Land Resources

Introduction

  • Land use record is maintained by the Land Revenue Department.
  • The Survey of India is accountable for measuring geographical area of administrative units in India.
  • There is difference between the actual forest area and the forest area defined by the Government.

Categories of Land

  • Land under settlements (i.e. rural and urban), infrastructure (i.e. roads, canals, industries, shops, etc.) are kept under the category of Non-Agricultural Land.
  • Barren hilly terrains, desert lands, ravines, etc. normally are not suitable for cultivation, hence, they are known as Barren and Wastelands.
  • The land owned by the village panchayat comes under ‘Common Property Resources’.
  • Any land, which is left fallow (uncultivated) for more than five years is categorized as Culturable Wasteland.
  • The land, which is left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year is known as Current Fallow.
  • The physical extent of the land on which crops are sown and harvested is known as Net Sown Area.
  • Land use pattern changes with time and the nature of economic activities carried out in that region.
  • As a result of increase in population, change in income levels, available technology, and associated factors, pressure on land increases and marginal lands come under use.
  • When secondary and tertiary sectors grow much faster than primary sector, then agricultural land changes into non-agricultural land.
  • Likewise, India has undergone major changes within the economy over the past four or five decades, and it has influenced the land-use changes in the country.
  • Because of the changing structure of the Indian economy, the rate of increase of non-agricultural land is very fast.