IMPORTANT FACTS & FIGURES FOR GS MAINS-JUNE 2020

  1. National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) data highlights that between 2001 and 2018, only 26 policemen were convicted of custodial violence despite 1,727 such deaths being recorded in India as most such deaths were attributed to reasons other than custodial torture such as suicide. Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra recorded zero convictions despite recording more than 100 custodial deaths in the period.
  2. Indian diaspora, estimated at nearly 7 lakh is the fastest growing in Australia and has become positive factor in bilateral relations.
  3. As per the Census 2011, the percentage of minorities in the country is about 3% of the total population of the country.
  4. The government aims to increase the domestic value addition for mobile phones by 35-40 per cent by 2025
  5. It is estimated that India can reduce 6.5% of power sector CO2 emissions during the 2015-2040 period if the potential for cross-border electricity trade is effectively exploited.
  6. India has the highest suicide rate in the South-East Asian region, according to the World Health Organization report 2019. India’s suicide rate is at 5 suicides per 100,000 people. India also had the third-highest female suicide rate (14.7) in the world.
  7. India ranked among the top 10 for FDI in 2019 and has rank 63 in World Bank’s ‘Ease of Doing Business 2020, still the foreign investment has remained at 2 per cent of GDP.
  8. Over 60% of the world’s Cobalt is mined in the Democratic Republic of the Congo while over 75% of global Lithium is mined in Australia and Chile.
  9. FDI-equity inflows to India during 2019- 20 were $49.9 billion, substantially lower than the annual flow of remittances of $83 billion in the same period.
  10. India has set a policy target of increasing the share of natural gas in India’s energy basket from current 5% to 15% by 2030.
  11. According to Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change, Desertification, land degradation and drought cost India about 2.5% of gross domestic product in 2014-15.
  12. India is also third largest economy in terms of its PPP-based share in global Actual Individual Consumption
    and Global Gross Capital Formation.
    India is second largest economy in Asia-Pacific, accounting for 20.83% of regional GDP in terms of PPPs with China first and Indonesia third.
  13. India is currently importing around $250 billion of fossil fuel annually (oil, diesel, LNG, coking and thermal coal).
  14. The findings of the“Magnitude of Substance Abuse in India” report 2019, revealed the estimated 16 crore alcohol consumers in the 10-75 years in the country, as many as 19% of them were dependent on alcohol.
  15. India is the third largest economy, accounted for 6.7 % of global Gross Domestic Productin terms of PPPs as against China (16.4%) and United States (16.3%).
  16. India is also third largest economy in terms of its PPP-based share in global Actual Individual Consumption and Global Gross Capital Formation.
  17. In 2017, India retained its regional position, as the second largest economy, accounted for 20.83 % (HK$ 48,395 billion out of Asia-Pacific total of HK$ 232,344 billion) of Regional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in terms of PPPs where China was at 50.76% (first) and Indonesia at 7.49% (third).
  18. India continues to be the largest producer of milk in the world, with per capita availability of milk 394 grams per day during 2018-19. As per the latest and 20th Livestock census, the total livestock population is 535.78 million.
  19. The digital economy today comprises 14-15% of India’s total economy, and is targeted to reach 20% by 2024.
  20. Textile Sector accounts for 7% of India’s manufacturing output, 2% of GDP, 12% of exports and employs directly and indirectly about 10 crore people. India is largest producer of cotton, accounting for 25% of the global output. The world’s second-largest producer of textiles and garments after China. The second-largest producer of man-made fibres — polyester and viscose.
  21. The number of girls missing at birth due to the practice of gender biased sex selection in India has been
    estimated at 0.46 million girls per year for the period 2001-12 (which is 5.52 million girl children, missing at
    birth for the 12-year period).
  22. Pollination contributes to one-third of the world’s agricultural crop production and pollinators can increase crop yield by 24% in small diverse farms and its reduction can pose an immediate threat to mankind’s food and nutrition.
  23. India is also second largest economy in terms of its PPP-based share in regional Actual Individual Consumption and regional Gross Capital Formation.
  24. The police in India works at 77% of its sanctioned strength and even at full capacity, India will be one of the weakest policed countries in the world. Police personnel work for 14 hours a day on an average, with about 80% police personnel working for more than 8 hours a day.
  25. Together, the Russia-India-China (RIC) countries occupy over 19 percent of the global landmass and contribute to over 33 percent of global GDP.
  26. Nearly 80 million people were forcibly displaced by the end of 2019 — which is nearly 1% of the global population. 80% of the world’s displaced people are in countries or territories affected by acute food insecurity and malnutrition – many of them facing climate and other disaster risk.
  27. As per a NITI Aayog document, of the total pulses, oilseeds and cotton produced in the country, 80% pulses, 73% oilseeds and 68% cotton come from rain-fed agriculture.
  28. India jumped from 12th position in 2018 to 9th in 2019 on the list of the World’s top FDI recipient Singapore is the largest source of FDI in India during the last fiscal. It was followed by Mauritius, the Netherlands, the US, Caymen Islands, Japan and France.
  29. India has the second-largest online users in the world, with over 560 million internet users.
  30. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is India’s largest regional-bloc trading partner, which accounted for $104 billion of trade in 2017–18, nearly a 7 per cent increase from $97 billion the previous year. This is higher than both India– ASEAN trade ($81 billion) and India–EU trade ($102 billion) in 2017-18.
  31. The mangrove cover in the country is 4,975 sq km, which is 0.15% of the country’s total geographical area. West Bengal has 42.45% of India’s mangrove cover, followed by Gujarat (23.66%) and A&N Islands (12.39%). About 40% of world’s Mangrove Cover is found in South East Asia and South Asia. India has about 3% of the total Mangrove cover in South Asia.
  32. Global FDI flows will decrease by up to 40% in 2020, from their 2019 value of $1.54 trillion due to COVID-19 lockdown, supply chain disruptions and economic slowdown.
  33. India has the world’s fourth largest coal reserve and is second largest producer after China, still India stands as second largest coal importer.
  34. According to Census 2011, 17.7% of urban population comprising 65 million people lives in slums. India’s urban population has grown rapidly over the last century from 25 million in 1901 to 377 million in 2011
    which constitute 31.2% of the total population in the country.
  35. In 2019, the FDI inflows into India jumped over 20% to $51 billion.
  36. Travel and tourism account for approximately 8.1% of the total employment opportunities. In 2019, it contributed 9.3% to India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and received 5.9% of total investments.
  37. As per Brookings India, currently only 57% of the social enterprises have access to debt and equity, which is barrier to growth and sustainability. India has more than 2 million social enterprises (non-profits, for-profits and hybrid model), which needs careful planning while designing a social stock exchange.
  38. Health-care costs and productivity losses from pollution are as much as 8.5% of GDP, according to the World Bank.
  39. Between 1979 and 2018, the sea ice has been declining at a rate of -4.7 per cent per decade, while its rate was found to be -13 per cent in July 2019.
  40. Indian Ocean is home to 30% of the world’s coral reefs and 13% of global wild-catch
    Sea ice covers about 7% of the Earth’s surface and about 12% of the world’s oceans.
  41. Oxfam India estimates the economic loss from women losing their jobs during the pandemic at about
    $216 billion, around 8% of the GDP. According to the ILO, 81% of Indian women work in the informal economy. According to government data, 55% of women report not using public health services. Out-of-pocket health expenditures are higher for women than for men in most developing countries.
  42. Internet usage in India is still a “male preserve”, with only 29 per cent of online users being females, thus underlining a “digital gender gap”, says a study by the United Nations. Globally, 12 per cent more men than women used the Internet in 2017. In India, less than one third of Internet users are females.
  43. India has 5 hospital beds per 10,000 citizens, one doctor for every 1,445 citizens (WHO’s prescribed
    norm is 1:1000) and 1.7 nurses per 1,000 people (WHO’s prescribed norm is 3:1000) which makes the
    situation more complicated.
  44. Over the last few decades India has emerged as the pharmaceutical hub of the world but it still imports 68-69 percent of its Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) requirements from china. Of all healthcare spending, only 7% was spent on preventive healthcare, while more than 80% was spent on treatment and cure. In fiscal year 2018, the value of public health expenditure by states and union territories together is estimated to be around 1.28 percent of the country’s GDP.
  45. Cyanobacteria are aquatic and photosynthetic, that is, they live in the water, and can manufacture their own food. Because they are bacteria, they are quite small and usually unicellular, though they often grow in colonies large enough to see. They have the distinction of being theoldest known fossils, more than 3.5 billion years old.
  46. According to annual India Tuberculosis Report 2020, 2.4 million cases of tuberculosis (TB) were reported in 2019 (14% higher than last year) and 79,000 deaths.
  47. India accounts for 45.8 million of the world’s 142.6 million “missing females” over the past 50 years, a report by the United Nations. Of this global figure, India accounted for 45.8 million missing females as of 2020 and China accounted for 72.3 million. China and India together account for about 90-95 per cent of the estimated 1.2 million to 1.5 million missing female births annually worldwide due to gender-biased (prenatal) sex selection.
  48. Today, the forest is rich in biodiversity with 23 plant species, 29 bird species, 15 butterfly species, 10 reptiles and 3 mammal species. Development of Urban Forests will contribute to India’s decision to sequester 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent in the country’s forests. They will also function as urban lungs. The Warje Urban Forest is now a role model for the rest of the country. India is endowed with rich biodiversity having several species of animals and plants and hosts 4 of the 35 global bio-diversity hotspots containing several endemic species. India has 16% of world’s human & cattle population, both require land, water & food. But we have only 5% of world’s landmass & 4% of natural water resources. Still, we are able to preserve 8% of world’s biodiversity.
  49. India is far behind from its target of achieving manufacturing sector contribution of 25% of the GDP.
  50. According to State of India’s Environment 2020 in Figures ’reportreport was published by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), India had around 50 lakh internal displacements caused by disasters and extreme weather conditions like floods, cyclones and drought in 2019. India faces major challenges in achieving all of the 17 SDGs, especially SDG1 (No Poverty) and SDG 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation).
  51. In the age group of 15-18 years, India has around 23 million working children. This means one in eleven children between the ages of 5-18 years in the country are working. Child labour is concentrated primarily in agriculture and allied activities (71%), 17% in services; and 12% in the industrial sector. 152 million children between the ages of 5-17 were in child labour, almost half them, 73 million, in hazardous child labour.
  52. India’s unemployment rate inched lower to 5.8 per cent in 2018-19 (July-June) from 6.1 per cent a year ago, the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) released by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI). Unemployment rate, however, rose among Scheduled Castes to 6.4 per cent from 6.3 per cent, and for Scheduled Tribes to 4.5 per cent from 4.3 per cent. But unemployment rate among Other Backward Classes inched lower to 5.9 per cent from 6 per cent.
  53. India’s unemployment rate fell between July 2018 and June 2019 to 5.8% from 6.1% during the same
    period of 2017-18, even as the labour force participation rate rose to 37.5% from 36.9%.
    2. The worker population ratio also increased, to 35.3% as against 34.7% in the 2017-18.

    3. Urban unemployment rate reduced to 7.7% in 2018-19 from 7.8% and in rural India to 5% from 5.3%.
    4. Female participation rate improved in both urban and rural India during the period under review,
    going up to 18.6% in 2018-19 from 17.5% the year before.
  54. With around 63.4 million units throughout the geographical expanse of the country, MSMEs contribute around 11% of the manufacturing GDP and 24.63% of the GDP from service activities as well as 33.4% of India’s manufacturing output. They have been able to provide employment to around 120 million persons and contribute around 45% of the overall exports from India. About 20% of the MSMEs are based out of rural areas, which indicates the deployment of significant rural workforce in the MSME sector.
  55. In India, CO2emitted per inhabitant was just about a twentieth of that of an average OECD country, yet, India’s transport CO2 emissions are likely to increase by almost 6% annually to 2030. The transport sector of India is the third most greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting sector, where the major contribution comes from the road transport sector. Out of the total carbon dioxide emissions in India, 13% come from the transport sector. These emissions have more than tripled since 1990. The increasing motorization and demand for mobility in India have contributed to air pollution, congestion, as well as the increase of greenhouse gas emissions, in the urban area.
  56. According to the 2016 UN World Wildlife Crime report, criminals are illegally trading products derived from over 7,000 species of wild animals and plants across the world.
  57. Seoul, Singapore and Bangkok have built green corridors that provide space for nature and wildlife while improving the lives of city dwellers. Such initiatives are imperative, given cities will host 68% of the world’s population by 2050, according to the United Nations.