International Court of Justice (ICJ)


  • Recently, the International Court of Justice(ICJ) refused an appeal by Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) which challenged the authority of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) to adjudicate on the legality of the Qatar blockade.

Back to Basics

  • UAE, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and Qatar are located in the Persian Gulf Region and are the members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).

Gulf Cooperation Council:

  • The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulforiginally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq, namely: BahrainKuwaitOmanQatarSaudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
  • The Charter of the GCC was signed on 25 May 1981, formally establishing the institution.
  • All current member states are monarchies, including three constitutional monarchies(Qatar, Kuwait, and Bahrain), two absolute monarchies (Saudi Arabia and Oman), and one federal monarchy (the United Arab Emirates, which is composed of seven member states, each of which is an absolute monarchy with its own emir).
  • There have been discussions regarding the future membership of Jordan, Morocco, and Yemen.
  • A proposal in 2011 to transform the GCC into a “Gulf Union” with tighter economic, political and military coordination was advanced by Saudi Arabia, a move meant to counterbalance the Iranianinfluence in the region.
  • Objections were raised against the proposal by other countries.
  • The Peninsula Shield Forceis the military arm of the GCC, formed in 1984.

About International Court of Justice:

  • The International Court of Justice(ICJ), sometimes called the World Court, is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN). It settles disputes between states and gives advisory opinions on international legal issues referred to it by the UN. Its opinions and rulings serve as sources of international law. The International Court of Justice is the most supreme court in the world.
  • The ICJ is the successor of the Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ), which was established by the League of Nations in 1920. After the Second World War, both the League and the PCIJ were succeeded by the United Nations and ICJ, respectively.
  • The Statute of the ICJ draws heavily from that of its predecessor, and the latter’s decisions remain valid. All members of the UN are party to the ICJ Statute.
  • The ICJ comprises a panel of 15 judges elected by the General Assembly and Security Council for nine-year terms.
  • The court is seated in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, making it the only principal UN organ not located in New York City.
  • Its official working languages are English and French.

International Civil Aviation Organisation;

  • A UN specialized agency, established by States in 1944 to manage the administration and governance of the Convention on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention).
  • ICAO works with the Convention’s 193 Member States and industry groups to reach consensus on international civil aviation Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) and policies in support of a safe, efficient, secure, economically sustainable and environmentally responsible civil aviation sector.
  • The Air Navigation Commission (ANC) is the technical body within ICAO.
  • India is among its 193 members.

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