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Important International Organisations-Part 10

  1. Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ): A functional commission of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) based in Vienna. The commission serves as the primary organ that guides the activities of the United Nations in the fields of crime prevention and criminal justice. Recently, India was elected by acclamation to the Commission for a three-year term beginning January 1, 2022.
  2. United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF): Established in 2000, by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Main objective to promote “… the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests and to strengthen long-term political commitment to this end…” Based on the Rio Declaration, the Forest Principles, Chapter 11 of Agenda 21. a high-level intergovernmental policy forum. The forum includes all United Nations member states and permanent observers, the UNFF Secretariat, the Collaborative Partnership on Forests, Regional Organizations. In 2000, the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) established the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF). Based on the Rio Declaration, the Forest Principles, Chapter 11 of Agenda 21.
  3. The United Nations Statistical Commission: Established in 1947, is the highest body of the global statistical system bringing together the Chief Statisticians from member states from around the world. Highest decision-making body for international statistical activities, responsible for setting of statistical standards and the development of concepts and methods, including their implementation at the national and international level. It oversees the work of the United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), and is a Functional Commission of the UN Economic and Social Council.
  4. The Berne Union, also known as The International Union of Credit & Investment Insurers, is an international non-profit association and community for the global export creditand investment insurance
  5. The United Nations Disarmament Commission (UNDC) is a United Nationscommission under the United Nations General Assembly which primarily deals with issues relating to Disarmament.
  6. The International Civil Service Commission (ICSC) is a subsidiary bodyof the United Nations General Assembly. The ICSC, which has its headquarters in New York City, is composed of fifteen members, appointed by the General Assembly for four-year terms. The fifteen members include the chairman and the vice-chairman as full-time members.
  7. The International Law Commission(ILC) is a body of experts responsible for helping develop and codify international law. It is composed of 34 individuals recognized for their expertise and qualifications in international law, who are elected by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) every five years.
  8. The United Nations Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) is a United Nationsintergovernmental advisory body of both the General Assembly and the Security Council that supports peace efforts in conflict affected countries.
  9. The United Nations Department of Political and Peacebuilding Affairs (DPPA) is a department of the Secretariatof the United Nations (UN) with responsibility for monitoring and assessing global political developments and advising and assisting the UN Secretary General and his envoys in the peaceful prevention and resolution of conflict around the world. Established in 1992, the department’s responsibilities also include providing secretariat support to the UN Security Council and two standing committees created by the General Assembly concerning the Rights of the Palestinian People and Decolonization. DPPA is based at the UN Headquarters in New York City.
  10. The International Hydrological Programme (IHP) is UNESCO’s international scientific cooperative program in water research, water resource management, water education, and capacity- building, and the only broadly based science program of the UN system in this area. The program is tailored to the needs of UNESCO’s 195 Member Statesand is implemented in six-year phases, allowing it to adapt to the changing world.
  11. Generation Equality Forum: A civil society-centered global gathering for gender equality. Convened by the UN Women and co-hosted by the governments of Mexico and France. The forum will galvanize political action and secure financial commitments for the period of 2021-2026 on measures to advance women’s rights and opportunities around the world.
  12. Leading up to the 57th UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW57), UN Women launched the COMMIT initiative in November 2012, for Governments to take a stand by making new and concrete national commitments to end violence against women and girls.
  13. UN Women, in partnership with the United Nations Volunteers (UNV) programme, is excited to introduce the UN Women “Young Women Leaders” (YWL) The YWL initiative will engage a diverse cohort of young women from the Global South who are committed to gender equality and women’s empowerment and to the mission and work of the United Nations. It will also allow the sharing of experiences among young leaders from diverse backgrounds across UN Women and further enhance diversity in UN Women’s personnel.
  14. HeForShe, often referred to as He for She, is a solidaritymovement for the advancement of gender equality, initiated by the United Nations. Grounded in the idea that gender inequality is an issue that affects all people, socially, economically and politically,
  15. UN Women Goodwill Ambassador is an official postnominal honorific title, title of authority, legal statusand job description assigned to those goodwill ambassadors and advocates who are designated by the United Nations. UN Women goodwill ambassadors are celebrity advocates for the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women also known as UN Women; who use their talent, popularity or fame to assist the UN in better addressing a coordinated, comprehensive response to the interrelated issues of equality and working for the empowerment of women.
  16. The Prosus FLIGHT initiative: New higher education and employment initiative for marginalised women and girls in India. Launched by Prosus, the global consumer internet group of Naspers in partnership with UN Women. Focus on young women between the ages of 17 and 25 in Maharashtra.
  17. The Instrument in Support of Trade Exchanges (INSTEX) is a European special-purpose vehicle(SPV) established on 31 January 2019. Its mission is to facilitate non-USD and non-SWIFT transactions with Iran to avoid breaking S. sanctions. Five EU nations declared in a joint statement on 29 November 2019 will join the INSTEX mechanism for trade with Iran, these countries are Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, Finland and Sweden.
  18. A most-favored-nation (MFN) clause requires a country to provide any concessions, privileges, or immunities granted to one nation in a trade agreement to all other World Trade Organizationmember countries. Although its name implies favoritism toward another nation, it denotes the equal treatment of all countries. In international trade, MFN treatment is synonymous with non-discriminatory trade policy because it ensures equal trading among all WTO member nations rather than exclusive trading privileges. For example, if a nation reduces tariffs by 5% for one nation, the MFN clause states that all WTO members will have their tariffs cut by 5% into that nation.
  19. Least Developed Countries (LDC) are identified by the UN Economic and Social Council: (ECOSOC). Least Developed Countries’ economic growth can improve if they are able to export more. So, WTO agreements permit other countries to give duty free quota free access to exports from LDC. and that is not considered as a violation of any other agreement.
  20. The WTO agreements contain special provisions which give developing countries special rights and allow other members to treat them more favorably. These are “special and differential treatment provisions” (abbreviated as S&D or SDT).
  21. WTO members concluded negotiations at the 2013 Bali Ministerial Conferenceon the landmark Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA), which entered into force on 22 February 2017 following its ratification by two-thirds of the WTO membership. The TFA contains provisions for expediting the movement, release and clearance of goods, including goods in transit. It also sets out measures for effective cooperation between customs and other appropriate authorities on trade facilitation and customs compliance issues. It further contains provisions for technical assistance and capacity building in this area. India & others ratified in 2016.
  22. Special Safeguard Mechanism (SSM) is a protectionist tool under WTO that will allow developing countries to increase tariffs temporarily to suppress import surges or price falls. It is especially used for agricultural imports that cause damages to the country’s farmers.
  23. For the first time in the history of the World Trade Organization, WTO members and observers have endorsed a collective initiative to increase the participation of women in trade. In order to help women, reach their full potential in the world economy, 118 WTO members and observers agreed to support the Buenos Aires Declaration on Women and Trade, which seeks to remove barriers to, and foster, women’s economic empowerment.
  24. List of India’s trade agreements
    1. Partial Scope Agreement (PSA) allows countries to trade in a small number of goods, making the scope minimal.
    2. Free Trade Agreement (FTA) is a preferential arrangement in which members reduce tariffs on trade among themselves while maintaining their own tariff rates for trade with non-members.
    3. Customs Union (CU) is a free-trade agreement in which members apply a common external tariff (CET) schedule to imports from nonmembers.
    4. Common Market (CM) is a customs union where movement of factors of production is relatively free amongst member countries.
    5. Economic Union (EU) is a common market where member countries coordinate macro-economic and exchange rate policies.
    6. Framework agreement: Prior to negotiating trade accords, potential trading partners sign framework agreements, which set the period for future substantive liberalization by defining the scope and provisions of orientation for some new area of discussions. India has previously signed framework agreements with the ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) and MERCOSUR (Southern Common Market in Spanish) trade blocs, and countries like Japan and Korea.
    7. Early Harvest Scheme: A precursor to an FTA between two trading partners. At this stage, the negotiating countries identify certain products for tariff liberalization pending the conclusion of actual FTA negotiations. The EHS is, therefore, used as a mechanism to build greater confidence between the trading partners, and structurally prepares them for subsequent, deeper economic engagement.
    8. Preferential Trade Agreement: Two or more partners give preferential right of entry to certain products done by reducing duties on an agreed number of tariff lines. A PTA is established through a trade pact, and is a stepping stone towards better economic relations with the concerned country. India enjoys PTAs with several countries, including Bangladesh, China, South Korea, and Sri Lanka.
  25. Automatic Trigger Safeguard Mechanism or ATSM (RCEP)- is considered as an effective tool in balancing trade among multilateral partners.  It was also part of the trans-pacific partnership, TPP, negotiations before the US pulled out from it. The provisions are that once imports breach the pre-identified trigger; ATSM will be applied without any other assessment. This is a takeoff from the existing FTAs and other trade agreements; where anti-dumping, safeguard duty mechanism and circumvention duties require domestic industry to prove an injury to business. By the time duties are in place it can cause a lot of damage in the local market. There is yet no clarity on how the pre-identified trigger will be determined, along with the duty structure. The World Trade Organization, WTO allowed respective sovereigns to determine effective tariff rates within bound rates agreed by member countries.
  26. Ratchet Obligations or mechanism means that if a country signs a trade agreement with another country and removes or reduces tariffs and quotas. It cannot go back on them and bring in more restrictive measures.
  27. The Joint Organisations Data Initiative (JODI) is an international collaboration to improve the availability and reliability of data on petroleumand natural gas. First named the “Joint Oil Data Exercise”, the collaboration was launched in April 2001 with six international organisations: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), Statistical Office of the European Communities (Eurostat), International Energy Agency (IEA), Latin American Energy Organization  (OLADE), Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD).
  28. The University for Peace (UPEACE): An intergovernmental organization with university status, established by treaty at the United Nations General Assembly in 1980. Having its main campus in Costa Rica. Mission is “to provide humanity with an international institution of higher education. Offers master’s degree and doctoral programmes. Carries out various activities related to the international peace and security objectives of the United Nations (UN)
  29. Eurasian Group on Combating Money Laundering and Financing of Terrorism (EAG). The EAG is a regional body comprising nine countries: India, Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Belarus. It is an associate member of the FATF.
  30. Woodhead Commission led to the establishment of Directorate of Plant Protection Quarantine and Storage (in 1946). This subsumed the former Locust Warning Organization, established in 1939.
  31. E9 Initiative: Scaling up digital learning to accelerate progress towards SDG4. E9 meeting is the first of a 3-phased process to co-create an initiative on digital learning and skills, targeting marginalised children and youth. Aims to accelerate recovery and advance the Sustainable Development Goal 4 agenda by driving rapid change in education systems in three of the 2020 Global Education Meeting priorities, a. Support to teachers; b. Investment in skills; c. Narrowing of the digital divide. Spearheaded by the United Nations. E9 countries – Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan.
  32. Bunker Convention: The International Convention on Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution Damage 2001. Provides for “adequate, prompt, and effective compensation” for damage caused by spills of oil carried as fuel in ships’ bunkers. An International treaty listed and administered by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Applies to damage caused on the territory, including the territorial sea, and in Exclusive Economic Zones of States Parties. Unlike the CLC convention, the BUNKER Convention is not limited to persistent fuel oils and will apply to any hydrocarbon used to operate the ship. India ratified the convention during 2015.
  33. Declaration of Helsinki is a set of ethical principles regarding human experimentation developed for the medical community by the World Medical Association (WMA).
  34. Helsinki Declaration on the protection of the ozone layer.
  35. Helsinki Accords, also called Helsinki Final Act, is a major diplomatic agreement which is primarily an effort to reduce tension between the Soviet and Western blocs by securing their common acceptance of the post-World War II status quo in Europe.
  36. Montreal Declaration: Related for a Responsible Development of Artificial Intelligence. Announced on November 3, 2017 at the conclusion of the Forum on the Socially Responsible Development of AI. Declaration aims to spark public debate and encourage a progressive and inclusive orientation to the development of AI. Not to confuse with Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a global agreement to protect the Earth’s ozone layer.
  37. France and Canada launched the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence to promote responsible development and use of AI. India was among the 15 founding members.
  38. The “Digital Nations” that was founded in 2014 by Britain, Estonia, Israel, South Korea and New Zealand. India is not part of this group. The group wants to mobilise digital technologies to enhance the quality of life for their citizens.
  39. India is also not part of the “Artemis Accords” that were launched in October-2020 by the US administration. These agreements outline a set of principles for the cooperative and transparent exploration of outer space. The founding members of the Artemis Accords are Australia, Canada, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the US.
  40. India is also a member of the Wassenaar Arrangement that regulates the flow of dual-use technologies and the Missile Technology Control Regime.
  41. Partnership on New Industrial Revolution (PartNIR): A programme of partnership among BRICS nation. Focus on Maximizing the opportunities arising from the 4th industrial revolution/New Industrial Revolution. Formed at the 10th BRICS summit in Johannesburg.
  42. The Accountability, Coherence and Transparency (ACT) Group. ACT is a cross-regional group of 27 small and mid-sized countries working to improve the Accountability, Coherence and Transparency of the UN Security Council. Launched in May 2013, ACT addresses both the Council’s internal functioning as well as its relations to the broader UN membership. ACT recognises and commends efforts by the Security Council to improve its working methods but notes that oftentimes the implementation of measures adopted has proven to be unsatisfactory or inconsistent
  43. The Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI)), is co-founded by India and the United Kingdom in 2019. Categorization of CDRI as an ‘International Organisation’ and signing of HQA with CDRI for grant of exemptions, immunities and privileges as contemplated under Section-3 of the United Nations (Privileges & Immunities) Act, 1947 will provide it an independent and international legal persona so that it can efficiently and effectively carry out its functions internationally.
  44. The Lisbon System: International Registration of Appellations of Origin and Geographical indications. Offers a means of obtaining protection for an appellation of origin or a geographical indication in the contracting parties through a single registration procedure and one set of fees. Together, the Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and their International Registration of 1958 (‘the Lisbon Agreement’) and, its latest revision, the Geneva Act of the Lisbon Agreement on Appellations of Origin and Geographical Indications of 2015 (‘the Geneva Act’) form the Lisbon System.
  45. International Vaccine Institute (IVI): An international non-profit organization devoted to developing and introducing new and improved vaccines to protect the people, especially children, against deadly infectious diseases. Established in 1997 on the initiatives of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Work is exclusively on vaccine development and introduction specifically for people in developing countries, with a focus on neglected diseases affecting these regions. Currently, it has 40 countries and the World Health Organization (WHO) as signatories to its Establishment Agreement. India has become a full-time member in 2017.
  46. The Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information, developed by the OECD with G20 countries, represents the international consensus on automatic exchange of financial account information for tax purposes, on a reciprocal basis.
  47. Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169): The International Labour Organization (ILO) has been engaged with indigenous and tribal peoples’ issues since the 1920s. It is responsible for the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention, 1989 (No. 169) , the only international treaty open for ratification that deals exclusively with the rights of these peoples. The ILO’s Decent Work Agenda, with gender equality and non-discrimination as a cross-cutting concern, serves as a framework for indigenous and tribal peoples’ empowerment. Access to decent work enables indigenous women and men to harness their potential as change agents in poverty reduction, sustainable development and climate change action.
  48. Better Work; a collaboration between the United Nation’s International Labour Organization (ILO) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group. a comprehensive programme bringing together all levels of the garment industry to improve working conditions and respect of labour rights for workers, and boost the competitiveness of apparel businesses. Programme is active in 1,700 factories employing more than 2.4 million workers in nine countries. Vision is a global garment industry that lifts millions of people out of poverty by providing decent work, empowering women, driving business competitiveness and promoting inclusive economic growth.
  49. The Osaka Track, according to the 50 signatories, is a process for promoting “international policy discussions, inter alia, international rule-making on trade-related aspects of electronic commerce at the WTO.”  India, South Africa, and Indonesia have boycotted the “Osaka Track” on the “digital economy” In 2019, G20 leaders had drawn up the “Osaka track” that promoted cross-border flow of data. Australia, China, Japan and the UK were among 24 countries are the signatories.
  50. The two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict envisions an independent State of Palestine alongside the State of Israel, west of the Jordan River. 

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