Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI)
- a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
- The stated mission of the organization is to campaign for “a world in which every person enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments.”
- The organization was awarded the 1977 Nobel Peace Prize for its “defence of human dignity against torture”, and the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rightsin 1978.
- In the field of international human rights organizations, Amnesty has the third longest history, after the International Federation for Human Rights and broadest name recognition, and is believed by many to set standards for the movement as a whole.
The International Federation for Human Rights
- A non-governmental federation for human rights organizations. Founded in 1922, FIDH is the second oldest international human rights organisation worldwide after Anti-Slavery International and brings together 184 member organisations in over 100 countries, as at 2016.
- FIDH is nonpartisan, nonsectarian, and independent of any government. Its core mandate is to promote respect for all the rights set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
- FIDH co-ordinates and supports the actions of its members and is their contact with intergovernmental organisations.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)
- a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
- India is party to the declaration.
- The Declaration of Human Rights Day is commemorated every year on December 10, the anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration, and is known as Human Rights Day or International Human Rights Day. The commemoration is observed by individuals, community and religious groups, human rights organizations, parliaments, governments, and the United Nations.
Youth for Human Rights International (YHRI)
- a non-profit organization founded in 2001 by Mary Shuttleworth, an educator born and raised in apartheid South Africa, where she witnessed firsthand the devastating effects of discrimination and the lack of basic human rights.
- The purpose of YHRI is to teach youth about human rights, specifically the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and inspire them to become advocates for tolerance and peace. YHRI has now grown into a global movement, including hundreds of groups, clubs and chapters around the world.
- an international non-governmental organization, registered charity and a lobby group, based in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1839, it is the world’s oldest international human rights organization. It works exclusively against slaveryand related abuses.
- Founded in 1839, it is the world’s oldest international human rights organisation and bases its work on the United Nations treaties against slavery.
- It has consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council and observer status at the International Labour Organization.
- It is a non-religious, non-political independent organisation.
- Anti-Slavery International works closely with partner organisations from around the world to tackle all forms of slavery.
International Bill of Human Rights
- It was the name given to UN General Assembly Resolution 217 (III) and two international treaties established by the United Nations. It consists of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (adopted in 1948), the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR, 1966) with its two Optional Protocols and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR, 1966).
- The two covenants entered into force in 1976, after a sufficient number of countries had ratified them.
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
- The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treatyadopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and in force from 3 January 1976.
- It commits its parties to work toward the granting of economic, social, and cultural rights (ESCR) to the Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories and individuals, including labour rights and the right to health, the right to education, and the right to an adequate standard of living. As of January 2018, the Covenant has 166 parties.
- The ICESCR is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), including the latter’s firstand second Optional Protocols.
- The Covenant is monitored by the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
- India is a party to the covenant.
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is
- a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant. Article 49 allowed that the covenant will enter into force three months after the date of the deposit of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or accession. The covenant commits its parties to respect the civil and political rights of individuals, including the right to life, freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, electoral rights and rights to due process and a fair trial.
- As of February 2017, the Covenant has 171 parties and six more signatories without ratification.
- The ICCPR is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR).
- The ICCPR is monitored by the United Nations Human Rights Committee (a separate body to the United Nations Human Rights Council), which reviews regular reports of States parties on how the rights are being implemented.
- India is a member country to the covenant.
United Nations Convention against Torture
- The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (commonly known as the United Nations Convention against Torture (UNCAT)) is an international human rights treaty, under the review of the United Nations, that aims to prevent torture and other acts of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment around the world.
- The Convention requires states to take effective measures to prevent torture in any territory under their jurisdiction, and forbids states to transport people to any country where there is reason to believe they will be tortured.
- As of May 2018, the Convention has 163 state parties.
- India is a member country.
- The Covenant follows the structure of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR).