- On the basis of size, capital investment, and labor force employed, industries are classified as large, medium, small scale, and cottage industries.
- On the basis of ownership, industries come under public sector, private sector, joint, and cooperative sector.
- Industries of strategic and national importance are usually in the public sector.
- Industries are also classified on the basis of the use of their products such as basic goods industries, capital goods industries, intermediate goods industries, and consumer goods industries.
- On the basis of raw materials used by the industries − industries are categorized as agriculture-based industries, forest-based industries, mineral-based industries, and industrially processed raw material-based industries.
- Location of industries is influenced by several factors like access to raw materials, power, market, capital, transport, and labor, etc.
- Establishment of iron and steel industry in Bhilai (Chhattisgarh) and Rourkela (Odisha) were based on decision to develop backward tribal areas of the country.
Iron and Steel Industry
- The major raw materials for the iron and steel industries are iron ore, coking coal, limestone, dolomite, manganese, and fire clay.
- Major iron and steel industries in India are −
- The Tata Iron and Steel plant (TISCO);
- The Indian Iron and Steel Company (IISCO);
- Visvesvaraiya Iron and Steel Works Ltd. (VISL);
- Rourkela Steel Plant;
- Bhilai Steel Plant;
- Durgapur Steel Plant; and
- Bokaro Steel Plant.
- Some other major iron and steel industries are −
- Vizag Steel Plant, in Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh is the first port based plant which started operating in 1992.
- The Vijaynagar Steel Plant at Hosapete in Karnataka was developed by using indigenous technology.
- The Salem Steel Plant in Tamil Nadu was commissioned in 1982.
- The Rourkela Steel plant was set up in the year 1959 in the Sundargarh district of Odisha in collaboration with Germany.
- The Bhilai Steel Plant was established in 1959 with Russian collaboration in Durg District of Chhattisgarh.
- Durgapur Steel Plant was established in 1962 in West Bengal, in collaboration with the government of the United Kingdom
- Bokaro steel plant was set up in 1964 at Bokaro with Russian collaboration.
- India was famous worldwide for the production of muslin, a very fine variety of cotton cloth, calicos, chintz, and other different varieties of fine cotton cloth.
- In 1854, the first modern cotton mill was established in Mumbai.
- At present, the major centers of the cotton textile industry are Ahmedabad, Bhiwandi, Solapur, Kolhapur, Nagpur, Indore, and Ujjain.
- Tamil Nadu has the largest number of mills; however, most of them produce yarn rather than cloth.
- Davangere, Hubballi, Ballari, Mysuru, and Bengaluru are important cotton growing regions in Karnataka.
- With more than one-third of the total production, Maharashtra has emerged as a leading sugar producer in the country.
- Uttar Pradesh is the second largest producer of sugar.
- Many items are derived from crude petroleum, which provide raw materials for many new industries; hence, these are collectively known as petrochemical industries.
- Petrochemical industries are categorized as polymers, synthetic fibers, elastomers, and surfactant intermediate industries.
- Mumbai is the hub of petrochemical industries.
- Three organizations, which are working in the petrochemical sector under the administrative control of the Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals are −
- The Indian Petrochemical Corporation Limited (IPCL);
- The Petrofils Cooperative Limited (PCL);
- The Central Institute of Plastic Engineering and Technology (CIPET).
- The National Organic Chemicals Industries Limited (NOCIL), established as private sector in 1961.
- The Information Technology (IT) revolution opened up new possibilities of economic and social transformation.
- The IT software and services industry account for almost 2% of India’s GDP.
- The new Industrial Policy was implemented in 1991.
- The new industrial policy has three main dimensions − liberalization, privatization, and globalization.
- Within this new industrial policy, measures initiated are − abolition of industrial licensing; free entry to foreign technology; foreign investment policy; access to capital market; open trade; abolition of phased manufacturing program; and liberalized industrial location program.
- Globalization means integrating the economy of the country with the world economy.
- India has eight major industrial regions namely (as shown on the map given below) −
- Mumbai-Pune Region,
- Hugli Region,
- Bengaluru-Tamil Nadu Region,
- Gujarat Region,
- Chhotanagpur Region,
- Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Region,
- Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut Region, and
- Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram Region.