- By this time, the old ritualistic Vedic tradition had gradually ceased to be a strong force.
- The freedom of thought allows fermentation of the new ideas and philosophic principles, leading to the establishment of numerous religious sects, which had never happened in India before.
- The important landmark in the history of Indian culture was the evolution of Jainism and Buddhism during the 600 B.C.
- Jainism and Buddhism have greatly influenced the society and culture of India. They stand against certain aspects of the pre-existing system of old ritualistic Vedic tradition.
- Ascetic orders and brotherhoods were the basis of both Jainism and Buddhism explained in their own way.
- The asceticism has its origin in the Vedic thought and Upanishads has been directly encouraging this by the recommending retirement to forests as essential to those who seek the highest knowledge.
- The Aranyakas are the products of hermitages of the forests.
- Rishabhanath and Aristhanemia are the two Tirthankaras of Jainism mentioned in Rig Veda that proves the antiquity of Jainism.
- Rishabhanath had been mentioned an incarnation of Narayana in Vayu Purana and Bhagwat Purana.
- The nude sculpture of some Tirthanakara was also found at Harappa.
- The antiquity of Jainism is represented by a succession of twenty-four Tirthankaras.
- Rishabhnath was the first Tirthankara of Jainism. The traditions of Jainism say that he was a king and renounced the kingdom in favor of his son, Bharata, and became an ascetic.
- The name Bharatavarsha is after Bharata, the son of Rishabhanath as per the Puranic traditions.
- Parsvanath was the twenty-third Tirthankara, he renounced the world at the age of thirty and attained the enlightenment (perfect knowledge) after nearly three months of intense meditation and spent the remaining life as a religious teacher. He had lived 250 years before Mahavira.
- Vardhamana Mahavira was the twenty-fourth and the last Tirthankara of Jainism.
- Mahavira was born about 540 B.C. in the village Kunda-grama near Vaisali. He was the only son of Siddhartha and Trisala. Siddhartha was the head of famous kshatriya Jnatrika clan and Trisala was the sister of Chetaka, an eminent Lichchhavi noble of Vaisali. Chetaka’s daughter was married to the king of Magadha, Bimbisara.
- Mahavira was married to Yasoda and lived a life of a householder. After the death of his parents, Mahavira left his home at the age of thirty, and became an ascetic.
- Mahavira had practiced most rigorous asceticism for the next twelve years and attained kaivalya at the age of 42 years.
- As per the Jainism, Kaivalya is the supreme knowledge and final liberation from the bonds of pleasure and pain.
- After attaining Kaivalya, Mahavira came to be known as Mahavira and Jina or the conqueror and spent his remaining life in preaching. His followers came to be known as Jainas. Initially, they were designated as Nirgranthas, which means free from fetters.
- In 468 B.C., Mahavira passed away at Pawapuri at the age of 72 years. He spent 30 years of his life in preaching his teachings.
- Four doctrines of Parsvanath are −
- Non-injury to living beings,
- Speaking the truth,
- Non-possession of property, and
- Not stealing.
- Vardhaman Mahavira accepted four doctrines of Parsvanath and added Celibacy as a fifth one to them.
- Celibacy is the complete renunciation and free from any possessions. Mahavira asked his followers to discard even their clothes.
THE SVETAMBARA SUB-SECTS
Like the Digambara sect, the Svetambara sect has also been split into three main sub-sects:
- Sthanakvasi, and
- The original stock of the Svetambaras is known as Murtipujaka Svetambaras since they are the thorough worshippers of idols. They offer flowers, fruits, saffron, etc. to their idols and invariably adorn them with rich clothes and jeweled ornaments.
- Their ascetics cover their mouth with strips of cloth while speaking, otherwise they keep them in their hands. They stay in temples or in the specially reserved buildings known as upasrayas. They collect food in their bowls from the sravakas or householders’ houses and eat at their place of stay.
- The Murtipujaka sub-sect is also known by terms like (i) Pujera (worshippers), (ii) Deravasi (temple residents). (iii) Chaityavasi (temple residents) and (iv) Mandira-margi (temple goers)
- The Murtipujaka Svetambaras are found scattered all over India for business purposes in large urban centers, still they are concentrated mostly in Gujarat.
- The Sthanakvasi arose not directly from the Svetambaras but as reformers of an older reforming sect, viz., the Lonka sect of Jainism. This Lonka sect was founded in about 1474 A.D. by Lonkashaha, a rich and well-read merchant of Ahmedabad. The main principle of this sect was not to practice idol-worship. Later on, some of the members of the Lonka sect disapproved of the ways of life of their ascetics, declaring that they lived less strictly than Mahavira would have wished. A Lonka sect layman, Viraji of Surat, received initiation as a Yati, i.e., an ascetic, and won great admiration on account of the strictness of his life. Many people of the Lonka sect joined this reformer and they took the name of Sthanakvasi, meaning those who do not have their religious activities in temples but carry on their religious duties in places known as Sthanakas which are like prayer-halls.
- The Sthanakvasi are also called by terms as (a) Dhundhiya (searchers) and (b)Sadhumargi (followers of Sadhus, i.e., ascetics). Except on the crucial point of idol-worship, Sthanakvasi do not differ much from other Svetambara Jainas and hence now-a-days they invariably call themselves as Svetambara Sthanakvasi. However, there are some differences between the Sthanakvasi; and the Murtipujaka Svetambaras in the observance of some religious practices. The Sthanakvasi do not believe in idol-worship at all. As such they do not have temples but only sthanakas, that is, prayer halls, where they carry on their religious fasts, festivals, practices, prayers, discourses, etc. Further, the ascetics of Sthanakvasi cover their mouths with strips of cloth for all the time and they do not use the cloth of yellow or any other color (of course, except white). Moreover, the Sthanakvasi admit the authenticity of only 31 of the scriptures of Svetambaras. Furthermore, the Sthanakvasi do not have faith in the places of pilgrimage and do not participate in the religious festivals of Murtipujaka Svetambaras.
- The Svetambara Sthanakvasi are also spread in different business centers in India but they are found mainly in Gujarat, Punjab, Harayana and Rajasthan.
- It is interesting to note that the two non-idolatrous sub-sects, viz., Taranapanthis among the Digambaras and Sthanakvasi among the Svetambaras, came very late in the history of the Jaina Church and to some extent it can safely be said that the Mohammedan influence on the religious mind of India was greatly responsible for their rise. In this connection Mrs. S. Stevenson observes: “If one effect of the Mohammedan conquest, however, was to drive many of the Jainas into closer union with their fellow idol-worshippers in the face of iconoclasts. Another effect was to drive others away from idolatry altogether. No oriental could hear a fellow oriental’s passionate outcry against idolatry without doubts as to the righteousness of the practice entering his mind, Naturally enough it is in Ahmedabad, the city of Gujarat, that was most under Mohammedan influence, that we can first trace the stirring of these doubts. About 1474 A.D. the Lonka sect, the first of the non-idolatrous Jaina sects, arose and was followed by the Dhundhiya or Sthanakvasi sect about 1653 A.D. dates which coincide strikingly with the Lutheran and Puritan movements in Europe.” (vide Heart of Jainism, p. 19).
- The terapanthi sub-sect is derived from the Sthanakvasi; section. The Terapanthi sub-sect was founded by Swami Bhikkanaji Maharaj. Swami Bhikkanaji was formerly a Sthanakvasi saint and had initiation from his Guru, by name Acharya Raghunatha. Swami Bhikkanaji had differences with his Guru on several aspects of religious practices of Sthanakvasi ascetics and when these took a serious turn, he founded Terapantha on the full-moon day in the month of Asadha in the year V.S. 1817, i.e., 1760 A.D.
- As Acharya Bh1kkanaji laid stress on the 13 religious principles, namely, (i) five Mahavratas (great vows), (ii) five samitis (regulations) and (iii) three Guptis (controls or restraints), his sub-sect was known as the Tera (meaning thirteen)-pantha sub-sect. In this connection it is interesting to note that two other interpretations have been given for the use of the term Terapantha for the sub-sect. According to one account, it is mentioned that as there were only 13 monks and 13 laymen in the pantha when it was founded, it was called as Tera(meaning thirteen)-pantha. Sometimes another interpretation of the term Terapantha is given by its followers. Tera means yours and pantha means path; in other words, it means, “Oh! Lord Mahavira! it is Thy path”.
- The Terapanthis are non-idolatrous and are very finely organized under the complete direction of one Acharya, that is, religious head. In its history of little more than 200 years, the Terapantha had a succession of only 9 Acharyas from the founder Acharya Bhikkanaji as the First Acharya to the present Acharya Tulasi as the 9th Acharya.
- This practice of regulating the entire Pantha by one Acharya only has become a characteristic feature of the Terapantha and an example for emulation by other Panthas. It is noteworthy that all monks and nuns of the Terapantha scrupulously follow the orders of their Acharya, preach under his guidance and carry out all religious activities in accordance with his instructions. Further, the Terapantha regularly observes a remarkable festival known as Maryada Mahotasava. This distinctive festival is celebrated every year on the 7th day of the bright half of the month of Magha when all ascetics and lay disciples, male and female, meet together at one predetermined place and discuss the various problems of Terapanthis.
- The penance of Terapanthis is considered to be very severe. The dress of Terapanthi monks and nuns is akin to that of Sthanakvasi monks and nuns. But there is a difference in the length of muhapatti, i.e., a piece of white cloth kept always on the mouth. The Terapanthis believe that idolatry does not provide deliverance and attach importance to the practice of meditation.
- Further, it may be stressed that the Terapantha is known for its disciplined organization characterized by one Acharya (i.e., religious head), one code of conduct and one line of thought. The Terapanthis are considered reformists as they emphasize simplicity in religion. For example, the Terapanthis do not even construct monasteries for their monks, who inhabit a part of the house which the householders build for themselves. Recently their religious head, Acharya Tulasi, had started the Anuvrata Andolana, that is, the small vow movement. which attempts to utilize the spiritual doctrines of the Jainas for moral uplift of the masses in India.
- The rise of Terapantha is the last big schism in the Svetambara sect and this Pantha is becoming popular. The Terapanthis are still limited in number and even though they are noticed in different cities in India, they are concentrated mainly in Bikaner, Jodhpur and Mewar areas of Rajasthan.
- The universe is eternal.
- The world is not created, maintained, or destroyed by a God, but it functions through a universal or eternal law.
- Jains did not deny the existence of God, but they simply ignored.
- The existence of the universe is divided into cycles of progress (Utsarpini) and declines (Avasarpim). It functions through the interaction of living souls (Jiva) and everything in the universe has a soul.
- The souls are found not only in the living beings like animals and plants, but also in stones, rocks, water, etc.
- The purification of the soul is the purpose of living.
- Only the pure soul after being released from the body resides in heaven.
- The soul, which has finally set itself free, rises at once to the top of the universe, above the highest heaven where it remains in an inactive omniscient bliss through eternity. It is known as ‘Nirvana’ in the Jainism.
- According to Jainism, salvation is possible only by −
- Deserting all belongings,
- A long course of fasting,
- Study, and
- Jainism, therefore, says that the monastic life is essential for salvation.
- According to the Jaina tradition, the king Chandragupta Maurya has supported Jainism. He had accepted Jaina religion and abdicated the throne and died as a Jaina Bhikshu in the southern part of India.
- Two hundred years after the death of Mahavira (during the reign of Chandragupta Maurya), a terrible famine broke out in Magadha. Bhadrabahu was the chief of the Jaina community at that time.
- Bhadrabahu went to Karnataka with his followers and Sthulabhadra remained in Magadha as the in-charge of Jainism.
- Bhadrabahu convoked a council at Patliputra, in which the Jaina canon was arranged.
- Later in the 5th century A.D., the Jaina canon was further rearranged when the Jainas returned from south India. From where Jainism divided into two sects.
- Those who returned from southern India held that complete nudity is an essential part of the teachings of Mahavira while the monks in Magadha began to put on white clothes.
- Those who put on white robes known as ‘Svetambaras’ and those who were stark naked were called as ‘Digambaras.’