Click here for All Parts

Important International Organisations-Part 11

  1. OECD has developed the Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) system, a multilateral agreement which allows participating countries (including nonmembers) to share the results of various non- clinical tests done on chemicals using OECD methods and principles. India joined the Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) in the assessment of chemicals being benchmarked by the rich country club, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD). This would help pave the way for the removal a potential non-tariff trade barrier between countries for marketing chemicals. India is the third emerging economy to join this pact after South Africa and Brazil.
  2. Basel Ban Amendment: In 2019, it became international law. Adopted by the parties to the Basel Convention in 1995, prohibits the export of hazardous wastes from member states of the European Union (EU), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and Liechtenstein to all other countries. Countries like the US, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Russia, India, Brazil, and Mexico are yet to ratify the ban. Croatia became the 97th country to ratify the ban, which was adopted by the parties to the Basel Convention in 1995, to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes, according to Basel Action Network (BAN).
  3. The Polluter Pays Principle: Known as extended producer responsibility (EPR). 1st introduced in 1972 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). In furtherance of the aim of sustainable development Rio Declaration Principle 16 of the Rio Declaration enshrined the Polluter Pays principle stating that the polluter should bear the cost of pollution.
  4. Only the OECD member states can become members of the International Energy Agency (IEA). Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative R&D Agreements established within the IEA. Promotes reduction of CO2 emissions for both conventional fossil-fuel carbon capture and storage (CCS) and for bioenergy with CCS (BECCS).
  5. The Technology Collaboration Programme on Heat Pumping Technologies by IEA (HPT TCP) was founded in 1978. It is one of the IEA Technology Collaboration Programmes (TCP).
  6. The Standard for Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information, developed by the OECD with G20 countries, represents the international consensus on automatic exchange of financial account information for tax purposes, on a reciprocal basis.
  7. The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954. Primarily created to block further communist gains in Southeast Asia, SEATO is generally considered a failure because internal conflict and dispute hindered general use of the SEATO military; however, SEATO-funded cultural and educational programs left longstanding effects in Southeast Asia. SEATO was dissolved on 30 June 1977 after many members lost interest and withdrew.
  8. The Central Treaty Organisation(CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organisation (METO) (disambiguation), was a military alliance of the Cold War. It was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom and dissolved in 1979.
  9. Lapis Lazuliis an international transit route opened in 2018 linking Afghanistan to Turkey via Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Georgia
  10. Pelindaba Treaty (African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty): It establishes a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa. The treaty was signed in 1996 and came into effect in July 2009. It aims at preventing nuclear proliferation and preventing strategic minerals of Africa from being exported freely. This treaty prohibits member parties to come into bilateral agreement with countries who are non-signatories of NPT. In 2016, Namibia criticized the Treaty of Pelindaba for disallowing Namibia to trade uranium to India because India is not a member of the NPT.
  11. The Hague Code of Conduct against Ballistic Missile Proliferation (HCOC), formerly known as “The International Code of Conduct” (ICOC), was adopted at an international conference held on 25-26 November 2002 in The Hague. The HCOC, as a political initiative, is aimed at bolstering efforts to curb ballistic missile proliferation worldwide and to further delegitimize such proliferation. The HCOC is the only normative instrument to verify the spread of ballistic missiles. The Code does not call for the destruction of any missiles, it is simply an agreement between States on how they should “conduct” their trade in missiles. The Code is meant to supplement the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) but its membership is not restricted. India joined the HCOC on 1 June 2016.
  12. The One Watt Initiativeis an energy-saving initiative by the International Energy Agency (IEA) to reduce standby power-use by any appliance to not more than one watt.
  13. The Blue Belt Programme: The UK has demonstrated strong progress on Sustainable Development Goal 14, including on the protection and sustainable management of the marine environment. Since its launch in 2016, the UK Government’s £20 million Blue Belt Programme is on track to protect over four million km² of marine environment across UK Overseas Territories by 2020, enabling the UK and Overseas Territories to protect over half of British waters within designated Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). The Blue Belt has large-scale MPAs protecting vital habitats and unique species in every major ocean. Not to confuse with Blue Dot Network which is a proposal which was on table when the US President Donald Trump made a maiden visit to India. Jointly launched by the US, Japan and Australia in November 2019 on the sidelines of the 35th ASEAN Summit (Thailand).
  14. The Asia Cooperation Dialogue (ACD): An intergovernmental organization created on 18 June 2002 to promote Asian cooperation at a continental level. Help integrate separate regional organizations such as the ASEAN, the Gulf Cooperation Council, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and the SAARC.
  15. BreatheLife is a joint campaign led by the World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Environment and the Climate & Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) to mobilize cities and individuals to protect our health and planet from the effects of air pollution.
  16. Chiang Mai Initiative: The Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI) is the first regional currency swap arrangement launched by the ASEAN+3 countries in May 2000 at an annual meeting of the Asian Development Bank to address the short-term liquidity difficulties in the region and to supplement the existing international financial arrangements. CMI is composed of: (a) the ASEAN Swap Arrangement (ASA) among ASEAN countries, and (b) a network of bilateral swap arrangements (BSAs) among the ASEAN+3 countries. 03 countries-the People’s Republic of China (including Hong Kong), Japan, and South Korea.
  17. The Industrial Security Annex (ISA) was recently signed between India and the U.S. at the second 2+2 dialogue in Washington.
  18. The Comprehensive Economic Partnership for East Asia (CEPEA)is a Japanese led proposal for trade co-operation, free trade agreement, among the 16 present member countries of the East Asia Summit. All those movements and efforts were taken over by the following Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership.
  19. The International Disability Alliance (IDA) was established in 1999 as a network of global and regional organizations of persons with disabilities (DPOs) and their families. IDA was a key player in the negotiation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UN CRPD). The Alliance aims to promote the effective and full implementation of the UN CRPD worldwide.
  20. The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treatyprohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons in international armed conflicts. It was signed at Geneva on 17 June 1925 and entered into force on 8 February 1928.
  21. The Responsibility to Protect(R2P or RtoP) is a global political commitment which was endorsed by all member states of the United Nations at the 2005 World Summit in order to address its four key concerns to prevent genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity.
  22. Transatlantic Free Trade Agreement(TAFTA) is a proposal to create a free-trade agreement covering Europe and North America, on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean.
  23. The Pacific Agreement on Closer Economic Relations (PACER) is an umbrella agreement between members of the Pacific Islands Forum(the Forum Island Countries plus Australia and New Zealand) which provides a framework for the future development of trade cooperation.
  24. International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC): Collaborative effort of the CITES Secretariat, INTERPOL, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the World Bank and the World Customs Organization (WCO). Aim: To strengthen criminal justice systems and provide coordinated support at national, regional and international level to combat wildlife and forest crime.
  25. Global Initiative Against Transnational Organized Crime, a network of prominent law-enforcement, governance and development practitioners based in Geneva, believe that the pandemic is both a threat to, and an opportunity for, organized crime, especially illicit drug trade.
  26. The United Nations Sustainable Development Group (UNSDG), previously the United Nations Development Group (UNDG), is a consortium of 36 United Nationsfunds, programs, specialized agencies, departments and offices that play a role in development. It was created by the Secretary-General of the United Nations in order to improve the effectiveness of United Nations development activities at the country level. The UNSDG (at the time the UNDG) was one of the main UN actors involved in the development of the Post-2015 Development Agenda which lead to the creation of the Sustainable Development Goals.
  27. The Quadrennial comprehensive policy review (QCPR) of the operational system of the United Nationsis a process and a United Nations General Assembly resolution by which the 193 members of the United Nations General Assembly (UN GA) review the coherence effectiveness and funding of the 27 UN development programmes, funds, and specialized agencies of the UN operational system for development. 
  28. The Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Personsis a 1954 United Nations multilateral treaty that aims to protect stateless India is not a member to the Convention.
  29. The COVAX facility is co-led by GAVI, the World Health Organization, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations and UNICEF.
  30. The United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) is an operational arm of the United Nations, dedicated to implementing projects for the United Nations System, international financial institutions, governments and other partners around the world. The organization’s global headquarters is located on the UN Citycampus in Copenhagen, Denmark. UNOPS is a member of the United Nations Sustainable Development Group and works particularly closely with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Department of Peace Operations (DPO) and the World Bank.
  31. Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peace Operations as “a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace”. The United Nations Charter gives the United Nations Security Council the power and responsibility to take collective action to maintain international peace and security. Accordingly, UN peacekeepers (often referred to as Blue Berets or Blue Helmets because of their light blue berets or helmets) can include soldiers, police officers, and civilian personnel. Every peacekeeping mission is authorized by the Security Council. India has consistently been among the top troop contributing nations to the U.N. and is the fifth largest with 5,424 personnel in eight countries. India has so far participated in 51 of the 71 missions and contributed over 2 lakh personnel. It has troop deployment in Lebanon, Golan Heights, Congo and South Sudan in addition to staff officers in other missions. India has also set up two field hospitals in South Sudan and one in Congo.
  32. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goalsare a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a “blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all”.[1] The SDGs were set up in 2015 by the United Nations General Assembly and are intended to be achieved by the year 2030. They are included in a UN Resolution called the 2030 Agenda or what is colloquially known as Agenda 2030.  The SDGs were developed in the Post-2015 Development Agenda as the future global development framework to succeed the Millennium Development Goals which ended in 2015. The 17 SDGs are: (1) No Poverty, (2) Zero Hunger, (3) Good Health and Well-being, (4) Quality Education, (5) Gender Equality, (6) Clean Water and Sanitation, (7) Affordable and Clean Energy, (8) Decent Work and Economic Growth, (9) Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure, (10) Reducing Inequality, (11) Sustainable Cities and Communities, (12) Responsible Consumption and Production, (13) Climate Action, (14) Life Below Water, (15) Life On Land, (16) Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions, (17) Partnerships for the Goals.
  33. Convention on the Legal Status of the Caspian Sea signed between Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan. The treaty ends a spat over whether the Caspian is a sea or a lake, granting it special legal status and clarifying the maritime boundaries of each surrounding country.
  34. The Zangger Committee, also known as the Nuclear Exporters Committee, sprang from Article III of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) which entered into force on March 5, 1970. Under the terms of Article III International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards must be applied to nuclear exports.
  35. BREXIT-Following a UK-wide referendum in June 2016, in which 52% voted to leave and 48% voted to remain in the EU, the British government formally announced the country’s withdrawal in March 2017, beginning the BREXIT process.  The withdrawalof the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom). The UK is the first and so far only country to formally leave the EU, after 47 years of having been a member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Communities (EC).
  36. The Convention on Psychotropic Substancesof 1971 is a United Nations treaty designed to control psychoactive drugs such as amphetamine-type stimulants, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and psychedelics signed in Vienna, Austria on 21 February 1971. The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 did not ban the many newly discovered psychotropics, since its scope was limited to drugs with cannabis, coca, and opium-like effects.
  37. India is a signatory to the Antarctic Treaty and to the Protocol to the Antarctic Treaty on Environmental Protection and has three research stations in Antarctica: Dakshin Gangotri, Bharati and Maitri.
  38. The Super-Efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial and the International Partnership for Energy Efficiency Cooperation aim to make it easier for governments and the private sector to capitalize on these opportunities.
  39. Sustainable Mobility for All (SuM4All) is the premier advocacy platform for international cooperation on transport and mobility issues. Established in 2017, and hosted by the World Bank, the global, multi-stakeholder partnership, brings together more than 55 public organizations and private companies, including bilateral partners, multilateral development banks, U.N. organizations, inter-governmental organizations, and civil society with a shared ambition to transform the future of mobility.
  40. The Transition Pathway Initiative (TPI) is a global initiative led by asset owners and supported by asset managers. Aimed at investors and free to use, it assesses companies’ preparedness for the transition to a low-carbon economy, supporting efforts to address climate change. Launched in 2017, it is rapidly becoming the ‘go-to’ corporate climate action benchmark. TPI provides robust, independent research which empowers investors to assess the alignment of their portfolios with the goals of the Paris Agreement and to drive real world emission reductions through our actions. Asset owner led, the Transition Pathway Initiative (‘TPI’) is the leading corporate climate action benchmark. 
  41. Launched at the UN Climate Action Summit in September 2019, the Risk-informed Early Action Partnership (REAP) brings together an unprecedented range of stakeholders across the climate, humanitarian, and development communities with the aim of making 1 billion people safer from disaster by 2025. REAP was launched with the announcement of four targets, each of which contribute to making 1 Billion People Safer from disaster by 2025.
  42. The Carbon Neutrality Coalition(CNC) is a group of countries, cities and organisations which have committed to take concrete and ambitious action to achieve the aims of the Paris Agreement. The Carbon Neutrality Coalition (CNC) was founded in 2017 by 16 countries and 32 cities, inspired by Bhutan. India is not a member of the Coalition.
  43. Coalition for Climate resilient Investment (CCRI): Launched at the UN General Assembly’s Climate Action Summit (UNCAS) on 23 September 2019; CCRI has grown in membership and has developed collaborative relationships with related initiatives, including the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure. A United Nations Climate Action Summit and COP26 flagship initiative,The Coalition for Climate Resilient Investment (CCRI) represents the commitment of the global private financial industry, in partnership with key private and public institutions, to foster the more efficient integration of physical climate risks (PCRs) in investment decision-making.
  44. The Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is an independent intergovernmental body. The objective is to strengthen the science-policy interface for biodiversity and ecosystem services for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Currently has over 130 member States. A large number of NGOs, civil society groupings, individual stakeholders, also participate in the meet. It found that many of the world’s pollinator species are on the decline.
  45. The Kimberley Process (KP) unites administrations, civil societies, and industry in reducing the flow of conflict diamonds – ‘rough diamonds used to finance wars against governments’ – around the world. The KP observers include the World Diamond Council representing the diamond industry. Indiais one of the founder members of Kimberley Process Certification Scheme.
  46. Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism (CCIT) was proposed by India in 1996. CCIT provides a legal framework which makes it binding on all signatories to deny funds and safe havens to terrorist groups. 
  47. The Oslo Accords are a pair of agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO).
  48. Christchurch Call to Action: The initiative has been named after the New Zealand city where 51 people were killed in an attack on mosques. India has joined a major global initiative to combat terrorism and extremism online and secure the internet. The declaration on Christchurch call to action said a free, open and secure internet is a powerful tool by which to promote connectivity, enhance social inclusiveness and foster economic growth.
  49. Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism (GIFCT) led by Presidents of New Zealand and France, the members of GIFCT recently met at the UN General Assembly to discuss the progress on the steps taken to implement Christchurch Call to Action. GIFCT was formally established in July 2017 as a group of companies, dedicated to disrupting terrorist abuse of members’ digital platforms.                                                                                                    
  50. Reporters Without Borders is an international non-profit and non-governmental organization that safeguards the right to freedom of information. Its advocacy is founded on the belief that everyone requires access to the news and information, inspired by Article 19 of the UN Declaration of Human Rights that recognizes the right to receive and share information regardless of frontiers, along with other international rights charters.

IAS Abhiyan is now on Telegram: Click on the Below link to Join our Channels & and Stay Updated