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Important International Organisations-Part 12

  1. Amnesty International (also referred to as Amnesty or AI) is a non-governmental organization with its headquarters in the United Kingdom focused on human rights. It works to mobilize public opinion to generate pressure on governments where abuse takes place. Amnesty considers capital punishment to be “the ultimate, irreversible denial of human rights”. 
  2. Médecins Sans Frontières sometimes rendered in English as Doctors Without Borders, is an international humanitarian medical non-governmental organization (NGO) of French origin best known for its projects in conflict zones and in countries affected by endemic diseases. MSF has general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. It received the 1999 Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of its members’ continued efforts to provide medical care in acute crises, as well as raising international awareness of potential humanitarian disasters. The Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines was created in late 1999, providing MSF with a new voice with which to bring awareness to the lack of effective treatments and vaccines available in developing countries.
  3. The Digital Single Market Strategy aims at maximizing the growth potential of the European Digital Economy, so that every European can fully enjoy its benefits – notably by enhancing digital skills, which are essential for an inclusive digital society.
  4. Seabed 2030 Project: The global initiative is a collaboration between Japan’s non-profit Nippon Foundation and the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO). It is the only intergovernmental organization with a mandate to map the entire ocean floor and traces its origins to the GEBCO chart series initiated in 1903 by Prince Albert I of Monaco. The project was launched at the UN Ocean Conference in 2017, and coordinates and oversees the sourcing and compilation of bathymetric data from different parts of the world’s ocean.
  5. GEBCO: It is an international group of mapping experts developing a range of bathymetric data sets and data products. It operates under the joint auspices of the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) and UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC). IHO is an intergovernmental organization, established in 1921 to support safety of navigation and the protection of the marine environment. Its secretariat is in Monaco, which coordinates IHO„s programmes.
  6. World Petroleum Congress is widely recognized as the Olympics of the oil and gas industry and is organized by World Petroleum Council. World Petroleum Council is a non-advocacy, non-political organization with charitable status in the U.K. and has accreditation as a Non-Governmental Organization from the United Nations.
  7. International Coffee Organization is a London based body set up under the auspices of the United Nations in 1963 under the International Coffee agreement of 1962. India is in major exporting countries and European Union in importing countries. It represents 98% of world coffee production and 67% of world consumption.
  8. The Caribbean community, also known as CARICOM, was formed in 1973 by the Treaty of Chaguaramas. It is an economic and political community that works jointly to shape policies for the region and encourages economic growth and trade.
  9. International Geological Congress is the prestigious global platform for advancement of Earth Science. It was founded as a non-profit scientific and educational organization in 1878 but came under the aegis of International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) in 1961. The 36th International Geological Congress was hosted by India. India is the only Asian country to host the Congress twice. The 22nd session of IGC was held in New Delhi in 1964. The IGC is a geo-scientific event held under aegis of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). The first session of IGC took place in France in 1878. Since its inception, 35 Congresses have been hosted by 24 countries throughout the world.
  10. Bali Declaration adopted at the World Parliamentary Forum on Sustainable Development in Indonesia. India refused to sign the declaration. The Bali Declaration called on all parties to contribute to restoring stability and security in the region.
  11. Raisina Dialogue is India’s flagship conference of Geopolitics and geo-economics held annually in New Delhi. It is organized by Ministry of External Affairs in partnership with Observer Research Foundation, an
    independent think tank in India. It is designed on the lines of Singapore’s Shangri-La Dialogue.
  12. The Women Entrepreneurs Finance Initiative (We-Fi) – announced at the G20 Leaders’ Summit in July 2017 and launched at the Bank-Fund Annual Meetings in October – creates an unprecedented opportunity to harness the public and private sectors to open new doors for women entrepreneurs across the developing world.
  13. The Standards and Trade Development Facility (STDF), is a joint initiative of the WTO, World Bank, FAO, World Health Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health. It aims to assist developing countries establish and implement SPS standards to ensure health protection and facilitate trade expansion. It also aims to act as a forum for coordination and information sharing on SPS-related technical assistance.
  14. The need to fight animal diseases at global level led to the creation of the Office International des Epizooties through the international Agreement signed on January 25th 1924. In May 2003 the Office became the World Organization for Animal Health but kept its historical acronym OIE. The OIE is the intergovernmental organization responsible for improving animal health worldwide. It is recognised as a reference organization by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and in 2017 has a total of 181 Member Countries. The OIE maintains permanent relations with 71 other international and regional organisations and has Regional and sub-regional Offices on every continent.
  15. The International Committee of the Blue Shield (ICBS) was founded in 1996 “to work to protect the world’s cultural heritage threatened by wars and natural disasters”. It has been described as the “Cultural Red Cross”, and its name derives from the usage of the blue shield as specified in the 1954 Hague Convention on Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict.
  16. The Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition(GAIN) is an independent non-profit foundation based in Geneva, Switzerland. GAIN was developed at the UN 2002 Special Session of the General Assembly on Children. GAIN is an organization driven by the vision of a world without malnutrition. To achieve its goal, GAIN mobilises public-private partnerships and provides financial and technical support to deliver nutritious foods to those people most at risk of malnutrition. GAIN’s program portfolio is based on proven and cost-effective approaches. Programs support large-scale food fortification, multi-nutrient supplements, nutritious foods for mothers and children, and enhancement of the nutritional content of agriculture products.
  17. Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) is an intergovernmental organization of low-lying coastal and small island countries. Established in 1990, the main purpose of the alliance is to consolidate the voices of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) to address global warming. AOSIS has been very active from its inception, putting forward the first draft text in the Kyoto Protocol negotiations as early as 1994. At the 2013 Warsaw climate change conference, AOSIS also pushed for the establishment of an international mechanism on loss and damages stressed by the wreckage of Super typhoon Haiyan. AOSIS has a membership of 44 states, of which 39 are members of the United Nations and 5 observers from all around the world. The alliance represents 28% of the developing countries, and 20% of the UN’s total membership.
  18. The International Organization for Standardizationis an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on 23 February 1947, the organization promotes worldwide proprietary, industrial, and commercial standards. It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and works in 164 countries. It was one of the first organizations granted general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council. The three official languages of the ISO are English, French, and Russian. ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized authorities on standards, each one representing one country. Members meet annually at a General Assembly to discuss the strategic objectives of ISO. The organization is coordinated by a central secretariat based in Geneva.
  19. Recently, the Indian Government representative has been made the chair of WTO’s committee on Technical Barriers on Trade (TBT). TBT refers to mandatory technical regulations and voluntary solutions that define specific characteristics that a product should have such as its shape, size, design, packaging etc. WTO’s agreement on TBT is a preventive instrument which aims to ensure that such measures are non-discriminatory and do not create unnecessary obstacles to trade. TBT Committee work involves two broad areas: Review of specific measures and strengthening implementation of the TBT Agreement.
  20. The India-US Comprehensive Strategic Global Partnership is underpinned by a shared commitment to democratic values, rule of law, and a commitment to uphold a rules based international order. The Leaders expressed happiness with progress made across sectors in the bilateral agenda. Both sides launched an India-U.S. Initiative on Critical and Emerging Technologies (iCET) to facilitate outcome-oriented cooperation. Co-led by the National Security Council Secretariat in India and the U.S. National Security Council, iCET would forge closer linkages between government, academia and industry of the two countries in areas such as AI, quantum computing, 5G/6G, biotech, space and semiconductors.
  21. India is also not a signatory to the World Trade Organisations Government Procurement Agreement (GPA), but has been an observer since 2010.
  22. WeProtect Global Alliance(also known as the Alliance) is a global alliance that brings together experts from government, the private sector and civil society to protect children from sexual abuse online.
  23. The Global Network Against Food Crises (GNAFC) is an international alliance of the United Nations, the European Union, governmental and non-governmental agencies working to tackle food crises together.
  24. The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women(CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as an international bill of rights for women, it was instituted on 3 September 1981 and has been ratified by 189 states. Over fifty countries that have ratified the Convention have done so subject to certain declarations, reservations, and objections, including 38 countries who rejected the enforcement article 29, which addresses means of settlement for disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the convention. Australia’s declaration noted the limitations on central government power resulting from its federal constitutional system. The United States and Palau have signed, but not ratified the treaty. The Holy See, Iran, Somalia, Sudan, and Tonga are not signatories to CEDAW.
  25. Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) was adopted on 12 September 1997, together with the Protocol to Amend the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, and entered into force on 15 April 2015. It aims at increasing the amount of compensation available in the event of a nuclear incident through public funds to be made available by the Contracting Parties on the basis of their installed nuclear capacity and UN rate of assessment. It also aims at establishing treaty relations among States that belong to the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy or neither of them, while leaving intact the 1988 Joint Protocol that establishes treaty relations among States that belong to the Vienna Convention or the Paris Convention. India ratified the convention during 2016.
  26. European Commission’s Global Gateway initiative is also undertaking projects supporting the PGII such as mRNA vaccine plants in Latin America and a fibre-optic cable linking Europe to Latin America among others.
  27. Guided by the Global Compact on Refugees, the Global Refugee Forum is an opportunity to translate the principle of international responsibility-sharing into concrete action. The Forum will showcase impactful pledges and contributions and the exchange of good practices. This Forum is an opportunity to attest our collective commitment to the Global Compact on Refugees and rally behind the aspirations of the Sustainable Development Goals of leaving no one behind. The GRF will be held every four years at the Ministerial level. It is intended to present an opportunity for UN member states and other stakeholders to announce action plans and pledges towards meeting objectives such as easing the burden on the host country, enhancing refugee self-reliance, expanding access to third-country solutions, and supporting conditions in countries of origin for return in safety and dignity. The first GRF has been organised around six areas of focus: burden- and responsibility-sharing, education, jobs and livelihoods, energy and infrastructure, solutions, and protection capacity.
  28. The Permanent Structured Cooperation(PESCO) is the part of the European Union’s (EU) security and defence policy (CSDP) in which 25 of the 27 national armed forces pursue structural integration.
  29. The Pacific Network on Globalisation (PANG) is a regional watchdog promoting Pacific peoples’ right to be self-determining. PANG mobilizes movements and advocates based on substantive research and analysis to advocate and promote Pacific peoples’ centered development agenda. PANG operates through a networking model to support and work with community level groups representing diverse constituencies and interests including trade unions, feminists, young people, traditional landowners, community and environmental groups, scientists, lawyers, economists, political analysts, academics, parliamentarians and governments.
  1. ‘Just Stop Oil’, a UK-based group of climate activists, has hit the headlines over the last few months for their rather distinctive disruptions drawing attention to their cause.
  1. The Abraham Accords of 2020 had led to Israel formally normalising diplomatic ties with the UAE, Morocco and Bahrain, marking an important shift in the stance of West Asian countries on Israel. This accord took shape due to the efforts of US. It led to an entirely new grouping of partners including Israel, India, UAE and the United States — what we call I2U2.
  2. Istanbul Cooperation Initiative (ICI) is a partnership that aims at long-term global and regional security by offering non-NATO countries in the broader Middle East region the opportunity to cooperate with NATO.
  3. Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) is a 50-nation multilateral forum for dialogue and consultation on political and security-related issues among Allies and partner countries.
  4. Mediterranean Dialogue is a partnership forum that aims to contribute to security and stability in NATO’s Mediterranean and North African neighbourhood.
  5. The Vandenburg Resolution was the stepping stone to NATO. The US believed the treaty would be more effective if it included, apart from the signatories of the Brussels Treaty, countries of the North Atlantic — Canada, Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Ireland, and Portugal.
  6. Ottawa Convention is the 1997 Convention on the use, stockpiling, production, and transfer of Anti-Personnel landmines (APLs) and on their Destruction. Usually referred to as Anti-Personnel Mine Ban Treaty, this international agreement bans APLs. This Convention requires states-parties: To destroy their stockpiled APLs within 4 years and To eliminate all APL holdings, including mines currently planted in the soil, within 10 years. Some key current and past producers and users of landmines, including the US, China, India, Pakistan, and Russia, have not signed the treaty.
  7. Latvia and Estonia say they have left a Chinese-backed forum aimed at boosting relations with Eastern European countries, in what appears to be a new setback for China’s increasingly assertive diplomacy. Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) are member states that were part of the former Eastern bloc. The member countries include Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Slovenia.
  8. The Space Liability Convention of 1972 defines responsibility in case a space object causes harm. The treaty says that “a launching State shall be absolutely liable to pay compensation for damage caused by its space objects on the surface of the earth or to aircraft, and liable for damage due to its faults in space. The Convention also provides for procedures for the settlement of claims for damages.” However, there is no law against space junk crashing back to earth.
  9. The nine-point agreement of November 10, 2020 was signed by Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan, Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev, and Russian President Vladimir Putin. The agreement imposed an immediate ceasefire, a timeline for withdrawal from Azerbaijan’s occupied regions, the introduction of Russian peacekeepers, and the need for new transport corridors.
  10. The European Union (EU) has given final approval to online safety-focused legislation, which is an overhaul of the region’s social media and e-commerce rules. Called the Digital Services Act (DSA), the law tightly regulates the way intermediaries, especially large platforms such as Google, Meta, Twitter, and YouTube, function in terms of moderating user content.
  11. As India is a signatory to the Singapore Convention on Mediation (formally the United Nations Convention on International Settlement Agreements Resulting from Mediation), it is appropriate to enact a law governing domestic and international mediation.
  12. The Unification Church, formally known as the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification, is a religious group, often described as a ‘cult’ by critics, founded by late Reverend Sun Myung Moon in 1954 in South Korea. The Church, known for its ultra-conservative, anti-communist views, and mass-weddings where thousands of unmarried persons were matched by the Reverend, first expanded its international reach in Japan in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
  13. New Zealand passed the Plain Language Act, which will require the country’s officials to use simple, easily understood English language in official documents and on websites.
  14. The No Oil Producing and Exporting Cartels (NOPEC) bill, which passed the US Senate is intended to protect U.S. consumers and businesses from engineered oil spikes. OPEC+, which groups the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and allies including Russia, agreed to steep production cuts, curbing supply in an already tight market.
  15. The Balfour Declaration, the British Government’s 1917 statement of support for the creation of a Jewish state, is one example of the phenomenon. The Declaration, Fox and Bauer write, “was at least partly rooted in the antisemitic view that Jews were a powerful group, the ‘positive’ conclusion being that they were worth luring to the British side.”
  16. The Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia (CICA) held in Astana. India, that is a founder of the 27-nation CICA peace and confidence-building grouping of Asian countries, became its coordinator for counter-terrorism this year. India will also host a special meeting of the UNSC Counter-Terrorism Committee, ambassadors and representatives of all countries in the Security Council, including the P-5 members U.S., Russia, China, U.K. and France.

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