IAS Abhiyan Prelims inFocus-November 2019

  1. CERT-In is an acronym for ‘Indian Computer Emergency Response Team’. CERT-In is the National Incident Response Centre for major computer security incidents in its constituency i.e. Indian cyber community. CERT-in has been established by, and runs under the aegis of Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Government of India.
  2. Guru Ghasidas National Park will be Chattisgarh’s 4th tiger reserve. Achanakmar, Udanti- Sitanadi and Indravati tiger reserves are other 03 tiger reserves.
  3. Universal Postal Union is the specialized agency of the United Nations. It was established in 1874 and is the second oldest international organization worldwide after International Telecommunication Union (1865). Its headquarter is located in Bern, Switzerland, and consists of 192 member countries.
  4. Learning Poverty is defined as the percentage of 10-year-olds who cannot read and understand a simple story. World bank recently released the report “Ending Learning Poverty”.
  5. Wular Lake is one of the largest fresh water lakes in Asia. It is sited in Bandipora district in Jammu and Kashmir. The lake basin was formed as a result of tectonic activity and is fed by the Jhelum River.
  6. The East Asia Summit (EAS) is the Indo-Pacific’s premier forum for strategic dialogue. It is the only leader-led forum at which all key partners meet to discuss the full range of political, security and economic challenges facing the Indo-Pacific, and has an important role to play in advancing closer regional cooperation. The EAS has 18 members – the ten ASEAN countries (Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam) along with Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, the United States and Russia. This represents 54 per cent of the world’s population and accounts for around 58 per cent of global GDP worth an estimated US$49.4 trillion. In 2017-18, Australia’s two-way trade with EAS countries was worth around A$564 billion, 71 per cent of Australia’s total two-way trade. The centrepiece of the EAS calendar is the annual Leaders’ Summit, usually held alongside ASEAN Leaders’ meetings in the fourth quarter every year. The EAS Summit is supported through the annual EAS Foreign Ministers Meeting (FMM) and EAS Senior Officials’ Meetings (SOM), which meet throughout the year to take forward leaders’ initiatives. The EAS Economic Ministers’ Meeting (EMM) has been held annually since 2014. 
  7. The Survey of India has redrawn the map of India to depict the newly formed Union Territories (UT) of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) and Ladakh. Areas such as Gilgit, Gilgit Wazarat, Chilhas and the Tribal Territory of 1947 that have been occupied by Pakistan are included in the Ladakh UT.
  8. Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and also a former Soviet Republic. It is a secular, unitary constitutional republic, comprising 12 provinces, one autonomous republic, and a capital city. Uzbekistan is bordered by five landlocked countries: Kazakhstan to the north; Kyrgyzstan to the northeast; Tajikistan to the southeast; Afghanistan to the south; and Turkmenistan to the southwest. Along with Liechtenstein, it is one of the world’s only two doubly landlocked countries.
  9. The Indian Army, which began inducting the indigenously upgraded Dhanush artillery guns, will have the first regiment in place by March 2020 and will get all 114 guns by 2022 Dhanush is the indigenously upgraded variant of the Swedish Bofors gun imported in the 1980s. The gun is fitted with an inertial navigation system having global positioning system (GPS)-based gun recording and auto-laying, an enhanced tactical computer for on-board ballistic computations, an on-board muzzle velocity recording, an automated gun sighting system equipped with camera, thermal imaging, and laser range finder.
  10. A new species of frog discovered in Arunachal Pradesh is named as eos. It is named after the mythological Greek goddess of dawn, personifying its habitat in Arunachal Pradesh which is popularly known as the Land of the Rising Sun or the Land of Dawn-lit Mountains
  11. Agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support (ARLS)-India and Russia are expected to conclude a mutual logistics agreement. Logistics agreements are administrative arrangements facilitating access to military facilities for exchange of fuel and provisions on mutual agreement when the Indian military is operating abroad.
  12. semi-permeable membraneis a membrane that will allow some atoms or molecules to pass but not others. A simple example is a screen door. It allows air molecules to pass through but not pests or anything larger than the holes in the screen door. Another example is Gore-tex clothing fabric that contains an extremely thin plastic film into which billions of small pores have been cut. The pores are big enough to let water vapor through, but small enough to prevent liquid water from passing.
  13. Bru or Reang is a community indigenous to Northeast India, living mostly in Tripura, Mizoram and Assam. In Tripura, they are recognised as a Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group. In Mizoram, they have been targeted by groups that do not consider them indigenous to the state.
  14. Thiruvalluvar is regarded as a cultural and moral icon for Tamils across caste and religious lines. The period when he lived is debated, as is his religious identity. Some place him in the third or fourth century; others put him in the eighth or ninth. Some call him a Hindu; some trace his past to Jainism; Dravidian groups count him as a saint with no religious identifiers except his Dravidian roots. Thiruvalluar authored Thirukural considered one of the great works on ethics and morality. In his 1873 book Tamil Wisdom; Traditions Concerning Hindu Sages and Selections from their Writings, British scholar Edward Jewitt Robinson wrote about the saint, including the suggestion that “Valluvan, or priest of the Pariah tribe, found the deserted child [in a grove in Chennai], and reared him as his own.” The book quotes several testimonies on Valluvar (Thiruvalluvar), including: “Of the six sects, one will condemn the system of the other but none of them will condemn the system propounded by Valluvar in his Cural: It has the merit of harmonising the opinions of them all, so that each sect would admit it to be its own.” Another testimony says, “It is difficult to say whether the Sanskrit or the Tamil is the best: They are perhaps on a par, since the Sanskrit possesses the Veda, and the Tamil the Cural, composed by the divine Valluvar.”
  15. EAT-Lancet Commission on Food, Planet, Health published recommendations for a universal diet that addresses both human and planetary health. The Commission suggested that adherence to this diet could ensure that our future food systems can sustainably and nutritiously feed the estimated population of 10 billion people in 2050. The EAT-Lancet Commission diet consists of a large amount of vegetables, fruits, whole grain, legumes, nuts and unsaturated oils, some seafood and poultry. It has little to no red meat, processed meat, added sugar, refined grains and starchy vegetables.
  16. Dhrupad is the most ancient style of Hindustani classical music that has survived until today in its original form. The Dhrupad tradition is a major tradition of Indian culture. The nature of Dhrupad music is spiritual. Seeking not to entertain, but to induce feelings of peace and contemplation in the listener. The word Dhrupad is derived from DHRUVA the steadfast evening star that moves through our galaxy and PADA meaning poetry. It is a form of devotional music that traces its origin to the ancient text of Sam Veda. The SAM VEDA was chanted with the help of melody and rhythm called Samgana. Gradually this developed into other vocal style called ‘Chhanda’ and ‘Prabandha’ with introduction of verse and meter. The fusion of these two elements led to the emergence of Dhrupad.
  17. Carbon dioxide emissions are poised to grow at their slowest — a 2% rise from last year — since 2001, according to an analysis published in Carbon Brief. The rise in C02 emissions from India sees wild swings — from 7.7% in 2014 to 3.5% the next year and then back to 7.8% in 2018. This is the first time that emissions are expected to grow below 3% from the previous year.
  18. Samudra Shakti is the joint exercise between Indian Navy & Indonesian Navy. The aim of the exercise is to strengthen bilateral relations, expand maritime co-operation, enhance interoperability and exchange best practices. The joint exercises include manoeuvres, Surface Warfare exercises, Air Defence exercises, Weapon firing drills, Helicopter Operations and Boarding Operations.
  19. Over 150 million years ago, enormous reptiles swam the Jurassic oceans. The largest aquatic carnivorous reptiles that have ever lived, they are often dubbed “sea monsters”. Scientifically, they are placed in the suborder Pliosauroidea, whose members are called pliosaurs. They are one of the largest aquatic carnivorous reptiles that have ever lived and are often referred to as sea monsters.
  20. The new political map of India, recently released by the government to account for the bifurcation of Jammu and Kashmir, has triggered fresh protests over an old issue in Kathmandu. Mapped within Uttarakhand is a 372-sq km area called Kalapani, bordering far-west Nepal and Tibet. Nepal’s western boundary with India was marked out in the Treaty of Sugauli between the East India Company and Nepal in 1816. Nepali authorities claim that people living in the low-density area were included in the Census of Nepal until 58 years ago. Five years ago, Foreign Minister Mahendra Bahadur Pande claimed that the late King Mahendra had “handed over the territory to India”. By some accounts in Nepal, this allegedly took place in the wake of India-China War of 1962. A committee formed by the Nepal government to study this claim submitted a report to Prime Minister Oli during his first tenure. It claimed that India had “occupied” an additional 62 sq km land. At least two former Foreign Ministers of Nepal — Upendra Yadav (now Deputy Prime Minister) and Sujata Koirala — had said that 98 per cent of border-related matters had been settled with India. Apart from Kalapani, another unresolved issue involves a vast area along the Nepal-Uttar Pradesh border. During his visit to Nepal in 2014, Prime Minister Modi had said that the Susta and Kalapani issues would be sorted out.
  21. Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Tiger Reserve (NSTR) is situated in Andhra Pradesh.
  22. Bulbul-Matmowas a strong tropical cyclone which struck Vietnam and the state of West Bengal as well as Bangladesh in November 2019, bringing storm surge, heavy rains, and flash floods.
  23. BRICS Bond Fund will help member countries conduct intra-BRICS trade in national currencies, avoiding the U.S. dollar. 
  24. The Western Ghats is still home to a kaleidoscope of butterflies. A survey that ended in the Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (WWS) could sight 191 species, 12 of which are endemic to the biodiversity-rich region. The first-time sighting of Silver forget me not, Common three ring, and Brown onyx was also recorded. The sighting of Silver forget me not was reported only from the Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary in Idukki district of the State. The three-day survey was done jointly by the Forest and Wildlife Department in association with the Ferns Nature Conservation Society (FNCS).
  25. Brasilia will become the first city to host its second BRICS summit.
  26. Brahmaputra Pushkaram is a festival to mark the transit of the planet Jupiter. The Festival is celebrated in Guwahati.
  27. Black hole mimickers are other exotic objects exist that may act as black hole and give off similar signals. Gravastars and boson stars are black hole mimickers. A gravastar is a strange object that would have a core of exotic matter resembling dark energy with an external shell of normal star-like matter. One property that can distinguish between a black hole and exotic object is known as spin-induced quadrupole moment. This parameter takes the value 1 for a black hole. “For other compact objects, the value of this parameter is different from 1 and will vary depending on the internal structure.
  28. The seismometer is an instrument used to measure and record earthquakes, whereas accelerographs prints the intensity of earthquakes. The seismic zone III and zone IV fall under moderate and strong earthquake categories under Earthquake prone zones in India.
  29. International Maritime Organisation (IMO) regulations to reduce sulphur oxides emissions from ships first came into force in 2005, under Annex VI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL Convention, 1973).  India is a signatory to this International Convention and all its Annexes.
  30. National Institute of Disaster Management comes under the Ministry of Home Affairs and is located in New Delhi.
  31. Supplementary, additional or excess grants and Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants are defined in the Constitution of India 1949. Provisions under these Articles are: Article 115: Supplementary, additional or excess grants. Article 116: Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.
  32. According to data released by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI), India topped the list of arms importer accounting for 13% of the trade in weapons platform between 2012-2018.
  33. Recently, one of the World Anti-Doping Agency’s (WADA)panels has suggested banning Russiafor four years from competing in international events, including the Tokyo (2020 Summer) Olympics.
  34. Recently, a new species of non-venomous burrowing snake, named Trachischium apteiihas been found in the forested area of the Talley Valley Wildlife Sanctuary near the town of Ziro in Arunachal Pradesh. It belongs to a group of fossorial (adapted to digging) snakes that live mostly underground, and surface mainly during or after a heavy monsoon shower.
  35. The 7theditionof India-Sri Lanka joint military training exercise Mitra Shakti– 2019 is scheduled to be conducted in Pune from 01 – 14 December 2019.
  36. Tribunal is a quasi-judicial institution that is set up to deal with problems such as resolving administrative or tax-related disputes. It performs a number of functions like adjudicating disputes, determining rights between contesting parties, making an administrative decision, reviewing an existing administrative decisionand so forth.
  37. The Central Government has recommended a biodiversity study of the proposed 3,097 MW Etalin Hydroelectric Projectin Arunachal Pradeshby a credible international institute since the current environmental impact assessment was found to be “completely inadequate”.
  38. The Panna tiger reserve is situated in the Vindhya mountain rangein the northern part of Madhya Pradesh. Madhya Pradesh has the highest numberof tigers in the country. Ken river (a tributary of the Yamuna River) flows through the reserve. Ken-Betwa river interlinking project will be located within the tiger reserve.
  39. United Nationsobserves 25thNovember as the International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women every year. The official theme for 2019 is “Orange the World: Generation Equality Stands Against Rape“.
  40. Under Article 137of the Constitution, the Supreme Court has the power to review any of its judgments or orders.
  41. Chhattisgarh will be the only State to have Persons with Disabilities (PwD) as membersin all panchayats. It needs to be noted that there is no such quotafor the disabled community in the elections to the central, state legislative assemblies and Panchayats (in general).
  42. Rohtang Pass (elevation 3,978 m) is located in the state of Himachal Pradesh. It is present on the Pir Panjal Range of Himalayas.It connects the Kullu Valley with Lahaul and Spiti Valleys of Himachal Pradesh. The Ravi river rises west of the Rohtang pass in the Kullu hills of Himachal Pradesh.
  43. Maharashtrais the first stateto pass legislation which ensures protection for journalists.
  44. SAMEER App is one of the air pollution mitigation measures which provides hourly updateson the National Air Quality Index (AQI). The app is developed by the Central Pollution Control Bureau (CPCB)which provides information on air quality for more than 100 cities across the country. The app represents the listed cities in a colour-coded format based on their AQI levels. The app can also be used to file or track complaints related to garbage dumping, road dust, vehicular emissions or other pollution issues in a particular area.
  45. Article 343of the Constitution, which states that the official language of the Union shall be Hindi in Devanagari script. PartXVII of the Indian constitution deals with the official languages in Articles 343 to 351.
  46. The term ‘Green Steel’ refers to a steelmaking process that lowers greenhouse gas emissions, cuts costs and improves the quality of steel. This can be done through usage of gas in place of coal, recycling steel etc. To move towards ‘Green Steel’, the Petroleum and Natural Gas Ministry has launched Pradhan Mantri Urja Ganga project in the Eastern India, which can provide gas to all the Steel plants, located in the area. The gas will help in replacing coal in steel making process as usage of coal leads to large amount of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions.
  47. Tear gas,also called lacrimator,is a group of substances that irritates the mucous membrane of the eyes. This causes a stinging sensation and tears. They may also irritate the upper respiratory tract, causing coughing, choking, and general debility (physical weakness). The effects of tear gases are temporary and reversible in most cases. Gas masks with activated charcoal filters provide good protection against them. The two most commonly used tear gases are: 1-chloroacetophenone (CN)- is widely used in riot control which chiefly affects the eyes, and O-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS)- is a stronger irritant that causes burning sensations in the respiratory tract and involuntary closing of the eyes.
  48. The recent digital security breach by a spyware called Pegasuscompromised phones of multiple activists, journalists and lawyers in India. It is a spyware developed by theIsraeli cyber arms firm NSO Group Technologies.
  49. The MK-45 (MOD 4) naval gun system will provide the capability to conductsurface warfareand air defence missions while enhancing interoperability with the US and other allied forces.
  50. World Toilet Day is observed every year on November 19. World Children’s Day is celebrated on 20thNovembereach year to promote international togetherness and awareness among children worldwide, and improve children’s welfare.
  51. Sowa-Rigpa (the science of healing) is a traditional system of medicine practised in the Himalayan belt of India. It originated in Tibet and popularly practiced in countries namely, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Mongolia, and Russia. Yuthog Yonten Gonpo from Tibet is believed to be the father of Sowa Rigpa. In India, it is widely practised in Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, West Bengal’s Darjeeling, Himachal Pradesh and the Union Territory of Ladakh. The majority of theory and practice of Sowa-Rigpa is similar to “Ayurveda”.
  52. Several floods in the region have created a need for repair and maintenance of the Srisailam dam. The Srisailam dam is constructed across the Krishna River in Andhra Pradesh. It is located in the Nallamala hills.
  53. West Bank (about one and a half times the size of Goa) is a landlocked territory in West Asia. It also contains a significant section of the western dead sea. It was captured by Jordan after the Arab-Israeli War (1948) but Israel snatched it back during the Six-Day War of 1967 and has occupied it ever since.
  54. The Maha Bodhi Temple Complex is one of the four holy sites related to the life of the Lord Buddha, and particularly to the attainment of Enlightenment (Bodhi). The other three are: Lumbini (Birth) in Nepal, Sarnath (Dharma-Chakra-Pravartana – 1st Sermon) and Kushinagar (Mahaparinirvana- death) in Uttar Pradesh.
  55. Gotabaya Rajapaksais elected as new President of Sri Lanka. This election was based on security issues that emerged after a suicide bombing attack (claimed by Islamic State) on Easter Sunday this year.
  56. The bilateral maritimeexercise Za’ir-Al-Bahr (Roar of the Sea) is conducted between India and Qatar.
  57. Mahadayi or Mhadei, the west-flowing river, originates in Bhimgad Wildlife Sanctuary (Western Ghats), Belagavi district of Karnataka. Goa and Karnatakahave had long disputes over water sharing issues of the Mhadei river.
  58. According to the latest IMD World Talent Ranking- 2019,India has slipped 6places from 53rd in 2018 to 59th rank this year on a global annual list of 63 countries.
  59. International Conference on Agricultural Statistics is a series of conferences, sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), World Bank (WB), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and other international development agencies. It was started in 1998 based on overarching need for agricultural data worldwide. It is conducted every three years and the last conference was held in Rome in 2016.
  60. Target Olympic Podium (TOP) Scheme was formulated in 2014 under overall ambit of National Sports Development Fund (NSDF) with the aim to identify, groom and prepare potential medal prospects for the Olympic and Paralympic Games. High priority category has been created to put focus on those sports disciplines played in the Olympics in which India has won medals in the last conducted Asian Games as well as Commonwealth Games or in which India has a good chance of winning medals. Presently, nine sports disciplines viz., (i) Athletics, (ii) Badminton (iii) Hockey (iv) Shooting (v) Tennis (vi) Weightlifting (vii) Wrestling, (viii) Archery and (ix) Boxing have been categorised as ‘High Priority’. The National Sports Development Fund (NSDF) was established in November, 1998 under Charitable Endowments Act, 1890 with the aim of promotion of sports and games in the country.
  61. The Dudhwa Tiger Reserveis a protected area in Uttar Pradeshlocated on the India-Nepal border. It is the only place in U.P. where both Tigers and Rhinos can be spotted together.
  62. Ain-i-Akbariis a 16thcentury document. Written by Akbar’s court historian Abu’l Fazl in Persian language. Deals with the administration of Mughal Emperor Akbar.
  63. The Sangam literature includes Tolkappiyam, Ettutogai, Pattuppattu, Pathinenkilkanakku, and two epics named – Silappathikaram and Manimegalai. Tolkappiyam was authored by Tolkappiyar and is considered the earliest of Tamil literary work. Though it is a work on Tamil grammar but it also provides insights on the political and socio-economic conditions of the time. Ettutogai (Eight Anthologies) consist of eight works – Aingurunooru, Narrinai, Aganaooru, Purananooru, Kuruntogai, Kalittogai, Paripadal and Padirruppatu. The Pattuppattu (Ten Idylls) consists of ten works – Thirumurugarruppadai, Porunararruppadai, Sirupanarruppadai, Perumpanarruppadai, Mullaippattu, Nedunalvadai, Maduraikkanji, Kurinjippatttu,Pattinappalai and Malaipadukadam. Pathinenkilkanakku contains eighteen works about ethics and morals. The most important among these works is Tirukkural authored by Thiruvalluvar, the tamil great poet and philosopher. The two epics Silappathikaram is written by Elango Adigal and Manimegalai by Sittalai Sattanar. They also provide valuable details about the Sangam society and polity.
  64. Odisha has become the first state to start working on developing a ‘Plastic Park’, located in Jagatsinghpur district.
  65. Pavoor-Uliya is an island in the middle of the river Nethravati,about 10 km off Mangaluru, Karnataka.
  66. Willingdon Island is a seaport located in the city of Kochi, Kerala It is the largest man-made/artificial island of India and is surrounded by backwaters (a part of a river in which there is little or no current). It was carved out of Vembanad Lake and is connected via road and rail. The island is connected to the mainland by the Venduruthy Bridge. It is a major commercial centre and is home to the Kochi Naval Base of the Indian Navy, the Central Institute of Fisheries Technology and the Port of Kochi. It was named after the Viceroy Lord Willingdon and was created artificially in 1936 during his rule to improve the trade relations of British India with the rest of the world.
  67. Uighur is a predominantly Turkic-speaking ethnic group. According to leaked Chinese government documents, there was a clampdown on Uighurs and other Muslims in the country’s western Xinjiang region.
  68. Birsa Munda is often referred to as‘Dharti Abba’or the Earth Father. He led the rebellion that came to be known as Ulgulan (revolt) or the Munda rebellion against the British government-imposed feudal state system.
  69. The International Energy Agency (IEA) is an autonomous organisation which works to ensure reliable, affordable and clean energy. India became an associate member of the International Energy Agency in 2017. Mexico officially became the International Energy Agency’s 30thmember country in February 2018, and its first member in Latin America.
  70. Recently, the Defence Minister inaugurated the Sisseri River Bridgelocated at lower Dibang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh.The 200m long bridge provides connectivity between Dibang Valley and Siang.
  71. The Brahmani river (second largest river in Odisha) enters into the Bay of Bengal along with a combined mouth with the Mahanadi (the largest river in Odisha)  known as the Dhamara.
  72. Mahuva Tree (Mahua Longifolia) is an Indian tropical tree found largely in the central and north Indian plains and forests. Buffer Zone are areas created to enhance the protection of a specific conservation area. They are areas peripheral to a specific protected area, where restrictions on resource use and special development measures are undertaken in order to enhance the conservation value of the protected area. Within buffer zones, resource use may be legally or customarily restricted, often to a lesser degree than in the adjacent protected area so as to form a transition zone.
  73. Krishnapatnam Port is located in Nellore District in Andhra Pradesh. The Port has been named so as the Vijayanagar Emperor, Sri Krishnadevaraya used to operate this port. In the 1980s, the Government of India declared the Port as a ‘minor port’.
  74. Premature deaths due to various causes expressed as Years of Life Lost (YLL) are unevenly distributed in terms of the burden on the states. The Years of Life Lost (YLL) is a measure of premature mortality. It estimates the years of potential life lost due to premature deaths.
  75. Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve along with Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Bandipur National Park, Nagarhole National Park, Mukurthi National Park, and Silent Valley. It has the world’s largest recorded population of the Asiatic elephant. Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary is one of the 13 sanctuaries in the protected areas of the state of Kerala.
  76. The first-ever India-US joint tri services Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) exercise,named ‘Tiger Triumph’, is being held from 13th-21stNovember, 2019.
  77. To conserve and sustainably use plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, andfair and equitable sharingof the benefits arising out of their use, in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity.
  78. First of its kind ‘SDG India Index’has been developed in collaboration with the Ministry of Statistics & Programme Implementation (MoSPI), Global Green Growth Institute, United Nations in India, and NITI Aayog.
  79. The Indian Naval Ship (INS) Baazis located at Campbell Bay on the Great Nicobar island,the southernmost and largest island of the Nicobar Islands, in the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Great Nicobar Island is the location of the Indira Point and is less than 250 km by sea from Banda Aceh in Indonesia. The Andaman & Nicobar Islands are strategically important for India’s national security as they provide a critical capability to monitor sea areas in the region. The location has been described as India’s “window into East and Southeast Asia”, and is in close vicinity of the Six Degree Channel, also called the Great Channel, one of the Indian Ocean’s busiest shipping lines, carrying strategic cargo to East Asian countries. It is also close to the Strait of Malacca.
  80. Iran has discovered a new oil field in its southwestern province of  The new oil field could become Iran’s second-largest fieldafter one containing 65 billion barrels in Ahvaz (capital of Khuzestan Province). Iran currently has the world’s fourth-largest proven deposits of crude oilafter Venezuela, Saudi Arabia and Canada.
  81. Bonded Labour is a practice in which employers give high-interest loansto workers who work at low wages to pay off the debt. The Constitution of India prohibitsforced labour under Article 23 (Fundamental Rights).
  82. Bandipur National Park is part of interconnected forests that include Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary (Tamil Nadu), Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary (Kerala) and Nagarhole National Park (Karnataka). It has the second-highest tiger population in India afterPench Tiger Reserve (Madhya Pradesh). Madhya Pradeshhas the highest number of tigers followed by Karnataka.
  83. The word Dhrupad is derived from Dhruva, the steadfast evening star that moves through the galaxy, and Pada meaning poetry. Traditionally, the dhrupad style of singing was performed with a tanpura and pakhawaj. The lyrics sung in Dhrupad are in a medieval form of Hindi and typically heroic in theme, or praise of a particular deity. It is a form of devotional music that traces its origin to the ancient text of Samveda. One significant characteristic of Dhrupad is the emphasis on maintaining the purity of the Raga. Hindustani classical music is primarily vocal-centric. The primary vocal forms associated with Hindustani music are the Khayal, Ghazal, Dhrupad, Dhammar, Tarana and Thumri.
  84. Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant (FFEP)is Iran’s second pilot enrichment plant (the first is the Pilot Fuel Enrichment Plant at Natanz). The site was originally a tunnel facility associated with Iran’s paramilitary organization, the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC)and is located buried in a mountain near the city of Qom.
  85. Phytosanitary certificates are issued to indicate that consignments of plants, plant products meet specified phytosanitary import requirements under International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), 1951. Phytosanitary measuresare aimed at the protection of human, animal and plant health from diseases, pests, and contaminants. Usually, PSCs are generated by the exporting country. It can only be issued by an authorized officer from a government departmentthat is authorized by a National Plant Protection Agency (NPPO). NPPO is in force to protect the threat of spreading pests, contamination or diseases into the country of import.
  86. In the context of climate change mitigation, double counting is widely used to describe situations where a single greenhouse gas emission reduction or removal is used more than once to demonstrate compliance with mitigation targets. Double counting becomes prominent where multiple mitigation mechanisms overlap over sources or sinks and when emission reductions are transferred among entities subject to mitigation targets and accounted towards them.
  87. Core Investment Companies (CICs) are a specialized Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs). A Core Investment Company registered with the RBI has an asset size of above Rs 100 crore. Their main business is acquisition of shares and securities with certain conditions.
  88. CSIR-NEERI is a research institute created and funded by the Government of India. It functions under the Ministry of Science & Technology. It was established in Nagpur in 1958 with focus on water supply, sewage disposal, communicable diseases and to some extent on industrial pollution and occupational diseases found common in post-independent India. CSIR has 38 national laboratories working in various areas of science and technology. CSIR-NEERI is one of those laboratories.
  89. Fumigationis a pest control method that involves filling the airspacewithin a structure with toxic gas. Eg. Methyl Bromide, Phosphine, etc. Methyl bromide is forbidden in developed nations, and its use was restricted by the Montreal Protocol due to its role in ozone depletion. It is mainly used to control pests in storage buildings (structural fumigation), soil, and grains. It is also used during processing of goods to be imported or exported to prevent transfer of exotic organisms. It is seen as the most effective way to kill all pests, insects, and nematodes.
  90. Alternative Investment Fund means any fund established in India which is a privately pooled investment vehicle which collects funds from sophisticated investors, whether Indian or foreign, for investing it in accordance with a defined investment policy for the benefit of its investors. An alternative investment is a financial asset that does not fall into one of the conventional equity/income/cash categories. It is regulated by the SEBI.
  91. Wastelands are a barren and uncultivated land lying unproductive or which is not being utilized to its potential. It includes degraded forests, overgrazed pastures, drought-struck pas­tures, eroded valleys, hilly slopes, waterlogged marshy lands, barren land, etc.
  92. A new species of tree frog, discovered in West Bengal, has been named Brown Blotched Bengal Tree Frog(Polypedates bengalensis)due to a series of six to nine dark brown blotches present on its body. It is a mid-sized tree frog and is the 26th species under the genus  Polypedates is a genus of tree frog found throughout South and Southeast Asia.
  93. According to an analysis published in ‘Carbon Brief’, Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in India are set to grow at their slowest in the year 2019, which is a rise of only2% from the year 2018. The 2% rate is a lower rate than any annual increase since 2001.
  94. Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar (SSB) Prize for Science and Technologyis named after the founder Director of the CSIR,the late Dr Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar.
  95. Liquidity coverage ratio refers to the proportion of highly liquid assets held by companies to ensure their ongoing ability to meet short-term obligations. It promotes resilience of banks to potential liquidity disruptions by ensuring that they have sufficient High-Quality Liquid Asset (HQLA) to survive any acute liquidity stress scenario lasting for 30 days. HQLAs mean liquid assets that can be readily sold or immediately converted into cash at little or no loss of value or used as collateral to obtain funds in a range of stress scenarios.
  96. Air pollution is now thethird-highestcause of death among all health risks, ranking just above smoking, in India.
  97. The recent, theCassini spacecraftshowed that there is an uncertainty of 6 minutes with a rotation period of Saturn.
  98. A German pharma company is facing thousands of lawsuits over its herbicide products which are based on a compound called Herbicideis an agent, usually chemical, for killing or inhibiting the growth of unwanted plants, such as residential or agricultural weeds and invasive species.
  99. Tawang Festival is an annual festivalwhich was started in 2012and celebrates Arunachal’s rich cultural heritage, including Buddhist religious functions, traditional dances, indigenous sports, films and documentaries, food festivals and more. It starts with the religious tradition known as “Sebang” which is the process of monks of Tawang town moving to the festival spot in rallies from the Tawang monastery.
  100. Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDR–RC) is a principle within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)that acknowledges the different capabilities and differing responsibilities of individual countries in addressing climate change.
  101. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit’s 2019 Global Microscope on Financial Inclusion report, India (ranked at 5thposition) is among the top nations with the most conducive environment for financial inclusion.
  102. Excavation by Archaeological Survey of Indiaat Gottiprolu near Nellore (now renamed as Sri Potti Sriramulu) district, Andhra Pradesh has discovered the remains of a huge settlement. The site lies on the right bank of a distributary of river Swarnamukhi.
  103. Ecological Fiscal Transfer, is a type of conditional environmental payments which involves conditional payments from higher levels of a country’s government (e.g. national) to lower levels (e.g. state or local). EFTs distribute a share of intergovernmental fiscal transfers and revenue sharing schemes according to ecological indicators such as protected areas or watershed management areas etc. These conservation areas thus become a source of income for the receiving governments. Biodiversity-related fiscal transfers are a powerful means of reconciling the conservation costs encountered at local level with the benefits of biodiversity conservation at higher levels of governance. EFTs are thus seen as an innovative policy instrument for providing incentives to local governments to maintain or increase biodiversity conservation activities which provide ecological benefits to society in general.
  104. World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is an intergovernmental organisationresponsible for improving animal health worldwide. In 2018, it had a total of 182 Member Countries. India is one of the member countries. OIE develops normative documents relating to rules that Member Countries can use to protect themselves from the introduction of diseases and pathogens. One of them is the Terrestrial Animal Health Code. OIE standards are recognised by the World Trade Organization as reference international sanitary rules. It is headquartered in Paris, France.
  105. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)has included Mumbai and Hyderabad in its network of ‘Creative Cities’ among the 66 cities selected on the occasion of World Cities Day 2019 (31st October). Mumbai has been designated as Creative City of Films and Hyderabad as a Creative City of Gastronomy. Earlier, Indian cities like Chennai and Varanasi have been included in UNESCO Cities of Music while Jaipur has been included in the City of Crafts and Folk Arts.
  106. Over-the-Top (OTT) platforms deliver audio, video, and other media content via the internet, eschewing the need for traditional platforms like cable, broadcast and satellite television. These are also known as Online Curated Content Providers (OCCP).
  107. Tamil Nadu has become the first State to enact a law on contract farming based on the lines of Model Contract Farming Act, 2018 of the Central Government. Contract Farming involves agricultural production (including livestock and poultry) being carried out on the basis of a preharvest agreement (or forward contracts) between the buyers (such as food processing units and exporters) and producers (farmers or farmer organisations). It is under the Concurrent List; however, Agriculture is under State list.
  108. Gahiramatha, located in Odisha, is known as the world’s largest Olive Ridley rookery.
  109. Pakistan became the first country in the world to introduce World Health Organisation-recommended typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV). Pakistan introduced TCV called Typbar TCV in its national immunisation program against extensively drug-resistant (XDR) typhoid outbreak.
  110. Kodavas (also known as Kogadu), a well-known martial community of coorg region in Karnataka. They are known for its outstanding contributions to the country’s defence sector and hence, Coorg is also called the Land of Generals. Other important festivals celebrated by Kodavas are Puttari (to celebrate the first harvest of paddy) and Kaveri Sankramana.
  111. Counter-Terrorism Table-Top Exercise (CT-TTX) is first counter-terrorism exercise for “Quad”
    countries (U.S., India, Japan and Australia) recently hosted by the National Investigation Agency in New
  112. Centre is planning to expand the reach of the Smart Safety Surveillance or 3S programme. Centre is planning to expand the reach of the Smart Safety Surveillance or 3S programme. It was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), considering the limited safety data on vaccines introduced in India.
  113. Dendrochronology is the study of tree rings that hold a wealth of information about not only a tree’s past but also that of the ecosystem in which it lives. Tree rings are layers of growth that a tree
    acquires in a year. The colour of old wood is always darker than a comparatively newer wood which creates a contrasting pattern of rings year on year. The ring is thick in the years of good growth,
    characterised by a healthy supply of resources, it is thin when the ecosystem has dearth of resources.
  114. Dustlik 2019 is the first ever India-Uzbekistan bilateral military exercise.
  115. Endowment Fund is an investment fund established by a foundation (universities, nonprofit organizations, churches and hospitals etc.) that makes consistent withdrawals from invested capital. It means that endowment funds are basically investment portfolios where initial money is provided by donations to a foundation. The running of an endowment fund is governed by investment, withdrawal and usage policy. The capitals in endowment funds are generally utilized by a foundation for specific needs or to further a company’s operating process. These are typically funded entirely by donations that are deductible for donors.
  116. Human Resource Development ministry has launched Shaala Darpan portal. It is an E-Governance school automation and management system for Navodaya Vidyalaya Samiti (NVS) in New Delhi. It is an end to end e-Governance school automation and management system.
  117. Two new countries Eritrea and Saint Kitts and Nevis have signed the International Solar Alliance’s (ISA) Framework Agreement at the second Assembly of ISA held in New Delhi. With this the total number of countries who have so far signed the ISA framework agreement have reached to 83.
  118. The city of Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh held the title for the world’s most polluted city in the latest edition of Guinness World Records.
  119. The New Colombo Plan Mobility Programprovides funding to Australian universities and consortia to support Australian undergraduate students to participate in semester-based or short-term study, internships, mentorships, practicums and research in 40 host locations across the Indo-Pacific region.
  120. Union Minister of Finance and Corporate Affairs, Nirmala Sitharaman launched a new IT initiative called ICEDASH for improved monitoring and pace of Customs clearance of imported goods. ICEDASH would be key drivers for further improvement in Customs especially as it would reduce interface and increase transparency of Customs functioning.
  121. The biggest US- Bangladesh Navy exercise dubbed as ‘Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) – 2019’ is being held in Chattogram (or Chittagong City) in Bangladesh. The CARAT is a yearly exercise conducted between the navies of Bangladesh and United States in the Bay of Bengal. The first edition of exercise was held in 2011.
  122. Lymphatic filarias is also called as elephantiasis, it is Caused by infection with parasitic worms living in the lymphatic system. The larval stages of the parasite (microfilaria) circulate in the blood and are transmitted from person to person by mosquitoes. The World Health Organization (WHO) is recommending three drug treatment to accelerate the global elimination of lymphatic filariasis.
  123. Agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support (ARLS) is an arrangement that will allow access to both India and Russia to each other’s military facilities for expanding logistics support, supplies and fuel and operational turnaround of Indian military. The ARLS will be especially beneficial for Indian Navy as it has a large number of Russian origin ships that will get access to Russian ports for supplies and refueling. This will also be crucial for joint exercises. Besides Navy, the air force too will benefit by finding it easier to deploy aircraft for same purpose. This access will also be for ports in Russian part of Arctic, thus allowing access to energy resources there. Even Russia, will also be able to access Indian ports and air bases.
  124. Work of Lala Lajpat Rai-‘The Arya Samaj’, ‘Young India’, ‘England’s Debt to India’, ‘Evolution of Japan’, ‘India’s Will to Freedom’, ‘Message of the Bhagwad Gita’, ‘Political Future of India’, ‘Problem of National Education in India’, ‘The Depressed Glasses’, and the travelogue ‘United States of America’.
  125. The Environment Ministry is undertaking a mass cleanliness-cum-awareness drive in 50 identified beaches under the “Swachh – Nirmal Tat Abhiyaan”. It was Launched by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC). Its aim is to make beaches clean and create awareness amongst citizens about the importance of coastal ecosystems – in Beaches across 10 states / UTs. The campaign will be organized in the beaches after consultation with the state governments. Environment Education Division and Society of Integrated Coastal Management (SICOM) under the Environment Ministry will be responsible for its implementation.
  126. India will host the next edition of the ”No Money For Terror” conference to be held in 2020. The ”No Money For Terror” conference is organised by Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) of over 100 countries, jointly called The Egmont Group.
  127. The Governor would be expected to go as per an order of preference set out in the Sarkaria Commission recommendations, which have also been ratified by the Supreme Court. The Governor can only summon the new House for the first sitting only after a new government is sworn in and the Cabinet has suggested a suitable date. The process of swearing-in of the newly elected members and appointment of the new Speaker can be held thereafter.
  128. The Assam government has announced the launch of ‘Arundhati Swarna Yojana’ under the scheme, the state government will offer 10 grams of gold as a gift to every adult bride who
    has completed at least 10th standard and has registered her marriage.
  129. India’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV-C47 has launched Cartosat-3 and 13 commercial nanosatellites into Sun Synchronous orbit from Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) SHAR, Sriharikota. Cartosat-3 is a third-generation agile advanced earth observation satellite with high-resolution imaging capability.
  130. Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is coordinated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). ISA is the only international education survey to measure the knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds, an age at which students in most countries are nearing the end of their compulsory time in school.
  131. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in
    children, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is the second most common cause of bacterial pneumonia. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common viral cause of pneumonia.
  132. The Feni river forms part of the India-Bangladesh border. It originates in the South Tripura district, passes through Sabroom town on the Indian side, and meets the Bay of Bengal after it flows into Bangladesh.
  133. India accounts for the highest share with 17.5 million Indians living outside the country.
    India is the leading recipient of remittances. International remittances in 2018 (2020 report) reached $689 billion, out of which India received $78.6 billion from the 17.5 million living abroad.
  134. European Union (EU) has become the first multilateral bloc to declare climate emergency.
  135. Bacteriophages are the viruses that can kill the bacteria. They are comprised of a protein capsule around an RNA or DNA genome. They are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. They are seen as a possible therapy against multi-drug-resistant strains of many bacteria.
  136. HIM Vijay is the Indian Army’s biggest mountain combat exercise. It is the first-ever military drill that was held in the north-eastern state of Arunachal Pradesh.