IAS Abhiyan Prelims inFocus-October 2021

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IAS Abhiyan Prelims inFocus-September 2021

IAS Abhiyan Prelims inFocus-October 2021

  1. Bio-enzymes are organic solutions produced through fermentation of organic waste including various fruits, vegetable peels and flowers, by mixing in sugar, jaggery/molasses and water. It takes 60-100 days to ferment organic waste. To fasten the fermentation, yeast can be used as culture to prepare it in 45-50 days. BE’s also have a lot of usage in our daily lives.
  2. The IMF unveiled its 2nd World Economic Outlook (WEO). The IMO comes out with the report twice every year — April and October — and also provides regular “updates” to it on other occasions. The WEO reports are significant because they are based on a wide set of assumptions about a host of parameters — such as the international price of crude oil — and set the benchmark for all economies to compare one another with.
  3. The British Museum in London will display an ancient object called the Nebra Sky Disc, which is thought to be the world’s oldest concrete depiction of stars. About 3,600 years ago, the disc was ritually buried along with two swords, axes, two spiral arm-rings and one bronze chisel near Nebra in Germany. The burial of these objects is thought to be made as a dedication to gods.
  4. The Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle (HSTDV) is an unmanned scramjet demonstration aircraft for hypersonic speed flight. It is being developed as a carrier vehicle for hypersonic and long-range cruise missiles, and will have multiple civilian applications including the launching of small satellites at low cost. The HSTDV program is being run by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). The Defense Research and Development Laboratory’s Hypersonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle (HSTDV) is intended to attain autonomous scramjet flight for 20 seconds, using a solid rocket launch booster. The research will also inform India’s interest in reusable launch vehicles.
  5. Circular economy is a model of production and consumption, which involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products for as long as possible. It aims to tackle global challenges such as waste, pollution, climate change and biodiversity loss.
  6. Guwahati was among the three cities chosen by WasteAid, a United Kingdom-based non-profit, to launch a Zero Waste Cities Challenge. The aim was to find entrepreneurs with innovative business ideas that can help reduce or recycle waste and create green employment opportunities. The non-profit has now chosen two winners — entrepreneurs from Shree Guru Plastic and Inside Out — for their work on promoting circular economy and reducing the usage of plastics.
  7. Dubbed as the “Eco Oscars”, The Earthshot Prize is an award set up by Prince William and the Royal Foundation. The foundation honours five finalists between 2021 and 2030 for developing solutions to fight the climate crisis. It aims to mobilise collective action around our unique ability to innovate, problem solve and repair our planet. The Earthshot Prize was launched in 2020 by Prince William, Duke of Cambridge and David Attenborough, with the support of a broad range of individuals and organizations dedicated to climate action.  The year 2021 was the first year when awards were handed out to finalists for their contributions towards the five UN Sustainable Development Goals. Each of the five Winners received £1million prize money and a global network of professional and technical support to scale their remarkable environmental solutions to repair our planet and accelerate their impact. The five Winners include cutting-edge technologists, innovators, an entire country, and a pioneering city.  The award is distributed in five separate categories supported by the UN Sustainable Development Goals – Protect and Restore Nature; Clean our Air; Revive our Oceans; Build a Waste-free World; and Fix our Climate.
  8. The Institute of Economics and Peace (IEP) has released the Ecological threat report 2021 understanding ecological threats, resilience and peace. The report looked at food risk, water risk, rapid population growth, temperature anomalies and natural disasters. It combined the data from above mentioned aspects with national measures of socioeconomic resilience such as well-functioning governments, strong business environments and acceptance of other people’s rights among others.  The 11 countries with the worst ETR score are Afghanistan, Niger, Madagascar, Malawi, Rwanda, Burundi, Guatemala, Mozambique, Pakistan, Angola and Yemen.
  9. The wildlife wing of Odisha’s forest department decided to relocate around 420 families from four zero-connectivity villages in Debrigarh wildlife sanctuary, Bargarh district. The 353-square kilometre sanctuary is situated adjacent to the huge Hirakud reservoir.  The sanctuary is an important biogeographic zone from both the ecological and environmental point of view.
  10. Cumbre Vieja volcano erupted on Spain’s Canary Island of La Palma. La Palma is one of the eight volcanic islands in Spain’s Canary Islands archipelago off Africa’s western coast. La Palma is a basaltic shield volcano in the Canary Islands. Like Hawaiian volcanoes, La Palma typically erupts lava flows. It has rugged and forested terrain and is dotted with volcanoes like Teneguía and Cumbre Vieja. Its highest mountain is the Roque de los Muchachos. 
  11. The Canary Islands or archipelago (group of islands) is located in the Atlantic Ocean in a region known as Macaronesia. It is about 1300 km South of mainland Spain and 115 km West of the African coast (Morocco). It includes 7 islands belonging to Spain, among which La Palma (in the North-West of the archipelago), Tenerife and Gran Canaria (central). They are the southernmost of the autonomous communities of Spain, and are located in the African Tectonic Plate. The archipelago is economically and politically European, and is part of the European Union. Largest and most populated archipelago of the Macaronesia region.
  12. NITI Aayog’s Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) has launched a Digi-Book – “Innovations for You” an attempt to showcase the success stories of Atal Innovation Mission’s Startups in different domains.
  13. The 2021 Production Gap Report was released by the leading research institutes and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).  The Production Gap Report, first launched in 2019, tracks the discrepancy between governments’ planned fossil fuel production and global production levels consistent with limiting warming to 1.5°C or 2°C.
  14. The Sakharov Prize for Freedom of Thought, commonly known as the Sakharov Prize, is an honorary award for individuals or groups who have dedicated their lives to the defense of human rights and freedom of thought.
  15. The Abraham Accords are a joint statement between State of Israel, the United Arab Emirates, and the United States of America, reached on August 13, 2020. Subsequently, the term was used to refer collectively to agreements between Israel and the United Arab Emirates (the Israel–United Arab Emirates normalization agreement) and Bahrain, respectively (the Bahrain–Israel normalization agreement). The statement marked the first public normalization of relations between an Arab country and Israel since that of Jordan in 1994.
  16. Weather4UN, a pilot project led by MeteoSwiss and supported by the Swiss Federal Council, aims to improve the coordination of meteorological data production and transmission within the United Nations system and for humanitarian organisations around the world. As a result of this initiative, early action can be taken and people will be better protected from extreme weather events.
  17. The Global Basic Observing Network (GBON) – approved by the World Meteorological Congress in 2018 – represents a new approach in which the basic surface-based observing network is designed, defined and monitored at the global level. Once implemented, GBON will improve the availability of the most essential surface-based data. This will have a direct positive impact on the quality of weather forecasts and information that will help to improve the safety and well-being of citizens throughout the world. Although GBON can be implemented relatively quickly over the territory of most WMO Members in the developed world, in many developing countries additional investment and capacity development will be needed. WMO is working closely with the international development and climate finance communities to facilitate this.  In 2019, the World Meteorological Congress and its 193 member countries and territories agreed to establish the Global Basic Observing Network (GBON).
  18. The Systematic Observations Financing Facility (SOFF) will support countries to generate and exchange basic observational data critical for improved weather forecasts and climate services. It will provide technical and financial assistance in new ways – applying internationally agreed metrics – the requirements of the Global Basic Observing Network (GBON) – to guide investments, using data exchange as a measure of success, and creating local benefits while delivering on a global public good. The SOFF will contribute to strengthen climate adaptation and resilience across the globe, benefitting in particular the most vulnerable. The creation of the SOFF is spearheaded by the World Meteorological Organization in collaboration with a wide range of international organizations, including the members of the Alliance for Hydromet Development. The Alliance unites efforts of major development and climate finance partners to close the capacity gap on high-quality weather forecasts, early warning systems and climate information.
  19. Environmental think tank Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW) has carried a first-of-its-kind district-level climate vulnerability assessment, or Climate Vulnerability Index (CVI), in which it has analysed 640 districts in India to assess their vulnerability to extreme weather events such as cyclones, floods, heatwaves, droughts, etc. The study does not take into consideration other natural disasters such as earthquakes.
  20. On the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, museum scientists have discovered 28 new species of beetles. One of them has been named Trigonopterus corona. And it is not the only insect species to be named after the pandemic. In April, a new species of caddisfly (a moth-like insect) was collected near a stream in Kosovo by a team of scientists, and named Potamophylax coronavirus. Out of six new species of Brazilian wasps described in the Journal of Hymenoptera Research, one was named Allorhagas quarentenus, a reference to the quarantine. And earlier this month, out of five new wasp species discovered in Mexico, scientists named one Stethantyx covida.
  21. Khasi community speak the Mon-Khmer language of the Austroasiatic stock. They are people of the Khasi and Jaintia hills of the state of Meghalaya in India.
  22. The sedition law, enshrined in Section 124A of IPC, was introduced by the British government in 1870 to tackle dissent against colonial rule.
  23. Pegasus was developed by the Israeli firm NSO Group that was set up in 2010. Pegasus infect phones through what is called spear-phishing.  Spear phishing is a fraudulent practise of sending emails ostensibly from a known or trusted sender. In order to induce targeted individuals to reveal confidential information. Pegasus attack capabilities have become more advanced and can be achieved through so-called “Zero-click” attacks, Which do not require any interaction from the phone’s owner in order to succeed. These will often exploit “Zero-day” vulnerabilities, Which are flaws or bugs in an operating system that the mobile phone’s manufacturer does not know and so has not been fixed.
  24. Nordic countries include Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Iceland.
  25. Autosomal DNA is a term used in genetic genealogy to describe DNA that is inherited from the autosomal chromosomes. A person inherits half of autosomal DNA from the father and a half from the mother which means genetic matches can be checked irrespective of whether an ancestor is on the father or mother’s side of the family. The autosomal DNA technique can be used even when very limited genetic data are available. Autosomal DNA tests can be used to confirm relationships with a high level of accuracy for parent/child relationships and all relationships up to the second cousin level. 
  26. India and the European Union (EU) are set to resume negotiations for a Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA) by December 2021.
  27. Assessed contributions (AC) are a percentage of a country’s Gross Domestic Product (the percentage is agreed by the United Nations General Assembly). Assessed contributions (AC) are the amounts each of the 196 Members and Associate Members must pay to WHO on an annual basis. The assessment scale is calculated by the United Nations based mainly on the country’s GDP and is adjusted for WHO’s membership. It is approved every two years by the World Health Assembly (refer to the latest approved assessment scale resolution attached here).  
  28. The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an intergovernmental forum comprising 19 countries and the European Union (EU). Spain is a permanent guest invitee. It operates without a permanent secretariat or staff.
  29. Mastercard along with Lawrence Dale Agro Processing India (LEAF) launched LEAF Farmer Network (LFN).  LFN is a digital platform to improve financial assess and inclusion among the farmers in the country. LFN will empower farmers across Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. It will focus on digitization of harvest data, enhance access to markets, provide expertise on better crops, and bring in transparency by connecting directly with buyers. It will bring access to good quality produce at scale, enable price negotiation with complete transparency and manage end-to-end logistics with quality control.
  30. The All-India Debt and Investment Surveys (AIDIS), carried out by the National Statistical Office are among the most important nationally representative data sources on the rural credit market in India.
  31. Dr Ambedkar had defined ‘Adivasi’ in Articles 366 (25) and 342. Apart from this, 34 Articles in the Constitution deal with Adivasi interests. The Fifth and Sixth Schedule are a declaration of Adivasi development.
  32. The UK, host of COP-26, released a “climate finance delivery plan” earlier this week, charting a course for delivery in 2023, three years behind schedule.
  33. Recently, the Union Health Minister launched a nationwide expansion of Pneumococcal 13-valent Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) under the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) as a part of ‘Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav’.
  34. Pneumonia is a lung disease. Pneumococcal pneumonia, a kind of pneumonia, can infect the upper respiratory tract and can spread to the blood, lungs, middle ear, or nervous system. Pneumococcal disease is a name for any infection caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumonia or pneumococcus. Most people carry pneumococcus in their nose and throat, where the bacteria do not cause any symptoms.
  35. The Supreme Court appointed an independent expert technical committee overseen by a former apex court judge, Justice R.V. Raveendran, to examine allegations that the government used an Israeli spyware, Pegasus, to snoop on its own citizens.
  36. Organized by the UK Army, Cambrian Patrol Exerciseis considered the ultimate test of human endurance, team spirit and is sometimes referred as the Olympics of Military Patrolling. The aim of The Cambrian Patrol is to provide a challenging patrols exercise in order to enhance operational capability.
  37. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has launched a $9 billion vaccine initiative—the Asia Pacific Vaccine Access Facility (APVAX)—offering rapid and equitable support to its developing member countries (DMCs) as they procure and deliver effective and safe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccines. The Beijing-headquartered AIIB will co-finance the vaccine procurement.  India is the second-largest shareholder after China in the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), which does not count the U.S. and Japan among its members.
  38. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP, formerly the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East or ECAFE) and non-regional developed countries. From 31 members at its establishment, ADB now has 68 members. ADB is an official United Nations Observer. As of 31 December 2020, Japan and the United States each holds the largest proportion of shares at 15.571%. China holds 6.429%, India holds 6.317%, and Australia holds 5.773%.
  39. The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a multilateral development bank that aims to improve economic and social outcomes in Asia. The bank currently has 104 members, including 17 prospective members from around the world.
  40. The South Asia Subregional Economic Cooperation (SASEC) Program, set up in 2001, brings together Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, and Sri Lanka in a project-based partnership to promote regional prosperity by improving cross-border connectivity, boosting trade among member countries, and strengthening regional economic cooperation. The Manila, Philippines-based Asian Development Bank (ADB) serves as the Secretariat for the SASEC member countries.
  41. Matrilineal Meghalaya is set to break the tradition of parents bequeathing the lion’s share of parental property to the khatduh, which means the youngest daughter in the Khasi language.
  42. Mullaperiyar Dam a masonry gravity dam on the Periyar River in the Indian state of Kerala. It is located on the Cardamom Hills of the Western Ghats in Thekkady, Idukki District of Kerala. The dam is located in Kerala on the river Periyar, but is operated and maintained by the neighbouring state of Tamil Nadu. The Mullaperiyar Dam is a gravity dam made with concrete prepared from limestone and “surkhi” (burnt brick powder), and faced with rubble. Gravity dams use their weight and the force of gravity to support the reservoir and remain stable.
  43. Maize needs less than one-fifth the water that paddy does for irrigation.
  44. Ministry of Textiles had introduced Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) in 1999 as a credit linked subsidy scheme intended for modernization and technology up-gradation of the Indian textile industry, promoting ease of doing business, generating employment and promoting exports. Since then, the scheme has been implemented in different versions. ATUFS is implemented through web-based platform, iTUFS.
  45. Hot Springs lies in the Chang Chenmo River valley, close to Kongka La, a pass that marks the Line of Actual Control.
  46. The microfinance crisis of Andhra Pradesh led the RBI to review the matter, and based on the recommendations of the Malegam Committee, a new regulatory framework for NBFC-MFIs was introduced in December 2011.
  1. The Supreme Court has three kinds of jurisdictions: original, appellate and advisory. Under its advisory jurisdiction, the President has the power to seek an opinion from the apex court under Article 143 of the Constitution. Under its appellate jurisdiction, the Supreme Court hears appeals from lower courts. In its extraordinary original jurisdiction, the Supreme Court has exclusive power to adjudicate upon disputes involving elections of the President and the Vice President, those that involve states and the Centre, and cases involving the violation of fundamental rights.
  2. For a dispute to qualify as a dispute under Article 131, it has to necessarily be between states and the Centre, and must involve a question of law or fact on which the existence of a legal right of the state or the Centre depends. In a 1978 judgment, State of Karnataka v Union of India, Justice P N Bhagwati had said that for the Supreme Court to accept a suit under Article 131, the state need not show that its legal right is violated, but only that the dispute involves a legal question. Article 131 cannot be used to settle political differences between state and central governments headed by different parties. Under this Article 131 of the Constitution the court cannot take a dispute which involves a private party and a Government on the other side. This Article will only be applied when there is question on the legal rights of the State or the Union vis-à-vis the other States.
  3. The Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSME)has launched an e-National Level Awareness Programme ‘SAMBHAV”, to promote engagement of the youth in promoting entrepreneurship.
  4. October 21 is observed as Police Commemoration Day as it was on this day in 1959 that a pitched battle was fought against the Chinese in Ladakh close to the border. 
  5. India was amongst the first nations in 1952 to launch the India Aid Mission (IAM) in Nepal, years before USAID was born. It was soon made the Indian Cooperation Mission (ICM) — India partners for development cooperation and does not give aid like OECD members.
  6. ‘First-generation’ solar cells use mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon wafers. While the former is made from a single crystal of silicon (of higher purity), the latter is made by combining several fragments. The efficiency of mono-crystalline panels is about 24%, while for multi-crystalline panels it is about 20%. Crystalline silicon technologies are one of the oldest in the market and occupy 95% of the global photovoltaic (PV) market. Mono-crystalline cells are dominant today. Although mono-crystalline panels are priced higher than multi-crystalline ones, the difference is diminishing and will soon attain parity. This would result in mono panels being preferred over multi due to their higher efficiency, greater energy yield and lower cost of energy.
  7. River Ranching is a form of aquaculture in which a population of a fish species (such as salmon) is held in captivity for the first stage of their lives.
  8. Trench is a simple structure for growing vegetables during extreme winters. Trench cultivation harnesses soil and solar heat to create suitable climatic conditions for growth of leafy vegetables like spinach, fenugreek, coriander, lai etc. Suitable size of 30’ x 10’ x 3’ with transparent UV stabilized 200 micron polythene sheet as The technology is low in cost and is utilized for growing green vegetables during extreme winters. Cabbage, onion, leek, beetroot, temperate radish, temperate carrot, turnip, swede, celery, and parsley are vegetable seed crops that can be produced on sandy to heavy soils with enough water and nutrients. If given the right impetus, these have the potential of being exported and grown throughout the world.
  9. Katchatheevu, an uninhibited off-shore island in the Palk Strait, is administered by Sri Lanka. Though the island was jointly managed by India and Sri Lanka allowing the fishermen of both countries to dry their nets there, it was ceded to Sri Lanka in 1974. Since then, Katchatheevu has remained an issue with some political parties in Tamil Nadu demanding that the island be returned to benefit the fishermen of India.
  10. Bengal floricans is found in very small numbers only in India and Cambodia. About a hundred of them are present in Nepal and the species is extinct in Bangladesh. For conservation of any species, habitat is the prime importance and Kokilabari is one such important habitat for not only Bengal florican but many more species.
  11. The first consignment of GI-tagged sweet dish Mihidana sourced from Bardhaman, West Bengal has been exported to the Kingdom of Bahrain.
  12. IUCN’s World Heritage Outlook is the first global assessment of natural World Heritage.
  13. Earlier negotiations had dealt with territories in Bhutan’s north and west, including Pasamlung and Jakarlung valleys in the north and Doklam to the west.
  14. Zeolites are highly porous, 3-D meshes of silica and alumina. In nature, they occur where volcanic outflows have met water. Synthetic zeolites have proven to be a big and low-cost boon. 
  15. International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ): An independent global network of investigative journalists and over media organizations spanning more than 100 countries. An initiative of the Center for Public Integrity, with the aim of exposing crime and corruption that transcended national boundaries. In 2017, it became a fully independent organization and was later granted nonprofit status. Investigates a broad range of matters concerning “cross-border crime, corruption, and the accountability of power. The Indian Trusts Act, 1882, gives legal basis to the concept of trusts. While Indian laws do not see trusts as a legal person/ entity, they do recognise the trust as an obligation of the trustee to manage and use the assets settled in the trust for the benefit of ‘beneficiaries’. India also recognises offshore trusts i.e., trusts set up in other tax jurisdictions.
  16. The theme of World Food Day 2021: ‘Our actions are our future. Better production, better nutrition, a better environment and a better life’.
  17. The Nutrient Based Subsidy (NBS) for fertilizer was initiated in the year 2010and is being implemented by the Department of Fertilizers. Under the scheme, a fixed amount of subsidy decided on an annual basis is provided on each grade of subsidized P&K fertilizers, except for Urea based on the nutrient content present in them. It is largely for secondary nutrients like N, P, S and K and micronutrients which are very important for crop growth and development. In India, urea is the only controlled fertilizer and is sold at a statutory notified uniform sale price.
  18. The dhole or Asiatic Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus), a Schedule II species under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The dhole or Asiatic Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus) is found in three clusters across India namely the Western and Eastern Ghats, central Indian landscape and North East India.
  19. Hermann Bacher, popularly known as the ‘father of community-led watershed development in India’.
  20. An anaerobic process in which organic food is converted into simpler compounds, and chemical energy (ATP) is produced. Certain types use the electron transport chain system to pass the electrons to the final electron acceptor, which may be an inorganic or an organic compound, but not oxygen.
  21. The community — Mundapota Kela (a denotified tribe) is believed to have migrated to Odisha from Rayalaseema area of Andhra Pradesh decades ago. 
  22. Researchers at the Central University of Kerala (CUK) have found that domestication of sheep had taken place in the Indian subcontinent, especially in the Indus Valley civilisation regions in the 6th or 7th millennium BC. Among the south Indian breeds, except for Mandya, all others, notably Bellary, Coimbatore, Hassan, Katchaikatty Black, Nilgri, Ramnad White, and Vembur, were fully encompassed with lineage A, while Kenguri Kilakarsal, Madras Red, Mecheri, and Tiruchy Black breeds, had very low occurrences of lineage B mitochondria.
  23. The WHO that it was recommending the widespread use of the RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S) malaria vaccine among children in sub-Saharan Africa and in other regions with moderate to high P. falciparum malaria transmission, based on results from an ongoing pilot programme in Ghana, Kenya and Malawi.
  24. The Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) has released the Industrial Park Ratings System Report. The IPRS report is an extension of the India Industrial Land Bank which features more than 4,400 industrial parks in a GIS-enabled database.
  25. The Nord Stream 2 (NS2) which is running across Russia to Germany is now completed.
  26. The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) approved the Chhattisgarh government’s proposal to declare the combined areas of the Guru Ghasidas National Park and Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary as a Tiger Reserve. The new Reserve is located in the northern part of the state, bordering Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand. This will be the fourth Tiger Reserve in Chhattisgarh, after the Udanti-Sitanadi, Achanakmar, and Indravati Reserves. The Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary was identified as part of the Sarguja Jashpur Elephant Reserve in 2011. The Guru Ghasidas National Park used to be part of the Sanjay National Park in undivided Madhya Pradesh. Guru Ghasidas National Park is in Koriya district; Tamor Pingla is in Surajpur district in the northwestern corner of Chhattisgarh.
  27. Bhoramdeo Tiger Reserve connects the Indravati Tiger Reserve in Chhattisgarh with the Kanha Tiger Reserve in Madhya Pradesh and, experts say, the decision to create a Tiger Reserve at Guru Ghasidas National Park should not affect attempts to notify Bhoramdeo as a Tiger Reserve too.
  28. India joined the Bonn Challenge with a pledge to restore 21 MHA of degraded and deforested land which was later revised to 26 MHA to be restored by 2030. The first-ever country progress report under the Bonn Challenge submitted by India by bringing 9.8 million hectares since 2011 under restoration is an achievement.
  29. The National Statistical Office’s Situation Assessment of Agricultural Households (SAAH) report gives data on agricultural household income from farm and non-farm sources, both state-wise and across different land-possessed/operational holding size classes. The SAAH report also has state-wise estimates of agricultural households for each land-possessed size class.
  30. The Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO) located at Hanle near Leh in Ladakh is becoming one of the globally promising observatory sites. Hanle site which is as dry as Atacama Desert in Chile and much drier than Devasthal and has around 270 clear nights in a year and is also one of the emerging sites for infrared and submillimetre optical astronomy. 
  31. Perumpanattrupadai, a Sangam-era literary work, refers to the king who created the lake as ‘Thondaiman Ilanthiraiyan’. The copper plates of the Pallava period found at Kaasakudi refer to the lake as ‘Thiraiyan Eri’. Over centuries, it has become Thenneri.
  32. The right to form co-operative societies is a fundamental right under Article 19 (1)(c), but the right to form political parties is not.
  33. India was re-elected to the U.N. Human Rights Council for the 2022-24 for a 6th term. The Human Rights Council, which consists of 47 Member States elected directly and individually by secret ballot by the majority of the members of the General Assembly. The members of the Council shall serve for a period of three years and shall not be eligible for immediate re-election after two consecutive terms.
  34. Labour Bureau has released two surveys namely All India Quarterly Establishment based Employment Survey (AQEES) and All India Survey of Migrant Workers. All-India Quarterly Establishment based Employment Survey (AQEES) is launched with the objective of collecting the employment data on quarterly basis form all the establishments.
  35. Tax Inspectors Without Borders (TIWB) is a joint initiative of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) supporting countries in building tax audit capacity.  TIWB Programmes complement the broader efforts of the international community to strengthen co-operation on tax matters and contribute to the domestic resource mobilisation efforts of developing countries.
  36. American Space Agency, NASA, is set to send its “Psyche Mission” to visit a giant asteroid called Psyche,
    which could be the frozen remains of molten core of a bygone world. Psyche asteroid orbits around the Sun in main asteroid belt, in between Mars and Jupiter.
  37. ABHYAS- High-speed Expendable Aerial Target (HEAT) was successfully flight-tested by DRDO from Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur off the coast of Bay of Bengal in Odisha. It is a drone that will be used as a target for various missile systems.
  38. “Commodification” of water refers to water handled as a commodity under supply and demand market dynamics as a way of setting the price of market transactions between users.
  39. Finance for Biodiversity (F4B): An initiative to increase the materiality of biodiversity in financial decision-making, and so better align global finance with nature conservation and restoration. The initiative is a dual-purpose platform, both with its own research and implementation capability, as well as a programme for regranting resources to others. It is supported by the MAVA Foundation as well as CIFF and its work is guided by a leadership group of experts and practitioners in the field.
  40. The International Center for Tropical Agriculture (known as CIAT from its Spanish-language) is an international research and development organization dedicated to reducing poverty and hunger while protecting natural resources in developing countries. It is based in Palmira, Colombia, where it employs over 300 scientists. CIAT is one of the 15 specialized research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) and is also the headquarters for the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).
  41. Bioversity Internationalis a global research-for-development organization that delivers scientific evidence, management practices and policy options to use and safeguard agricultural biodiversity to attain global food and nutrition security, working with partners in low-income countries in different regions where agricultural biodiversity can contribute to improved nutrition, resilience, productivity and climate change adaptation. Bioversity International is a member of the CGIAR, a global research partnership for a food-secure future.
  42. Guwahati is among two urban centres in Asia — and three across the continents — featuring in a zero-waste cities challenge launched by U.K.-based international NGO WasteAid to find entrepreneurs with innovative ideas that help reduce or recycle and create green employment opportunities. The only other Asian city featuring in this challenge is Vietnam’s Ho Chi Minh City. The third is Johannesburg in South Africa.
  43. As per NASA, during the Mars solar conjunction period, Earth and the MARS will be on opposite sides
    of the Sun. This position of both the planets will affect any communication attempt made by NASA for
    connecting with its Mars missions because Sun radiates hot & ionized gas from its corona.
  44. The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment organised VAYO NAMAN Programme on the occasion of International Day of Older Persons. The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment celebrates International Day of Older Persons every year on 1st October for the cause of elderly persons. Apart from dedicating an Elderly Line 14567 to the Nation, the Vice President of India also launched two portals – SAGE (Seniorcare Aging Growth Engine) and SACRED (Senior Able Citizens for Re-Employment in Dignity) on this occasion. While the SAGE portal, designed by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, aims to encourage entrepreneurs in the area of elderly care the SACRED portal will connect the senior citizens with job providers in the private sector.
  45. The theme of United Nations International Day of Older Persons 2021 is ‘Digital Equity for All Ages’.
  46. The Northern Ireland protocol was designed to prevent checks across the border between Northern Ireland
    (US) and the Republic of Ireland (EU), following Brexit.
  47. The Tsugaru Straitis a strait between Honshu and Hokkaido in northern Japan connecting the Sea of Japan with the Pacific Ocean. Western maps in prior to the 20th century also referred to this waterway as the Strait of Sangar.
  48. Indigenised Sub Systems for Long Range Reconnaissance and Observation System (LORROS).LORROS is a sensor system which provides long-range day-time and night-time surveillance. It has been found to be very effective in countering infiltration. A number of LORROS were getting out of action due to non-availability of Protocol Converter Card being ex-import and having long lead time. These cards were indigenously developed by Army Technology Centre at a fraction of the cost resulting in increased availability of LORROS to the field formations.
  49. According to US Fish and Wildlife Services, the American bumblebee population has decreased by 89% in
    past 20 years, and it could be declared as “endangered species”.
  50. Centre declaresChacha Chaudhary as official Mascot of ‘Namami Gange’ Mission. The iconic Indian comic book cartoon character, Chacha Chaudhary, whose brain works faster than a computer, has been declared as the official mascot for the centrally-sponsored Namami Gange Programme.
  51. World Cotton Dayis celebrated annually on 7 October. The Cotton-4 nations of Benin, Chad, Mail, and Burkina Faso made an official proposal to the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) for the establishment of World Cotton Day. This year, the theme for World Cotton Day is “Cotton for Good”. India is the largest consumer and the second-largest producer of fibre. On the second World Cotton Day, India introduced its very first logo and label “Kasturi Cotton”.
  52. AIIMS launches ‘Healthy Smile’ mobile app for oral hygiene awareness among children.
  53. India-based Dr Rukmini Banerji was awarded with the 2021 Yidan prize.
  54. Ministry of Science and Technology launched state-of-the-art Heli-borne survey technology for ground water management, developed by CSIR-NGRI Hyderabad. The new technique, would help in water conservation, identification of new places for ground water recharging and that too at lesser cost than the prevalent ones like digging tube wells using geophysics and remote sensing techniques. This latest technology is being employed by CSIR to map groundwater sources in arid regions and utilise groundwater for drinking purposes.
  55. Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) released “Multilingual Dementia Research and Assessment
    (MUDRA) toolbox”
    in five Indian Languages. It seeks to

    improve dementia and mild cognitive impairment research & therapeutic practices in India.
  56. The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) unanimously voted to recognise a clean, healthy &
    sustainable environment as a universal right in Geneva, Switzerland. The right to a clean environment was rooted in the 1972 Stockholm Declaration.
  57. India’s rank has slipped by six places from last year to 90 on the Henley Passport Index, which lists the world’s most travel-friendly passports. The index ranks the passports of countries according to the number of destinations their holders can visit without a prior visa. The rankings are based on the analysis of data provided by the International Air Transport Association (IATA). Japan and Singapore stood at the top of this year’s list, with their passports holders allowed to travel visa-free to 192 countries, while South Korea and Germany share the second position. For the third consecutive year, Japan has secured the top position. Meanwhile, Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Pakistan, and Yemen are among the least powerful.
  58. The Centre on the occasion of World Rabies Day on Tuesday launched a National Action Plan for dog Mediated Rabies Elimination (NAPRE) for the elimination of dog mediated rabies by 2030.
  59. Mont Blanc is the highest mountain in the Alps and Western Europe. The summit of the Mont Blanc
    peak, has shrunk by two metres over the past 20 years.
  60. United Nations-Geneva based Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) is a United Nations-backed international organisation that works to facilitate the development of medicines for low- and middle-income nations.
  61. South Asia suffers the most among all regions of the world in terms of loss of human capital due to air pollution, according to the latest The Changing Wealth of Nations 2021report published by the World Bank.
  62. The charity organisation Oxfam published a report known as the Climate Finance Shadow Report 2020.
  63. Whole-genome scans showed two candidate genes with known roles in mammalian tooth development — AMELX and MEP1a. AMELX is associated with an X-linked dominant, male-lethal syndrome in humans that diminishes the growth of maxillary lateral incisors, similar to elephant tusks, according to the scientists. 
  64. All Great Ape species — gorillas, bonobos and chimpanzees in Africa, as well as orangutans in Asia — are either Endangered or Critically Endangered on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List.
  65. The Indian Elephant is a Schedule 1 animal under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972. There are around 26,000 Indian elephants accordiung to the World Wildlife Fund for Nature, India. 
  66. Major rivers like the Siang, Lohit, Dibang, Subansiri, Kameng, Noa-dihing, along with several other smaller rivers and streams, are flowing towards the Brahmaputra river. Senki, Barap and Palin, are the tributaries of Brahmaputra river system.
  67. Aborichthys is an elongate and slender-bodied bottom dwelling freshwater stone loach that inhabits the moderate-to-fast flowing water of mountain rivers, streams and drainages of the Brahmaputra river basin. It is endemic to the eastern Himalaya. The species is characterised by narrow oblique bars on the body with a black ocellus at the upper extremity of the caudal-fin base and rounded or truncated caudal fin.
  68. The Department of Zoology of Dera Natung Government College of Itanagar in Arunachal Pradesh has discovered three new species of fish of genus Aborichthys of family Nemachelidae. They have been named Aborichthys uniobarensis, Aborichthys barapensis and Aborichthys palinensis. 
  69. The migratory birds including northern pintail, gadwall, shovellers, common coot and several others found in the lake Chilika the biggest waterfowl habitat in the country in the country.
  70. Mt Kilimanjaro, the highest mountain in Africa, lies on the Equator. Its summit is, however, snowbound throughout the year. The snow on Mt Kenya, the second-highest peak in Africa after Kilimanjaro, could disappear as soon as 2030. The snow atop other peaks in tropical east Africa such as Mt Kenya, after which the country of Kenya is named as well as the Ruwenzori mountains in Uganda could also disappear, the State of the Climate in Africa 2020.
  71. La Nina is a natural ocean-atmospheric phenomenon. It is marked by cooler-than-average sea surface temperatures across the central and eastern Pacific Ocean near the equator. It means ‘little girl’ in Spanish. It is the opposite of El Nino(meaning ‘little boy’), that is marked by warmer-than-average sea surface temperatures across the central and eastern Pacific Ocean near the equator. Both, La Nina and El Nino are part of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. ENSO is characterised by opposing warm and cool phases of oceanic and atmospheric conditions in the tropical Pacific Ocean. El Nino usually causes a decrease in precipitation and has been found to cause drought-like conditions in India. On the other hand, La Nina causes an increase in precipitation. It also causes formation of low-pressure areas.
  72. International E-Waste Day has been observed on October 14 every year since 2018.
  73. A unique, lesser-known fish species that was till now thought to be found only in the Pacific Ocean has been found in the Indian Ocean tooHoplosebastes Armatus, also known as the flower scorpionfish, belongs to the order of ray-finned fish that are also known Scorpaeniforme. The Hoplosebastes Armatuswas discovered in the Pacific Ocean off Japan almost a century ago in 1929. The species had not been found in the Indian Ocean.
  74. The Namdapha Tiger Reserve located in Arunachal Pradesh, is one of India’s most biodiverse protected areas. It is home to five of India’s nine species of hornbills.
  75. Cicadas, with their acoustic signatures, act as indicators of a healthy forest ecosystem. A new cicada species Platyomia kohimaensis has been foundin the Naga Hills, Nagaland almost after a century. Some cicadas like Savazana mirabilis and Salvazana imperalis they discovered in Meghalaya prefer only certain tree species found in undisturbed forests. Cicadas are hemipteran insects known for their loud, complex and species-specific acoustic signals or songs.
  76. The report, Ecological Threat Report (ETR) 2021: Understanding ecological threats, resilience and peace, was released by the Institute of Economics and Peace (IEP), an international think tank.
  77. The Kadar tribal community faced continued displacement due to the commissioning of different hydel power projects in the Chalakudy river basin.