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Important International Organisations-Part 9

  1. Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) are economic policies for developing countries that have been promoted by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) since the early 1980s by the provision of loans conditional on the adoption of such policies. Structural adjustment loans are loans made by the World Bank. They are designed to encourage the structural adjustment of an economy by, for example, removing “excess” government controls and promoting market competition as part of the neo-liberal agenda followed by the Bank. The Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility is an IMF financing mechanism to support of macroeconomic policies and SAPs in low-income countries through loans or low interest subsidies.
  2. Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property is a multilateral treaty dealing with the protection of industrial property in the widest sense. It is administered by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
  3. Climate Technology Centre and Network is operational arm of the UNFCCC Technology Mechanism. Hosted by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). Promotes the accelerated transfer of environmentally sound technologies for low carbon and climate resilient development at the request of developing countries.
  4. Equal Pay International Coalition – EPIC – is an initiative driven by stakeholders committed to reduce the gender pay gap and make equal pay for work of equal value a reality across all countries and sectors. Led by the ILO, UN Women and OECD, the Coalition engages with governments, employers, workers and their organizations, the private sector, civil society and academia to take concrete steps to accelerate the closing of the gender pay gap and the achievement of pay equity. India is not a member.
  5. The High-Level Committee on Programmes (HLCP), established by CEB in 2000, is the principal mechanism for system-wide coordination in the programme area. It is chaired by the President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development, and is composed of senior-most programme managers of the organizations of the system.
  6. International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO)-An International Labour Organization (ILO) classification structure for organizing information on labour and jobs. It is part of the international family of economic and social classifications of the United Nations.
  7. NORMLEX-a new information system which brings together information on International Labour Standards (such as ratification information, reporting requirements, comments of the ILO’s supervisory bodies, etc.) as well as national labour and social security laws. Designed to provide comprehensive and user-friendly information on these topics and includes the NATLEX database as well as the information which was previously contained in the former APPLIS, ILOLEX and Libsynd databases.
  8. Sahelis the eco-climatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
  9. Hand-in-Hand is FAO’s evidence-based, country-led and country-owned initiative to accelerate agricultural transformation and sustainable rural development to eradicate poverty (SDG 1) and end hunger and all forms of malnutrition (SDG2).
  10. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) leads the programme Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), which helps identify ways to mitigate threats faced by these systems and their people and enhance the benefits derived from these dynamic systems. Three recognized GIAHS sites in India: Kuttanad below Sea Level Farming System of Kerala, Koraput Traditional Agriculture of Odisha, Pampore Saffron Heritage of Kashmir.
  11. The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC) is the United Nations body responsible for supporting global ocean science and services.  There are 150 members of which India is also a member. HQ – Paris.
  12. Evidence-informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) is a network established by the World Health Organization to promote the systematic use of research evidence in health policy-making in order to strengthen health systems and get the right programs, services and drugs to those who need them.
  13. The Epidemic Intelligence from Open Sources (EIOS) initiative is a unique collaboration between various public health stakeholders around the globe. WHO accepted leadership of EIOS under the Health Emergencies Programme (WHE) with a governance structure involving multiple stakeholders.
  14. WHO launched the Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS), the first global collaborative effort to standardize AMR surveillance. In 2015, WHO Member States unanimously approved a Global Action Plan to tackle AMR(GAP-AMR). 
  15. The Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint is a cooperative initiative jointly led by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme to focus and catalyze the efforts to achieve international goals to prevent children’s exposure to lead from paints containing lead and to minimize occupational exposures to lead paint.
  16. Every 10 seconds a person dies from alcohol-related causes. WHO, in collaboration with international partners, launched the SAFER initiative in 2018. “SAFER” is an acronym for the 5 most cost-effective interventions to reduce alcohol related harm.
  17. In 2019, WHO launched a new initiative called 1+1 on the occasion of World Tuberculosis Day. The initiative aims at advancing engagement with young people, and amplifying their voices to end TB. 
  18. UNICEF Cryptocurrency Fund a special program of the United Nations. It becomes first UN organization to hold and make transactions in cryptocurrencies ether and bitcoin. The first contributions to the Fund will benefit UNICEF Innovation Fund and GIGA initiative to connect
    schools across the world to the internet.
  19. The Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA)is a global market-based measure adopted by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). It only applies to international flights. Domestic emissions fall under the purview of UNFCCC, and are covered by the Paris Agreement.
  20. ‘Listen First’ is an initiative of  United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) to increase support for prevention of drug use that is based on science and is thus an effective investment in the well-being of children and youth, their families and their communities.
  21. The Global Climate Observing System(GCOS) was established in 1992 as an outcome of the Second World Climate Conference, to ensure that the observations and information needed to address climate-related issues are obtained and made available to all potential users. The GCOS is co-sponsored by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) of UNESCO, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the International Council for Science (ICSU).
  22. Green Box Subsidies – Green box subsidies are those subsidies which cause no, or at most minimal, trade distorting effects or effects on production. Since they are permitted in WTO regime, the most developed countries have kept providing subsidies to their farmers. Blue Box Subsidies – Blue Box contains direct payment subsidies which can be increased without limit, so long as payments are linked to production-limiting programs. Amber Box Subsidies – All domestic support measures considered to distort production and trade (with some exceptions) fall into the Amber Box and are prohibited. The Amber box subsidies include the direct payment to the farmers to reduce production.
  23. Known as the Multiparty Interim Appeal-Arbitration Arrangement (MPIA), the arrangement bridges a crucial gap in the WTO system that results from the WTO Appellate Body’s temporary inability to hear appeals.
  24. Authorised Economic Operator (AEO) a programme under the aegis of the World Customs Organization (WCO) SAFE Framework of Standards to secure and facilitate Global Trade. It is a voluntary programme and aims to enhance international supply chain security and facilitate movement of goods.
  25. Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures—also known as the SPS Agreement—was negotiated during the Uruguay Roundof GATT, and entered into force with the establishment of the WTO at the beginning of 1995. 
  26. The Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999 (GI Act) is a sui generis Actof the Parliament of India for protection of geographical indications in India. India, as a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), enacted the Act to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.
  27. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)-The ICCPR is a multilateral treaty adopted by UN General Assembly Resolution on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976. The covenant commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial. As of September 2019, the Covenant has 173 parties and six more signatories without ratification. It is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It is monitored by the UN Human Rights Committee (a separate body to the UN Human Rights Council).
  28. The New York Declaration reaffirms the importance of the international refugee regime and contains a wide range of commitments by Member States to strengthen and enhance mechanisms to protect people on the move. It has paved the way for the adoption of two new global compacts in 2018: a global compact on refugees and a global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration.
  29. India is not a member of: Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), International Energy Agency (IEA), Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), ASEAN, UNSC, NATO, APEC, OPEC, G7, Open Skies Treaty.
  30. India is not a signatory to: International Criminal Court (ICC), International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (CRS), Comprehensive nuclear-test ban treaty (CTBT), Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT)
  31. India is not a Party of 1951 Refugee Convention and its 1967 Protocol
  32. Around 120 UN members including India have recently signed the Astana Declaration, which vows to strengthen primary healthcare and achieve universal health coverage by 2030
  33. Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development was established in 1977 under UNESCO to achieve a vibrant and cohesive electronic media environment in the Asia-Pacific region through policy and resource development. India has been elected as the President of AIBD for 2 years.
  34. Further to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) ’s COVID-19response, the Zoonotic Disease Integrated Action (ZODIAC) initiative was established in June 2020 to help countries prevent pandemics caused by bacteria, parasites, fungi or viruses that originate in animals and can be transmitted to humans. 
  35. The International Atomic Energy Agency established Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) in 2004, with the goal of ensuring the integration of radiotherapy in comprehensive cancer control and of engaging with other international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) to address cancer control in a comprehensive way.
  36. Set up in 2010, the IAEA Water Availability Enhancement Project is an initiative aimed at helping Member States improve the long-term access to freshwater by using science-based, comprehensive assessments of national water resources.
  37. International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is a membership-based project that supports its members on their long-term planning and collaboration on innovations in reactors, fuel cycles and institutional approaches that will promote the sustainable development of nuclear energy.
  38. The Peaceful Uses Initiative (PUI), launched in 2010, has become instrumental in mobilizing extrabudgetary contributions which supplement the Technical Cooperation Fund to support technical cooperation projects and other unfunded projects of the IAEA in the areas of peaceful application of nuclear technology.
  39. Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA): A framework for the provision of support through liquidity and precautionary instruments in response to actual or potential short-term balance of payments pressures. Established in 2015 by the BRICS countries Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. The objective of this reserve is to provide protection against global liquidity pressure. The CRA is generally seen as a competitor to the International Monetary Fund (IMF)and along with the New Development Bank is viewed as an example of increasing South-South cooperation
  40. The Food Insecurity and Climate Change Vulnerability map, developed by WFP and the UK Met Office, highlights the importance of urgent action to scale up climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts for the most food insecure people.
  41. WFP and Oxfam America launched the R4 Rural Resilience Initiative (R4) in 2011 to enable vulnerable rural families to increase their food and income security by managing climate-related risks.
  42. World Food Council (WFC) was a United Nationsorganization established by the UN General Assembly in December 1974 by recommendation of the World Food Conference. Its headquarters was in Rome, Italy. WFC’s goal was to serve as coordinating body for national ministries of agriculture to help reduce malnutrition and hunger. WFC was officially suspended in 1993. WFC is one of very few (if not the only) UN organization which has been suspended. WFC’s functions were absorbed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Food Programme.
  43. Union for Ethical BioTrade (UEBT): A nonprofit association and a member-based organisation that promotes the “Sourcing with Respect” of ingredients that come from biodiversity. Members commit to gradually ensuring that their sourcing practices promote the conservation of biodiversity, respect traditional knowledge and assure the equitable sharing of benefits all along the supply chain. Built upon efforts initiated by the BioTrade Initiative of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
  44. UNCTAD acts a host for the UN Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CSTD), which provides advice to the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)and the UN General Assembly on science and technology issues. It also holds the chairmanship for the the UN Group on the Information Society (UNGIS), which serves as an inter-agency mechanism for 29 international agencies to improve collaboration towards the achievement of the objectives set at the World Summit on the Information Society.
  45. The Sustainable Stock Exchanges (SSE) initiative promoting corporate investment in sustainable development. It is a project of the United Nations(UN) co-organized by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), the United Nations Global Compact, the United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative (UNEP-FI) and the UN-supported Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI).
  46. Principles for Responsible Investment(UNPRI or PRI) is a United Nations-supported international network of investors working together to implement its six aspirational principles, often referenced as “the Principles”
  47. The United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative (UNEP FI) is a global partnership established between the United Nations Environment Program(UNEP) and the financial sector. It was created in 1992, following the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro.
  48. The United Nations Global Compactis a non-binding United Nations pact to encourage businesses and firms worldwide to adopt sustainable and socially responsible policies, and to report on their implementation. The UN Global Compact is a principle-based framework for businesses, stating ten principles in the areas of human rights, labor, the environment and anti-corruption. Under the Global Compact, companies are brought together with UN agencies, labor groups and civil society. Cities can join the Global Compact through the Cities Programme.
  49. The Global system of trade preferences among developing countries(G.S.T.P) is a preferential trade agreement signed on 13 April 1988 with the aim of increasing trade between developing countries in the framework of the United nations conference on trade and development United regions U.R. Its entry into force was on 19 April 1989 and its notification to the WTO on 25 September 1989. India is a member state.
  50. Commission on the Status of Women (CSW or UNCSW): A functional commission of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). One of the main UN organs within the United Nations. Consists of one representative from each of the 45 Member States elected by ECOSOC on the basis of equitable geographical distribution. Commission held the 4th World Conference for Action, better known as the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action.

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