocket. Chang’e 5-T1 – a lunar mission launched by the China National Space Administration in 2014. 
  50. The cattle by Recombinetics are the third genetically altered animals given the green light for human consumption in the U.S. after salmon and pigs. The cattle reviewed by the FDA had genes altered with a technology called CRISPR to have short, slick coats that let them more easily withstand hot weather. 
  51. Fusobacterium nucleatum is known to play a vital role in colorectal cancer, wherein its presence affects the spread of the disease and the patient’s response to chemotherapy. However, a similar role of Fusobacterium in oral cancer was not known earlier. The presence of the bacteria was found in Indian and Caucasian oral cancer patients, with a much higher incidence among the Indian patients. Moreover, oral cancer patients positive for Fusobacterium were found to be negative for HPV infection, suggesting they are present in a mutually exclusive way.
  52. Infection with virus or bacteria causing chronic inflammation leading to cancer has been known across multiple cancer types, such as HPV in cervical cancer, HBV and HCV in liver cancer, H. pylori in gastric cancer, etc.
  53. microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small single-stranded non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides) found in plants, animals and some viruses, that functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNAs function via base-pairing with complementary sequences within mRNA molecules. As a result, these mRNA molecules are silenced, by one or more of the following processes: (1) cleavage of the mRNA strand into two pieces, (2) destabilization of the mRNA through shortening of its poly(A) tail, and (3) less efficient translation of the mRNA into proteins by ribosomes.
  54. Balkanatolia: A speculative, ‘third’ Eurasian continent, wedged between Europe, Africa and Asia. The continent likely came into existence 50 million years ago and lost its independent identity, because of a major glaciation event 34 million years ago. Led to the formation of the Antarctic ice sheet and lowering sea levels, connecting Balkanatolia to Western Europe. During the Eocene Epoch (55 to 34 million years ago), Western Europe and Eastern Asia formed two distinct land masses with very different mammalian faunas. Western Europe was known to be colonised by Asian species around 34 million years ago, leading to a major renewal of vertebrate fauna and the extinction of its endemic mammals, a sudden event called the ‘Grande Coupure’.
  55. The most significant example of legally adopting crypto into a nation’s economy has been that of El Salvador, which made Bitcoin a legal tender in September 2021.
  56. The CPI-based inflation data is compiled by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (or MoSPI) and the WPI-based inflation data is put together by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (or DPIIT). The WPI is dominated by the prices of manufactured goods while the CPI is dominated by the prices of food articles. 
  57. Recognizing the need for higher levels of investments for the creation of proper infrastructure in the sector, the Department of Pharmaceuticals has notified the Scheme for “Promotion of Medical Device Parks” with the following objectives: Easy access to standard testing and infrastructure facilities through creation of world class common infrastructure facilities for increased competitiveness will result into significant reduction of the cost of production of medical devices leading to better availability and affordability of medical devices in the domestic market. Reaping the benefits arising due to optimization of resources and economies of scale.
  58. A region or locality is considered to be under the influence of heatwave if the maximum temperature reaches or exceeds 40 degrees Celsius in the plains, or 30 degrees Celsius in hilly regions. Over the coastal regions, the threshold for the maximum temperature is 37 degrees. When the maximum temperature departure ranges between 4.5 and 6 degrees, the India Meteorological Department (IMD) declares heatwave. For instance, if the normal temperature of a locality should be 40 degrees, and the actual recorded temperature is 45 degrees, the locality is under heatwave. Likewise, severe heatwave is declared when the recorded maximum temperature of a locality departure from normal is over 6.4 degrees.
  59. Methyl bromide is an odourless, colourless gas that has both natural and industrial sources. It naturally enters the atmosphere from oceans and forest fires. Human activities can release the gas too. Earlier, farmers relied on methyl bromide to keep a wide variety of pests, including fungi, weeds, insects, roundworms and rodents, in check.
  60. Methyl isocyanate is a colourless highly flammable liquid that evaporates quickly when exposed to the air. It is an organic compound with a sharp, strong odour and is used in the production of pesticides, polyurethane foam and plastics. As a highly toxic and irritating material, it is extremely hazardous to human health.
  61. Sustainable drinking water connection would have been a distant dream for the 105 households in Lahan Jhadadar village, Dang district, Gujarat, had it not been for the concerted efforts of the residents. The villagers, mostly members from the Bheel, Warli, Kunbi and Konkani communities, worked in unision with the government department to make this possible. 
  62. Kolkata is among eight megacities most vulnerable to disaster-related mortality, noted the recent United Nations (UN) report on climate change. The city also features among the 20 largest coastal cities with potentially the highest flood losses by 2050, warned the report by the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Six other megacities in Asia highly exposed to disaster-related deaths are Tokyo, Osaka, Karachi, Manila, Tianjin and Jakarta, according to IPCC. 
  63. Nuclear batteries, dubbed Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators or RTGs, have been powering spacecrafts for more than six decades. They perform two key functions: Providing power to keep the on-board instruments running, and supplying heat to protect the instruments from the cold environs of space. Further, RTGs have longer life-spans. There are “no concerns about refuelling or recharging. In short, there is no operational range anxiety.
  64. The Himalayan griffon is listed as ‘near threatened’ in the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red list. The Himalayan griffon is listed as a migratory species among these. The steppe eagle is also a migratory bird that comes to Assam during winters from different countries, including African ones.
  65. Carbofuran is a carbamate pesticide, widely used around the world to control insects on a wide variety of field crops, including potatoes, corn and soybeans. It is a systemic insecticide, which means that the plant absorbs it through the roots, and from there the plant distributes it throughout its organs where insecticidal concentrations are attained. Carbofuran also has contact activity against pests. It is one of the most toxic pesticides still in use.
  66. The fungal pathogen, Ophiostoma ulmi, that causes the Dutch Elm disease, was first discovered in the US during the 1930s. It was introduced accidentally via diseased logs imported from Europe and spread to destroy millions of American elm trees in urban and forested landscapes. Invasive species can harm the environment, the economy and even human health. For instance, Cogon grass has spread throughout the southeast US, displacing native plants. It provides no food value for native wildlife and increases the threat of wildfire, as it burns hotter and faster than native grasses.
  67. UNEP has recently established Copenhagen Climate Centre in collaboration with United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS). The Copenhagen climate centre is a leading global research and advisory institution that aims to deliver compelling science in support of environmental decision making and climate action across the world (Paris Agreement and the SDGs).
  68. The post 2020 global biodiversity framework is important because the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity 2011-2020 has ended.  This is a stepping stone towards the 2050 Vision of “Living in harmony with nature. The Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework has been called the biodiversity equivalent of the Paris Climate agreement.
  69. Jodhpur, the gateway to the Thar desert, is globally known as the ‘Blue City’ for the colour of its houses. The city, like other parts of the Thar, now gets water from the Indira Gandhi Canal, which transports water from Harike in Punjab, the confluence of the Satluj and Beas rivers, to Rajasthan.
  70. Silent Valley National park is one of the undisturbed tracts of the south Western Ghats rainforests and tropical evergreen forests in India.
  71. Causing forest fires is illegal under the Indian Forest Act of 1927 and the Wild Life (Protection) Act of 1972.
  72. Antarctica represents one of the last frontiers for discoveries on Earth. The Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica’s massive wedge of floating ice that shelters the southern-most extension of the Southern Ocean. This ice-covered cavity contains an ocean nearly equal in volume to the North Sea.
  73. An estimated 270 million Indians were living below the poverty line in India in 2011-12. The poverty line was defined on the basis of Monthly Per Capita Consumption Expenditure (MPCE) as the criterion. The poverty line at the all India level for 2011-12 was estimated as MCPE of Rs 816 for rural areas and Rs 1,000 for urban areas.
  74. Article 98 of the Constitution provides the scope of separate secretariats for the two Houses of Parliament. The principle, hence, laid in the Article is that the secretariats should be independent of the executive government. The Secretary-General, with the rank equivalent to the Cabinet Secretary, is the third most key functionary of the Rajya Sabha after the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman. The Secretary-General also enjoys certain privileges such as freedom from arrest, immunity from criminal proceedings, and any obstruction and breach of their rights would amount to contempt of the House. The Secretaries-General of both the Houses are mandated with many parliamentary and administrative responsibilities. One of the prerequisites that demand the post of the Secretary-General is unfailing knowledge and vast experience of parliamentary procedures, practices and precedents.
  75. United Nations’ Human Reproduction Programme (the UNDP/UNFPA/UNICEF/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction) is the main instrument within the United Nations system for research in human reproduction, bringing together policy-makers, scientists, health care providers, clinicians, consumers and community representatives to identify and address priorities for research to improve sexual and reproductive health. HRP is based at the WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland.
  76. Mange is a type of skin disease caused by parasitic mites. Because various species of mites also infect plants, birds and reptiles, the term “mange”, or colloquially “the mange”, suggesting poor condition of the skin and fur due to the infection, is sometimes reserved for pathological mite-infestation of nonhuman mammals. Thus, mange includes mite-associated skin disease in domestic mammals (cats and dogs), in livestock (such as sheep scab), and in wild mammals (for example, foxes, coyotes, cougars, and bears). Sarcoptic mange is caused by the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei. When the infected animal scratches and the skin breaks, it lays eggs and multiplies. The affected area becomes scabbed and no hair grow there.
  77. The Gini coefficient, a measure of the inequality between different expenditure classes of population, in rural areas remained almost the same in 2004-05 and 2011-12 at 0.27 and 0.28 respectively. In the urban areas, the Gini coefficient increased marginally to 0.37 in 2011-12 from 0.35 in 2004-05.
  78. High levels of lead were found in the blood of thousands of children living around the Kabwe mine in Zambia. Kabwe is located about 150 kilometres north of the country’s capital Lusaka. Kabwe was listed among the top 10 most-polluted sites worldwide in a 2013 report by the Blacksmith Institute, an international non-profit.
  79. Thrips parvispinus, an invasive pest from Indonesia, has spread rapidly, especially in the two states of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. Almost half of the total red chilli crop in Telangana has been affected. Since Thrips parvispinusis an invasive pest species, it might have dominated / replaced the native chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis through competition.
  80. Seven power companies have installed flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) technology in 20 power plant units to control emissions of sulphur dioxide from thermal power plants.
  81. Corals are marine invertebrates or animals not possessing a spine. Each coral is called a polyp and thousands of such polyps live together to form a colony, which grows when polyps multiply to make copies of themselves. Corals are of two types — hard coral and soft coral. Hard corals, also called hermatypic or ‘reef building’ corals extract calcium carbonate (also found in limestone) from the seawater to build hard, white coral exoskeletons. Soft coral polyps, however, borrow their appearance from plants, attach themselves to such skeletons and older skeletons built by their ancestors. Soft corals also add their own skeletons to the hard structure over the years and these growing multiplying structures gradually form coral reefs. They are the largest living structures on the planet. Corals share a symbiotic relationship with single-celled algae called zooxanthellae. The algae provides the coral with food and nutrients, which they make through photosynthesis, using the sun’s light. In turn, the corals give the algae a home and key nutrients. The zooxanthellae also give corals their bright colour.
  82. A 2021 study by the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN), which is supported by the United Nations, showed that 14% of the world’s coral on reefs had been lost between 2009 and 2018, with most of the loss attributed to coral bleaching.
  83. With hundreds of men dressed as women lining up before the deity, the renowned Chamayavilakku festival of Kottankulangara Sri Bhagavathy Temple. While usual customs including Kettukazhcha, Annadanam, Pongala, and procession were cancelled, Pujas were carried out with some temple committee members observing the ritual dolled up as women. The festival is conducted on the tenth and eleventh days of the Malayalam month of Meenam and usually small makeshift studios for the men to dress are set up on the temple premises a day before. Chamayavilakku is also a festival of transpersons as several community members turn up for it.
  84. The Hoysala temples at Belur, Halebeedu and Somanathapura are India’s official nominations for inclusion as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, but a few more temples belonging to the same period could join the list in future.
  85. For the Baiga tribe, ‘godna’ or tattooing is linked with female beauty and life stages. They believe tattoos travel to the afterlife because the ink integrates into the body. Tattoos have also been a symbol of victory. Members of Nagaland’s Konyak tribe, whose menfolk were warriors, practised headhunting and had to earn their tattoos. Those who were successful on the battlefield earned the right to wear certain designs. Moranngam Khaling, also known as Mo Naga belongs to the Uipo tribe from Manipur.
  86. The building of the Qutub Minar, a tower with carvings and detailing, possibly one of the most visited monuments in Delhi, was in 1199 by Qutubuddin Aibak and finished by his successor Shamsuddin Iltutmish, and stands 72.5 metres in height.
  87. Lithium is currently produced from hard rock or brine mines. Australia is the world’s biggest supplier, with production from hard rock mines. Argentina, Chile and China are mainly producing it from salt lakes. The ancient igneous rock deposits in the Karnataka’s Mandya district holds the first traces of Lithium ever to be discovered in India.
  88. The dolphin population along Odisha’s coast and in its water bodies has increased but the number of Irrawaddy dolphins in Chilika lake has fallen. A total of six species of dolphins — Irrawaddy, bottlenose, humpback, striped, finless and spinner dolphins — have been recorded in Chilika Lake.
  89. The Coalition to End Wildlife Trafficking Online brings together companies from across the world in partnership with wildlife experts at WWF, TRAFFIC, and IFAW for an industry-wide approach.
  90. A geoglyph is a work of art that is created by arranging or moving objects within a landscape. These objects are usually stones or earth. To create this art form, artists arrange/ add/ remove objects to create the art in a structured pattern to create lines or spaces that contrast with the surrounding terrain.  The Geoglyphs of Konkan region are a critical typology of material heritage being the only evidence of human settlement in the Konkan region. Their features also point to their continued existence from the Mesolithic era till the early historic era. Furthermore, these are also evidence of the existence of certain types of faunal lifeforms that are no longer present in the region today.
  91. The Indian subcontinent is home to six species of sparrows, but the house sparrow ( Passer domesticus) and Eurasian tree sparrow ( Passer montanus) are more widespread in the country. These two species share human habitats in many parts of the Northeast.
  92. Once known as a safe nesting ground on India’s east coast, a nearly 30-km long coastline in the Godavari estuary has been witnessing a sharp fall in the arrival of Olive Ridley turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea). The entire rookery, including the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary, is part of the rare and ecologically sensitive Godavari mangrove system. About 2.45 lakh Olive Ridley sea turtles crawled ashore at the Nasi-II beach of the Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary along the Odisha coast for laying eggs, marking one of the largest opening day arrivals of turtles at the site. Gahirmatha, the world’s largest rookery for endangered Olive Ridley sea turtles. Both Nasi-I and Nasi-II beaches are under the jurisdiction of the Defence Research and Development Organisation, which conducts missile tests from the nearby Wheeler Island.
  93. Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) under the aegis of UNESCO stems from the need for education to address the growing sustainability challenges. Linking it to sustainable development goals for 2030 is an essential step for the “Decade of Action” with attention focused on each learner’s transformation process and how it will happen.
  94. Hornbills are indicators of the health of a forest, they are seed dispersers and rightly called the ‘farmers of the forest’; but they are globally threatened by habitat loss, fragmentation and hunting. Pakke Tiger Reserve and its environs harbour four species: the great hornbill, rufous-necked hornbill, wreathed hornbill and the oriental pied hornbill. Three of these, including the wreathed hornbill, are classified as ‘vulnerable’ species. The reserve forest is home to several villages and settlements of the Nyishi tribe.
  95. The National Chambal Sanctuary (NCS), a protected riverine area, spans Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The river harbours some of the most pristine sandbanks, which are the basking and egg-laying habitats for the critically endangered gharial, for the endangered Indian skimmer, the critically endangered red-crowned roofed turtle, and a host of other threatened and endangered species. India’s national aquatic animal, the endangered Ganges river dolphin, is also spotted here.
  96. A study by the Bombay Natural History Society and other organisations in the 1990s found that the population of the Gyps group — Himalayan griffon, white-backed and slender-billed are among its members — in India and Nepal declined from about 40 million by 99.9% in just two decades.
  97. Every winter, the birds make their way to India through the central Asian flyway, which covers a large continental area of Europe–Asia between the Arctic and the Indian Oceans. Every year, the Wildlife Department of Forests and Wildlife Preservation, Punjab, conducts waterbirds census exercise in six major and most biodiverse wetlands, which include the Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary, the Ropar Conservation Reserve, the Harike Wildlife Sanctuary, the Kanjli Wetland, the Keshopur-Miani Community Reserve and the Ranjit Sagar Conservation Reserve.
  98. Cannabis is a plant product that was (and still is) known by the local names marijuana, charas, hashish, ganja, and bhang. The user feels ‘high’ upon consuming (smoking) it. The active principle in Cannabis is a psychoactive molecule called tetrahydrocannabinol, which is responsible for its psychoactive and intoxicating effects. 
  99. The Ilulissat Declaration was announced during 2008 by the five coastal states of the Arctic Ocean (United States, Russia, Canada, Norway and The Kingdom of Denmark, the Arctic five), meeting at the political level during the Arctic Ocean Conference in Ilulissat, Greenland to discuss the Arctic ocean, climate change, the protection of the marine environment, maritime safety, and division of emergency responsibilities if new shipping routes are opened.
  100. After Delta, the Omicron variant emerged and it was soon split into two sub-lineages 1 and BA.2
  101. The International Space Station (ISS) is built with the co-operation of scientists from five international space agencies — NASA of the U.S., Roscosmos of Russia, JAXA of Japan, Canadian Space Agency and the European Space Agency. The orbit of the ISS does not fly over the Russian territory mostly. 
  102. The EDGES telescope, or the Experiment to Detect the Global Epoch of Reionization Signature (EDGES) that was placed in an Australian desert, recorded an unusual signal that the group claims is the sign of the cosmic dawn. The decade-long quest, led by scientists at the Raman Research Institute (RRI), Bengaluru has taken them multiple times to Ladakh, and to a place aptly named the Timbuktu Collective in Andhra Pradesh, and to lakes in northern Karnataka, with their radio telescope Shaped Antenna Measurement of the Background Radio Spectrum (SARAS), which hopes to catch the trace of an extremely elusive sign from space — that of the birth of the first stars or what’s called “the cosmic dawn”. Reverberations of the Big Bang that birthed our universe 13.8 billion years continue to linger in a swathe of radiation called the cosmic microwave background (CMB).
  103. Recently, researchers exposed the plants to beta-ocimene, a volatile organic compound often released by plants in response to attacks by herbivores like Spodoptera litura. Using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system, the researchers have shown that herbivore-damaged plants give off volatile chemical ‘scents’ that trigger epigenetic modifications in the defence genes of neighbouring plants.
  104. Hypothalamus, which lies in the centre of the brain and is the size and shape of an almond. An area in this part of the brain, the lateral hypothalamus, plays an outsized role in wakefulness, feeding behaviour, learning and sleep. 
  105. Chang’e 5-T1 – a lunar mission launched by the China National Space Administration in 2014. 
  106. Recently, Deepak Dhar, physicist, from the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, has been selected for the Boltzmann medal, awarded by the Commission on Statistical Physics (C3) of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics. He becomes the first Indian to win this award. Boltzmann medals, which honours outstanding achievements in the field of statistical physics, has been given to one or two persons, once in three years, in the last 47 years. Previous winners include K.G. Wilson, R. Kubo, M.E. Fisher, R.J. Baxter, Kurt Binder, Giorgio Parisi, L. P. Kadanoff and other such names which to be found in the textbooks of statistical physics and many of whom have later won the Nobel prize. It is given only once to a person and on the condition that that person has not won the Nobel prize so far.
  107. An aviation wonder and the world’s largest cargo aircraft, the Antonov An-225, has been “destroyed” in an attack on its base at Hostomel/Gostomel airport in Ukraine. Known formally as the “Cossack”, its North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) operating code, the world knew the “super-heavy transport plane” better by its Ukrainian name, “Mriya”, or “the Dream”.
  108. Elasmobranchs (sharks, rays, skates and sawfish) are particularly vulnerable to exploitation due to their slow growth and are one of the most threatened marine animal groups across the world.
  109. Participatory notes also referred to as P-Notes, or PNs, are financial instruments required by investors or hedge funds to invest in Indian securities without having to register with the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). P-Notes are among the group of investments considered to be Offshore Derivative Investments (ODIs). P-notes are issued by registered Foreign Portfolio Investors (FPIs) to overseas investors who wish to be a part of the Indian stock market without registering themselves directly. Participatory notes allow non-registered investors to invest in the Indian market. SEBI has no jurisdiction over participatory note trading. Although foreign institutional investors must register with the Indian regulatory board, the participatory notes trading among foreign institutional investors are not recorded. P-Notes can be used to purchase any Indian security an investor wants through a series of steps.
  110. Tamil Nadu inaugurated the ‘ Naan Mudhalvan’ scheme, which aims to equip about 10 lakh youth across the State annually with skills that will help them realise their talents for the benefit of the country. 
  111. FIFA, Fédération Internationale de Football Association in French, is the highest global governing body of football (also known as soccer to distinguish it from American football), the world’s most popular game. FIFA is also the international governing body for futsal (a kind of mini football played indoors on a hard court between two teams of five players each) and beach soccer (five-a-side, played on a beach). The membership of FIFA now comprises 211 national football associations around the world. ach of these national associations are members of one of the six confederations into which the footballing world is divided: Africa, Asia, Europe, North & Central America and the Caribbean, Oceania, and South America. FIFA, which is headquartered in Zurich, Switzerland, supports these national associations financially and logistically through various programmes.
  112. Article 243(b) of the Indian Constitution defines the role of the Gram Sabha as the primary body of the Panchayati Raj. This body is empowered to register dissent from the majority villagers against any project proposed by the government. 
  113. The Responsibility to Protect (R2P or RtoP) is a global political commitment which was endorsed by all member states of the United Nations at the 2005 World Summit in order to address its four key concerns to prevent genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity.
  114. Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) releases Consumer Pyramids Household Survey (CPHS). It provides anonymized record-level data at the level of individual households and members of households.
  115. Amongst pathogens, E coli was responsible for the most deaths in 2019, followed by K pneumoniae, S aureus, A baumannii, S pneumoniae, and M tuberculosis.  As per the yearly trends reported by the Indian Council of Medical Research since 2015, India reports a high level of resistance in all these pathogens, especially E coli and K pneumoniae.
  116. Libya is a country in the Maghreb region in North Africa. Libya is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the north, Egypt on the east, Sudan on the southeast, Niger and Chad on the south, and Tunisia and Algeria on the west. Libya is a member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Arab League, the OIC and OPEC. The country’s official religion is Islam, with 96.6% of the Libyan population being Sunni Muslims.
  117. China is the largest shareholder of beijing-based Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) with a 26.5% voting share. India is the second-largest, with 7.5%, followed by Russia, which has a 5.97% voting share. Belarus is also a member of the bank, which is headed by China’s Jin Liqun. Former Reserve Bank of India (RBI) Governor Urjit Patel is a Vice President of the bank.
  118. SUVAS is a language learning application being used to translate judgments, and SUPACE, which can draft a legal brief, comprise the initiatives being undertaken in the Indian judiciary as part of incorporating Machine Learning (ML)-based applications.
  119. Indian Navy’s largest multilateral exercise Milan 2022, which saw the participation of over 40 countries.
  120. Animals in nature know no international boundaries and this has come as some sort of a surprise and challenge to experts and forest officials who installed GPS transmitters on Nothern River Terrapin in Indian Sundarbans. The critically endangered Northern River Terrapin ( Batagur baska) have travelled hundreds of kilometers and are now in Bangladesh. The population of the Nothern River Terrapin, a freshwater turtle.
  121. Stagflation is a portmanteau of stagnant growth and persistently high inflation. It, thus, describes a rather rare and curious condition of an economy. Stagflation is a condition where an economy experiences the worst of both worlds — the growth rate is largely stagnant (along with rising unemployment) and inflation is not only high but persistently so.
  122. NASA’s Curiosity Rover has created a picture of a mineral formation that is shaped like a flower. The flower-like rock has been named Blackthorn Salt and it is a diagenetic feature, which means that it is made from mineral deposits left behind by an ancient water body. Captured near Aeolis Mons (Mount Sharp), which is a martian mountain that forms the central peak within the Gale crater.
  123. The Central government has given its approval for the creation of a fifth tiger reserve in Tamil Nadu that will encompass the Meghamalai and Srivilliputhur Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Megamalai Wildlife Sanctuary is located at the border of Tamilnadu and Kerala, hence it acts as the buffer zone for Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala.
  124. When the central bank sells dollars, it sucks out an equivalent amount in rupees, thus reducing the rupee liquidity in the system. The swap auction can be done in the reverse way also when there is shortage of liquidity in the system. The RBI then buys dollars from the market and releases an equivalent amount in the rupees. The RBI normally brings down liquidity in the system when inflation threatens to rise sharply. With the rupee under pressure and inflation posing a big risk to the economy, the central bank is expected to come out with more such measures to rein in inflation and prevent a big slide in the rupee. 
  125. Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been a leading cause of maternal deaths in Kerala for the better part of the last decade. PPH is defined as a “blood loss of 500 ml or more within 24 hours after birth, while severe PPH is defined as a blood loss of 1,000 ml or more within the same timeframe,” by the World Health Organization.
  126. The Indian pangolin (Manis crassicaudata), is protected under Schedule I of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972. Poaching or other crimes against the species can attract serious penalties.
  127. The Union government plans to open the villages along the Chinese border for tourists under the Vibrant Village programme announced in the Union Budget 2022-23.
  128. Counter-magnet towns are those that can be developed as alternative hubs of development and have the potential to attract more people / immigrants from a larger city in the area. Satellite towns are small municipalities that are adjacent to a larger city and serve as part of the larger city and provide housing and other amenities for the people working in the larger city.
  129. Gaming coins, such as Axie Infinity (ACS) and Enjin Coin (ENJ), are in-game cryptocurrency which may be acquired and then used for the purchase of in-game assets. These gaming coins may be purchased from crypto exchanges (and eventually be traded on these crypto exchanges as well) or, in certain cases, be acquired as winnings in games that have adopted the ‘play-to-earn’ model. In such games, gamers are rewarded for dedicating their time and skill to play the game with gaming coins and in-game assets (and, in certain cases, with cryptocurrency as well).
  130. Cancer cells are different from normal cells and have particular abilities that cause them to produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can act as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis when using gas chromatography or artificial olfactory systems.
  131. A rare butterfly species– the Spotted Royal (Tajuria maculata), which has not been recorded in the Nilgiris for over a century, was rediscovered again. The Spotted Royal lives close to its host plant, which are native Loranthus species.
  132. The festival ofPhool Dei is celebrated in the Garhwal and Kumaun regions of Uttarakhand every year in the flowering season.
  133. The main components of forex reserves are foreign currency assets (FCA), gold holdings and SDRs (special drawing rights) of the International Monetary Fund. The RBI sold dollars from its FCA kitty — kept in global central banks, foreign banks and foreign securities — to strengthen the rupee.
  134. Ingenuity Mars Helicopter faces toughest challenge yet as it helps look for traces of life on Mars. Ingenuity is a small robotic solar-powered helicopter that landed on Mars.
  135. The Women Transforming India Awards is NITI Aayog’s annual initiative to highlight the commendable and ground-breaking endeavours of India’s women leaders and change-makers.
  136. It is imperative to estimate the thickness of the Himalayan glaciers in order to assess the water availability stored in these glaciers. Geophysical techniques and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) profiling have been employed for assessing depth of some glaciers by the Geological Survey of India (GSI).
  137. Under the Network for Space Objects Tracking and Analysis (NETRA) project, ISRO is building up its orbital debris tracking capability by deploying new radars and optical telescopes.
  138. Appointment of Judges of High Courts is made under Articles 217 and 224 of the Constitution of India which do not provide for reservation for any caste or class of person. 
  139. Finlandization’ refers to the policy of strict neutrality between Moscow and the West that Finland followed during the decades of the Cold War. The principle of neutrality was rooted in the Agreement of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, that Finland signed with the USSR in April 1948.
  140. The Spitzer Space Telescope was an infrared space telescope that was launched by NASA in 2003 and continued operating for sixteen years before it was finally decommissioned in 2019.
  141. Cabinet has approved the establishment of the WHO Global Centre for Traditional Medicine (GCTM) in Jamnagar, Gujarat by signing a Host Country agreement between the Government of India and the WHO. This would be the first and only global outposted Centre, under Ministry of AYUSH for traditional medicine across the globe.
  142. Namma Ooru Thiruvizha recently revives hopes of folk artistes in Tamilnadu. Several performances of folk art forms, such as ‘karagam’ and ‘silambam’.
  143. The 3rd edition of joint training exercise between Indian and Uzbekistan armies, EX-DUSTLIK is being conducted at Yangiarik, Uzbekistan.
  144. Article 355 refers to the provision in the Constitution that states that “It shall be the duty of the Union to protect every State against external aggression and internal disturbance and to ensure that the government of every State is carried on in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution”.
  145. In pursuance of the goals and objectives of the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 issued on 29th July, 2020 and to assist States and UTs in this task, the Department of School Education and Literacy, Ministry of Education has developed an indicative and suggestive NEP Implementation Plan for School Education, called ‘Students’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement through Quality Education (SARTHAQ)’. SARTHAQ has been developed as an evolving and working document through wide and intensive consultative process with States and UTs, Autonomous bodies and suggestions received from all stakeholders. 
  146. Polar Science and Cryosphere Research (PACER) scheme comprising the Antarctic program, Indian Arctic program, Southern Ocean program and Cryosphere and Climate program is implemented successfully through National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR), an autonomous institute under the Ministry of Earth Sciences.
  147. Ethiopia declares humanitarian truce in war-ravaged Tigray Kampala, Ethiopia’s government has announced what it called an “indefinite humanitarian truce” in its war-ravaged Tigray region, saying the action was necessary to allow unimpeded relief supplies into the area.
  148. Idaho became the first state in the US to enact an anti-abortion law fashioned after the Texas ‘Heartbeat’ Act, which bans abortion after over six weeks of pregnancy. Idaho has become the newest state to enact some form of legislation related to the restricting of abortion rights. Some other states that have passed similar legislation include Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Idaho, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin.
  149. President Shri Ram Nath Kovind presented the President’s colour to INS Valsura, the Navy’s premier technological training establishment. The President’s Colour is bestowed on a military unit in recognition of the exceptional service rendered to the nation, both in peace and in war. The Navy was the first Indian armed force to be awarded the President’s Colour by Dr Rajendra Prasad on May 27, 1951.
  150. Extreme poverty, defined by the World Bank as the percentage of the population with an income below $1.90, rose from 7.6% in November 2019 to 11.7% in July 2021.
  151. Minister of Sports, Youth Affairs and Minister of Information and Broadcasting launched TEJAS (Training for Emirates Jobs And Skills) in Dubai – a Skill India International Project to train overseas Indias. The programme aims to skilling, certification and overseas employment of Indian. Tejas aims at creating a 10,000 strong Indian workforce in UAE during the initial phase.
  152. ‘Sahi Fasal’ campaign was launched by National Water Mission, Ministry of Jal Shakti in 2019 to nudge the farmers in the water stressed areas to grow less water intensive, economically remunerative and environmentally friendly crops. ‘Sahi Fasal’ is an awareness generation campaign implemented with the objective of weaning away the farmers from growing water intensive crops and using micro-irrigation techniques with a view to increase water use efficiency in agriculture.
  153. Seagrasses are flowering plants which are found in our sea beds and ocean floors. The major seagrass beds exist along our coastline of Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay regions on the east coast, Gulf of Kachchh region on the west coast, the lagoons of islands in Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea and Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal. Seagrass ecosystems are recognized globally for their ability to sequester carbon, nurture fish communities and support marine mammals such as sea cows or dugongs.
  154. Alopecia areata is a condition that causes sudden hair loss in patches. “The condition is developed after the immune system attacks the hair follicles, resulting in hair loss, which cannot be observed easily. These patches connect and then become observable. In this disorder, your own cells attack the hair and cause them to shed, forming clear patches of hair loss. It mostly occurs in people who have a family history of auto-immune conditions, such as diabetes and thyroid. Cicatricial alopecia (non-reversible): It results in scarring of the skin and permanent hair loss. This happens due to lichen planopilaris, trauma, burn, infections, and congenital conditions. Non-cicatricial alopecia (reversible): Hair loss can be reversed with no scarring of the skin. Other conditions like androgenetic alopecia (AGA) or male pattern baldness, female pattern baldness, and systemic infection are examples of non-cicatricial alopecia.
  155. NaBFID (HQ: Mumbai) is established as a Development Financial Institution (DFI) under the National Bank for Financial Infrastructure and Development Act, 2021. It has authorized share capital of ₹1 lakh crore. RBI will regulate and supervise it as an All-India Financial Institution (AIFI) under Sections 45L and 45N of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. It will be the 5th AIFI after EXIM Bank, NABARD, NHB and SIDBI.
  156. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) governor inaugurated the Reserve Bank Innovation Hub (RBIH) in Bengaluru which is intended to encourage and nurture financial innovation in a sustainable manner through an institutional set-up. The RBI has set up RBIH as a wholly owned subsidiary with an initial capital contribution of ₹100 crore. The Hub has an independent Board with S. Gopalakrishnan as Chairman and other persons from industry and academia as members. RBIH aims to create an ecosystem that focusses on promoting access to financial services and products for the low-income population in the country.
  157. The union environment ministry has designated October 5 as National Dolphin Day, to be observed annually starting this year. The decision to designate a National Dolphin Day was taken by the standing committee of the National Board for Wildlife (NBWL). October 5 is currently celebrated as ‘Ganga River Dolphin Day’, but its redesignation now as a national day for this aquatic animal will encompass all rivers and oceans’ Dolphins beyond the Gangetic ones.
  158. International Monsoons Project Office (IMPO) — jointly hosted by Pune-based Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) and the World Meteorologic Organisation (WMO).
  159. The Ministry of Women and Child Development (MoWCD) and NIMHANS Bengaluru launched the ‘Stree Manoraksha Project’with the goal of improving women’s mental health in India. The project would concentrate on increasing the ability of OSC (One-Stop Center) officials in terms of tools and procedures for dealing with women who come to One-Stop Centers, particularly those who have experienced violence and distress, with compassion and care.
  160. On the occasion of International Women’s Day 2022, Union Minister for MSME along with Minister of State for MSME launched a Special Entrepreneurship Promotion Drive for Women -“SAMARTH”.
  161. Hornbill Nest Adoption Program (HNAP), is celebrating its tenth year of success in 2022. HNAP is a community-based hornbill conservation programme launched in 2012 by the Nature Conservation Foundation (NCF) in partnership with the Ghora-Aabhe Society (a council of village headmen in the Nyishi tribe) and the Arunachal Pradesh Forest Department.
  162. “Shrinkflation” is the phenomenon of products getting smaller while their price remains the same. It is a sign of an inflation economy i.e., as the price of ingredients rise, companies cut the size of their products (or the number of products in a multipack) and hope their customers won’t notice. It is basically a form of hidden inflation.
  163. The Canadian government has recently approved the use of the world’s first plant-based COVID-19 vaccine- Covifenz. It is the first vaccine to use a plant-based protein technology and has been cleared for use for people between 18 and 64 years of age.
  164. The first batch of three MH-60R Helicopters from the United States are scheduled to arrive in India for Naval purposes. MH-60R is the most advanced maritime multi-mission helicopter that has been inducted into the Navy for deployment on ships.
  165. The Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) has recently organised “Darkathon-2022”. Darkathon-2022 aims to find solutions to counter drug trafficking through darknet. 
  166. The nomadic tribes constitute a good chunk of population in the Himalayan regions, including the Baddis and Ban Gujjars in HP and the Gujjar-Bakerwals in J&K and Ladakh. According to an estimate, they constitute about 10% of the population of J&K and Ladakh.
  167. The Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) has recently announced its new code of laws under which Mankading has been made a normal mode of running out the non-striker. The basic meaning of Mankading is that a bowler can run out the non-striker batsman if he tries to step out of the crease when the bowler releases the ball. 
  168. A fossil belonging to species Syllipsimopodi bideni, recently unearthed in central Montana (US) has been named after the US president, Joe Biden.

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