Important International Organisations-Part 5
|INDIAN OCEAN NAVAL SYMPOSIUM (IONS)||· voluntary initiative among the navies and maritime security agencies of the member nations
· Chairmanship rotates for every 2 years.
|REGIONAL INTEGRATED MULTI-HAZARD EARLY WARNING SYSTEM FOR AFRICA AND ASIA (RIMES)||· intergovernmental institution registered with UN, for the generation and application of early warning information.
· operates from its regional early warning centre located at campus of Asian Institute of Technology in Pathumthani, Thailand.
· seeks to establish regional early warning system within multi-hazard framework for generation and communication of early warning information and capacity building for preparedness and response to trans-boundary hazards.
· provides information related to Tsunami and extreme weather conditions. It also acts as a test bed for emerging technologies and help to enhance performance
|ASIA-PACIFIC ECONOMIC COOPERATION (APEC)||· an inter-governmental forum for 21 member economies in the Pacific Rim that promotes free trade throughout the Asia-Pacific region
· started in 1989, in response to the growing interdependence of Asia-Pacific economies and the advent of regional trade blocs in other parts of the world;
· it aimed to establish new markets for agricultural products and raw materials beyond Europe
· Headquartered in Singapore
· three official observers: the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Secretariat, the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council and the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat
· 21 Members countries are Australia, Brunei, Canada, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, United States, Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Chile, Peru, Russian and Vietnam.
· 50% of world’s trade and about 57% of GDP
· India is not a member state
|FINANCIAL ACTION TASK FORCE (FATF)||· Global money laundering and terrorist financing watchdog
· The FATF is not a part of the UN system,
· Functions out of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
· Headquarters in Paris,
· Started in 1989 after a decision by members of the G-7 and the European Commission.
· The FATF runs differently from other multilateral agencies, as its primary focus is on reviewing all actions through a “technical” not a political prism, and frowns upon countries bringing bilateral issues to the forum.
· It is not an enforcement agency itself
· Composed of 39 member governments who fund the FATF and agree on its mandate.
· This means that FATF depends on voluntary implementation of its reports by member countries.
· At present, only Iran and North Korea are on the blacklist
· 18 countries, including Pakistan, Syria, Yemen, Iceland, Jamaica and Mauritius, are on the grey list.
· India became an observer in the grouping in 2006, and was inducted as a full member in 2010.
How does FATF work and what do ‘grey lists’ and ‘black lists’ refer to?
· The 39-member body that was set up in 1989 out of a G-7 meeting of developed nations, is today made up of 37 countries and two regional organisations: the European Commission, the European Union’s executive body, and the Gulf Cooperation Council. India joined with ‘observer’ status in 2006 and became a full member of FATF in 2010.
· According to its mission statement, FATF members meet regularly to monitor various countries, “review money laundering and terrorist financing techniques and counter-measures; and promote the adoption and implementation of the FATF Recommendations globally”.
· The decision-making body of the FATF or Plenary meets thrice a year, in February, June and October, to take stock of “Mutual Evaluation Reports” (MERs) of the countries they review.
· If a country appears to have major deficiencies in its AML/CFT regime, it is put on a list of “jurisdictions under increased monitoring” or what is called the “grey list”, and if it fails to address FATF concerns it is put on a “high-risk jurisdictions” list, called the “black list”.
· Countries on both lists are subject to increasing levels of financial strictures, as the listing is like a global rating, and makes it difficult to procure loans from financial organisations like the IMF/World Bank, ADB etc., as well as to invite investment from private companies and other countries.
What are countries on the grey list expected to do?
· Specifically, these jurisdictions are now “actively working with the FATF to address strategic deficiencies in their regimes to counter money laundering, terrorist financing, and proliferation financing”.
|INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL POLICE ORGANIZATION (INTERPOL)||· An intergovernmental organization that helps coordinate the police force of 194 member countries.
· It is headquartered in Lyon, France.
· The Interpol, or International Criminal Police Organization, is an inter-governmental organisation comprising 195 member countries, which helps police forces in all these countries to better coordinate their actions.
· According to the Interpol website, the organisation enables member countries to share and access data on crimes and criminals, and offers a range of technical and operational support.
· The Interpol general secretariat coordinates the organisation’s day-to-day activities.
· It is run by a secretary general (currently Jurgen Stock of Germany, who has been Interpol’s chief executive since 2014), with its headquarters in Lyon, France, with a global complex for innovation in Singapore, and several satellite offices in different regions.
· Interpol has a National Central Bureau (NCB) in each member country, which is the central point of contact for both the general secretariat and the other NCBs around the world.
· Each NCB is run by police officials of that country, and usually sits in the government ministry responsible for policing. (Home Ministry in India.)
· Each of the member countries hosts an INTERPOL National Central Bureau (NCB).
· This connects their national law enforcement with other countries and with the General Secretariat.
· The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is designated as the National Central Bureau of India.
· Interpol manages 19 police databases with information on crimes and criminals (from names and fingerprints to stolen passports), accessible in real-time to countries.
· It also offers investigative support such as forensics, analysis, and assistance in locating fugitives around the world.
What is a Red Notice?
· Criminals or suspects often flee to other countries to evade facing justice.
· A Red Corner Notice, or Red Notice (RN) alerts police forces across the world about fugitives who are wanted internationally.
· Interpol says “Red Notices are issued for fugitives wanted either for prosecution or to serve a sentence.
· A Red Notice is a request to law enforcement worldwide to locate and provisionally arrest a person pending extradition, surrender, or similar legal action.”
· RNs contain information that helps identify wanted persons, such as their names, dates of birth, nationality, and physical attributes such as the colour of their hair and eyes, as well as pictures and biometric data such as fingerprints, if they are available. RNs also mention the crime(s) they are wanted for.
· An RN is published by Interpol at the request of a member country.
o The fugitives may be wanted for prosecution or to serve a sentence.
o The country issuing the request need not be the home country of the fugitive; Interpol acts on the request of a country where the alleged crime has been committed.
· The number of valid RNs which are not public is several times more. These RNs are restricted for use by law enforcement authorities only.
· An RN is published on Interpol’s website only in cases where the help of the public is needed to locate an individual, or if those individuals pose a threat to public safety.
Is an RN a warrant of arrest?
· An RN is only an international wanted persons’ notice; it is not an international arrest warrant. Interpol itself does not want individuals; they are wanted by a country or an international tribunal.
· This means the Interpol cannot compel law enforcement authorities in any country to arrest the subject of an RN.
· It is up to individual member countries to decide what legal value to give to an RN, and the authority of their national law enforcement officers to make arrests.
· The Interpol says that an RN must comply with its constitution and rules. It says on its website that “every Red Notice request is checked by a specialised task force to ensure it is compliant with (Interpol) rules”.
· The Interpol argues that an RN is issued only after a competent court has taken cognisance of a chargesheet against the fugitive.
|INTERNATIONAL SOLAR ALLIANCE||· Jointly launched by India and France on November 30, 2015, in Paris, on the side lines of the CoP21.
· Coalition of solar-resource-rich countries (that lie entirely or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn) to address their special energy needs.
· Aims to deploy 1,000 giagwatts (GW) of solar installations globally by 2030
· Key strategies-Strive for the establishment of a $300 billion Global Risk Mitigation Fund, in persuasion of the UN Millennium Development Goal of Universal Energy Access.
· instituted to connect 121 solar-resource-rich nations for research, low-cost financing and rapid deployment of clean energy
· a treaty-based inter-governmental organization
· Countries that do not fall within the Tropics can join the alliance and enjoy all benefits as other members, with the exception of voting rights
· After the United Nations, it is the largest grouping of states world-wide
· The alliance has partnered with World Bank to launch Global Solar Atlas
· Solar Technology Application Resource Centre (STARC) project was approved in its first assembly
|INTERNATIONAL WHALING COMMISSION (IWC)||· international body set up by the terms of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW),
· seeks to “provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry
|ASIAN–AFRICAN LEGAL CONSULTATIVE ORGANIZATION (AALCO)||· An international governmental organization formed in 1956, initially to serve as an advisory board to member states on matters on international law.
· An outgrowth of the Bandung Conference
· 48 countries comprising almost all the major States from Asia and Africa are presently the Members of the Organization.
· H.Q- India
|EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT (EBRD)||· an international financial institution founded in 1991.
· multilateral developmental investment bank, the EBRD uses investment as a tool to build market economies.
· Initially focused on the countries of the former Eastern Bloc it expanded to support development in more than 30 countries from Central Europe to Central Asia.
· members from all over the world (North America, Africa, Asia and Australia)
· biggest shareholder the United States, but only lends regionally in its countries of operations.
· Headquartered in London,
· owned by 69 countries and two EU institutions, the 69th being India since July 2018.
· Despite its public sector shareholders, it invests in private enterprises, together with commercial partners.
· not to be confused with the European Investment Bank (EIB), which is owned by EU member states and is used to support EU policy
· distinct from the Council of Europe Development Bank (CEB)
· first multilateral development bank to have an explicit environmental mandate in its charter (since 1995)
· will not finance thermal coal mining and coal-fired electricity generation due to their environmental impact
· does not finance “defence-related activities, the tobacco industry, selected alcoholic products, substances banned by international law and stand-alone gambling facilities
· companies are able to invest in EBRD projects, but do not receive financing for domestic projects
· investment by Indian firms in a range of sectors from solar to utilities, providing them access to fast growing markets
· enable Indian citizens to work for the organisations
· In 2017, the EBRD signed a pact with the International Solar Alliance
|UN-SPIDER||· United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER)
· a platform which facilitates the use of space-based technologies for disaster management and emergency response.
· under the auspices of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA).
· ensures that all countries and international and regional organizations have access to and develop the capacity to use all types of space-based information to support the full disaster management cycle.
|UNITED NATIONS OFFICE FOR THE COORDINATION OF HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS (OCHA)||· a United Nations (U.N.) body
· established in 1991 to strengthen the international response to complex emergencies and natural disasters
· successor to the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator (UNDRO)
· mandate was subsequently broadened to include coordinating humanitarian response, policy development and humanitarian advocacy
· sitting observer in the United Nations Development Group.
· headquarters is based in two locations (New York and Geneva)
|ISTANBUL CONVENTION||· The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence
· First legally-binding instrument which “creates a comprehensive legal framework and approach to combat violence against women”
· Focused on preventing domestic violence, protecting victims and prosecuting accused offenders.
· Only European countries have signed this convention
· signed by 45 countries and the European Union (EU).
· Turkey became the first country to ratify the Convention.
|UNITING FOR CONSENSUS (UFC)/ COFFEE CLUB||· a movement, nicknamed the Coffee Club, that developed in the 1990s in opposition to the possible expansion of permanent seats in the United Nations Security Council.
· Under the leadership of Italy, it aims to counter the bids for permanent seats proposed by G4 nations (Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan) and is calling for a consensus before any decision is reached on the form and size of the Security Council.
|INTERNATIONAL COVENANT ON CIVIL AND POLITICAL RIGHTS (ICCPR)||· The ICCPR is a multilateral treaty adopted by UN General Assembly Resolution on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976.
· The covenant commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial.
· As of September 2019, the Covenant has 173 parties and six more signatories without ratification.
· It is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).
· It is monitored by the UN Human Rights Committee (a separate body to the UN Human Rights Council).
|COLLECTIVE SECURITY TREATY ORGANIZATION (CSTO)||· The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) is a Russia-led military alliance of seven former Soviet states that was created in 2002.
· The CSTO’s purpose is to ensure the collective defence of any member that faces external aggression.
· It has been described by political scientists as the Eurasian counterpart of NATO, which has 29 member states, while the CSTO has just six.
· Current CSTO members are Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan.
· Afghanistan and Serbia hold observer status in the CSTO.
· Also referred to as the “Tashkent Pact” or “Tashkent Treaty”
|INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM (ITF)||· The ITF is an inter-governmental organisation within the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) system.
· It is the only global body with a mandate for all modes of transport.
· It acts as a think tank for transport policy issues and organises the annual global summit of transport ministers.
· The ITF’s motto is “Global dialogue for better transport”.
· India has been a member of ITF since 2008.
· India is NOT a member of OECD.
|GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
|· GPAI is an international and multi-stakeholder initiative to guide the responsible development and use of AI, grounded in human rights, inclusion, diversity, innovation, and economic growth.
· GPAI will be supported by a Secretariat, to be hosted by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in Paris, as well as by two Centers of Expertise- one each in Montreal and Paris.
· India joined the league of leading economies including USA, UK, EU, Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Republic of Korea, Singapore to launch the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI or Gee-Pay).
|MARPOL CONVENTION||· MARPOL is the main international convention aimed at the prevention of pollution from ships caused by operational or accidental causes.
· The Protocol of 1978 was adopted in response to a number of tanker accidents in 1976–1977.
· It is one of the most important international marine environmental conventions.
· It was developed by the IMO with an objective to minimize pollution of the oceans and seas, including dumping, oil and air pollution.
· The Convention includes regulations aimed at preventing and minimizing pollution from ships – both accidental pollution and that from routine operations – and currently includes six technical Annexes.
· India is a signatory to MARPOL.
· It has six annexes (I to VI) and it deals with prevention of (1) Pollution from ships by Oil, (2) Noxious liquid substances, (3) Dangerous goods in packaged form, (4) Sewage, (5) Garbage and (6) Air pollution from ships respectively.
|GENEVA CONVENTIONS||· Comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war
· Negotiated in the aftermath of the Second World War
· Extensively defined
· Basic rights of wartime prisoners (civilians and military personnel),
· established protections for the wounded and sick, and
· established protections for the civilians in and around a war-zone
· Defines the rights and protections afforded to non-combatants
· Treaties of 1949 were ratified, in their entirety or with reservations, by 196 countries
· The Conventions are about soldiers in war; they do not address the use of weapons of war, which are the subject of the Hague Conventions, and the bio-chemical warfare Geneva Protocol.
· India became a signatory to the Geneva Convention but refused to sign the Additional Protocols, which expanded the scope of the Conventions to arenas of International Armed Conflict and Non-International Armed Conflict.
· India also ratified Protocol III but is not a signatory to the Additional Protocols I and II.
|EDISON ALLIANCE||· Recently announced by World Economic Forum (WEF)
· EDISON stands for Essential Digital Infrastructure and Services Network.
· An international organisation for public-private partnership and WEF will serve as the secretariat and platform for the EDISON Alliance.
· Alliance aims to work towards ensuring global and equitable access to the digital economy.
· Prime goal is to ensure an unprecedented level of cross-sectoral collaboration between the technology industry and other critical sectors of the economy
|ARTEMIS ACCORDS||· An international agreement on the principles for cooperation in the civil exploration and use of the Moon, Mars, comets, and asteroids for peaceful purposes grounded in the Outer Space Treaty of 1967.
· The Accords were signed by the United States, Australia, Canada, Japan, Luxembourg, Italy, the United Kingdom, and the United Arab Emirates.
· Ukraine became the ninth signatory.
· India is not a part of the accord
|GLOBAL SMART CITIES ALLIANCE||· Established in June 2019, in conjunction with the G20 Summit in Osaka, Japan
· Comprises 15 of the world’s leading city networks and technology governance organisations
· World Economic Forum (WEF) serves as the secretariat
· The Internet of Things, Robotics and Smart Cities team in the Forum’s Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Network will take the lead and ensure accountability throughout the alliance’s members
· India has joined the league of 15 of the world’s leading city networks and technology governance organisations in 2019
· In News➖Four Indian cities Bengaluru, Faridabad, Indore and Hyderabad figure feature among the 36 others from across the globe that have been selected as a pioneer for adopting the new technology safely as a part of the G20 Global Smart Cities Alliance.
|ISGAN, THE INTERNATIONAL SMART GRID ACTION NETWORK||· Technology Collaboration Programme (TCP) of the International Energy Agency (IEA).
· The co-operative programme was formally established in 2011 and is also an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM).
· Co-operates with Mission Innovation, a global initiative that promotes the acceleration of the clean energy transition.
· India is a member country of the Agency
|SUPPLY CHAIN RESILIENCE INITIATIVE||· Aims to reduce the dependency on China.
· India, Japan and Australia.
· response to Chinese political behaviour and disruption to supply chain.
· aim is to attract foreign direct investment in the Indo-Pacific region.
· to turn the region to an economic powerhouse.
· Membership is open to the ASEAN countries as well.
|EUROPEAN UNION (EU)||· political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe ( 19 of these countries use EURO as their official currency. 9 EU members (Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Sweden, and the United Kingdom) do not use the euro0
· an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one.
· Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship
· 5.8% of the world population
· Nobel Peace Prize in 2012
· To become a member, a country must meet the Copenhagen criteria, of the European Council which requires a stable democracy that respects human rights and the rule of law; a functioning market economy; and the acceptance of the obligations of membership, including EU law.
|EUROPEAN COUNCIL||· collective body that defines the European Union’s overall political direction and priorities
· comprises of the heads of state or government of the EU member states, along with the President of the European Council and the President of the European Commission.
· High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy also takes part in its meetings
· decisions of its summits are adopted by consensus
|EUROPEAN COMMISSION (EC)||· executive body of the European Union
· responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
· Commission operates as a cabinet government, with 28 members of the Commission. There is one member per member state. These members are proposed by member countries and European Parliament gives final approval on them.
· Regional organization that aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states
· created by the Treaty of Rome of 1957
· EEC was incorporated into the EU and renamed the European Community (EC).
|EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION||· bloc comprising of four countries – Switzerland, Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.
· four EFTA countries are not part of the EU
· promote economic ties between the countries
|EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION||· International economic union that comprises of countries located in northern Eurasia.
· founding member states, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia established the union by treaty and entered into force on January 1, 2015
· created in part in response to the economic and political influence of the European Union and other Western countries.
· Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia
· Cooperation and economic competitiveness for the member states, and the promotion of stable development in order to raise the standard of living in member states.
|EASTERN ECONOMIC FORUM||· Economic development of Russia’s Far East and to expand international cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region
· Platform for the discussion of key issues in, world economy, regional integration and the development of new industrial and technological sectors.
· “Far East‟ is the easternmost part of Russia which is rich in natural resources like diamonds, stannary, gold, tungsten, fish and seafood.
IAS Abhiyan is now on Telegram: Click on the Below link to Join our Channels & and Stay Updated