India ratifies 2nd commitment period of Kyoto Protocol

Kyoto Protocol

  • The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (a) global warming is occurring and (b) it is extremely likely that human-made CO2 emissions have predominantly caused it.

  • The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on December 11, 1997 and entered into force on February 16, 2005. There are currently 192 parties (Canada withdrew effective December 2012) to the Protocol.

  • The Kyoto Protocol implemented the objective of the UNFCCC to fight global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to “a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system” (Art. 2).

  • The Protocol is based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities: it puts the obligation to reduce current emissions on developed countries on the basis that they are historically responsible for the current levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

  • The first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol was from 2008-2012.

  • The Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Qatar in December 2012.

  • The amendment includes new commitments for parties to the Kyoto Protocol who agreed to take on commitments in a second commitment period from January 2013 to December 2020 and a revised list of greenhouse gases to be reported on by Parties in the second commitment period, according to the UNFCCC website.

Goal of reduction of 4 Greenhouse Gases belonging to Hydrofluorocarbons and Perfluorocarbons group:

  • Carbon Dioxide

  • Methane

  • Nitrous Oxide

  • Sulphur Hexafluoride

In addition, ratifiers of the Kyoto Protocol can purchase carbon credits to help offset their emissions.

Source:Economic Times

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