IMPORTANT FACTS & FIGURES FOR GS MAINS-MAY 2020

  1. According to data released by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), total Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India increased by 18% to $73.46 billion in the 2019-20 financial
  2. According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), institutional deliveries have increased from 39% in 2005-06 to 79% in 2015-16. Further, the institutional  births    in    public    institutions have increased from 18% to 52% in the same time period.
  3. Crisil, Goldman Sachs and Fitch Ratings have projected the Indian economy to contract 5% during the current financial
  4. According to the Living Planet Index, nature will take around 5-7 million years to recover, even if the destruction stops Since 1970-2014, 60% of animal populations have been wiped out due to human activities.
  5. Expenditure on public health funding has been consistently low in India (approximately 1.3% of GDP). As per OECD, India’s total out-of-pocket expenditure is around 2.3 % of GDP.
  6. As per Food and Agricultural Organization database, in 2017-18, India ranked eighth in the world in terms of honey production (64.9 thousand tonnes) while China stood first with a production level of 551 thousand tonnes.
  7. Public funding on health should be increased to at least 5% of GDP as envisaged in the National Health Policy, 2017.
  8. Neutralizing antibodies were found in 91% of the individuals.
  9. 90% of all wildfires are caused by humans.
  10. As per the report released by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and partners, nearly 80 million children under the age of 1 are at risk of contracting deadly but vaccine preventable diseases such as measles, polio and According to the WHO, vaccination prevents between two-three million deaths each year, a figure that will rise by another 1.5 million if vaccine coverage improves.
  11. MSMEs is the second largest employment generating sector after agriculture. It provides employment to around 120 million persons in India. With around 36.1 million units throughout the geographical expanse of the country, MSMEs contribute around 6.11% of the manufacturing GDP and 24.63% of the GDP from service activities. The MSME ministry has set a target to up its contribution to GDP to 50% by 2025 as India becomes a $5 trillion economy. It contributes around 45% of the overall exports from India.
  12. Globally, around 25% of all animal and plant species are threatened with
  13. Seventy-five per cent of the world’s poorest people– 1.4 billion women, children and men – live in rural areas and depend on agriculture and related activities for their livelihoods. An estimated 5 to 10 million hectares of agricultural land are lost to environmental degradation every year.
  14. According to UNICEF Dirty water and poor sanitation kills over 5000 children every day worldwide.
  15. Today, 785 million people – 1 in 9 – lack access to safe water and 2 billion people – 1 in 3 – lack access to a toilet.
  16. Nearly 1 million people die each year from water, sanitation and hygiene-related diseases which could be reduced with access to safe water or
  17. Every 2 minutes a child dies from a water-related disease.
  18. 160 million children suffer from stunting and chronic malnutrition, which has been linked to lack of access to safe water and sanitation.
  19. Universal access to basic water and sanitation would result in $18.5 billion in economic benefits each year from avoided deaths
  20. If for instance in India, water and toilets were accessible to even 1% more girls in secondary school, the country’s GDP would rise more than $5
  21. India has been one of the world’s largest arms importers (accounting for about 12% of global arms imports).
  22. There are about 25 lakh unregistered food processing enterprises which constitute 98% of the sector and are unorganized and Nearly 66 % of these units are located in rural areas and about 80% of them are family-based enterprises.
  23. The sugar industry plays a leading role in global market with India      being       world’s       second largest producer after Brazil, producing nearly15 and 25 per cent of global sugar and sugarcane
  24. The significance of the MSMEs sector can be noted from the fact that it is the second-largest employment provider, after agriculture in India. In India, at present, there are nearly 56 million such enterprises in various industries, employing close to 124 million people. Of these, nearly 14% are women-led enterprises, and close to 60% are based in rural areas. In all, the MSME sector accounts for 8% of India’s GDP and 45% of merchandise exports. Due to this, the MSME sector is called the growth engine of the nation.
  25. India contributes 6% of rice production in the world and ranked second after China.
  26. At present nearly 83% of India’s workers are part of the informal economy.
  27. According to the 2017 Global Findex database, 83% of males above 15 years of age in India held accounts at a financial institution in 2017 compared to 77%
  28. India has pledged in the Conference of the Parties (COP21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to bring down the energy intensity of its economy by 33 to 35% compared to 2005 levels by 2030
  29. In India, tribal population makes up for 8.6% of the total population
  30. India also has nearly 400 million smartphone users which offer unprecedented outreach.
  31. The share of external debt has seen a gradual decline from 7.9 per cent of Central Government Debt at end-March 2011 to 3.9 per cent at end March 2019
  32. As per cent of GDP, external debt declined from 3.6 per cent to 2.7 per cent from 2011 to 2019
  33. India’s Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) targets to lower the emissions intensity of GDP by 33-35 per cent by 2030 from 2005 levels
  34. About 2 lakh Biodiversity Management Committees (BMCs) at local levels have been constituted as of 2019 and 7567 Peoples Biodiversity Registers (PBRs) have been prepared as of 2019
  35. About 21.40% of forest cover in India is prone to fires as per a report by the Forest Survey of India (FSI).
  36. About 20 per cent of the planet’s land area has seen a decline in productivity with fertility losses linked to erosion, soil depletion and pollution
  37. Land degradation across the world causes loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services worth more than 10 per cent of annual global gross domestic product.
  38. Around 70 per cent of wetlands have been lost over the last century, leading to localized biodiversity losses and acute water shortages.
  39. Between 20 and 50 percent of global blue carbon ecosystems have already been converted or degraded
  40. As per a survey recorded by UN, 66% of Indian women reported being stressed due to additional duties of caregiving such as home-schooling and taking care of older relatives along with increased cases of violence towards them
  41. As per NSSO data, only 4.4% of rural households and 4% of urban households have computer/laptop.
  42. Restoration of 350 million hectares of degraded land between now and 2030 could generate US$9 trillion in ecosystem services and take an additional 13 to 26 gigatons of greenhouse gases out of the atmosphere.
  43. Farming is the bedrock of India’s economy—43 per cent of its population are employed in agriculture. Yet, paradoxically, around 60 per cent of India’s people is likely to experience severe food shortages by 2050.
  44. World’s forest area decreased from 6% of global land area in 1990 to 30.6% in 2015 and around 70 million hectares of forests has been lost since 2000.
  45. According to an estimate by the World Health Organization (WHO), mental illness makes about 15% of the total disease conditions around the world.
  46. With 504 million active internet users (aged 5 years or above), India has the second-largest internet user market behind China
  47. Among children under 5 years of age, 149.0 million are stunted, 5 million are wasted and
  48. In last 10 years Infant Mortality Rate declined by about 35% in rural areas and about 32% in urban areas
  49. According to Sample Registration System, Bihar has the highest Birth Rate (BR) at 26.2 and Andaman and Nicobar Islands has lowest BR of 11.2 whereas Chhattisgarh has highest death rate at 8 and Delhi has a rate of 3.3

Statistical Data about MSMEs in India

  • According to the Annual Report of the Department of MSMEs (2018-19), there are 6.34 crore MSMEs in the country
  • Around 51% of these are situated in rural India and 49% of them are situated in urban India.
  • Both rural and urban MSMEs together employ over 11 crore people but 55% of the employment happens in the urban MSMEs.
  • 99.5% of all MSMEs fall in the micro category. While micro enterprises are equally distributed over rural and urban India, small and medium ones are predominantly in urban India.
  • About 66 % of all MSMEs are owned by people belonging to the Scheduled Castes (12.5%), the Scheduled Tribes (4.1%) and Other Backward Classes (49.7%).
  • The gender ratio among employees is largely consistent across the board at roughly 80% male and 20% female.
  • Seven Indian states account for 50 % of all MSMEs. These are Uttar Pradesh (14%), West Bengal (14%), Tamil Nadu (8%), Maharashtra (8%), Karnataka (6%), Bihar (5%) and Andhra Pradesh (5%).

Fisheries sector in India

  • Fisheries are an important source of food, nutrition, employment and income in India.
  • The sector provides livelihoods to about 16 million fishers and fish farmers at the primary level and almost twice the number along the value chain.
  • The sector accounts for about 6.58 per cent share of Agricultural GDP.
  • The marine exports stand at about 5% of total exports of India and constitute 19.23 % of Agriexports (2017-18).
  • In the recent years, the fish production in India has registered an average annual growth rate of more than 7%.
  • India is second largest producer in fishery sector.
  • There are two benches of fishery sector namely Inland Fisheries and Marine Fisheries. The total fish production has nearly 65% contribution from the inland sector and rest form marine fishing. 

Key Findings in FRA 2020

  • Area of naturally regenerating forests decreased since 1990, but area of planted forests increased.
  • Asia had highest net gain of forest area while Africa had largest annual rate of net forest loss.
  • 18% of forest worldwide is in protected areas.
  • 25% of forests worldwide are Primary forests i.e. forests with no clearly visible indications of human activities.
  • South America has the highest share of forests in protected areas, at 31%.
  • About 10% of the world’s forests is allocated for biodiversity conservation
  • Fire is a prevalent forest disturbance in the tropics. Fire burned about 4 percent of the total forest area in tropics.
  • The total carbon stock in forests has decreased from 668 gigatonnes in 1990 to 662 gigatonnes in 2020.
  • More than 100 million hectares of forests are adversely affected by forest fires, pests, diseases, invasive species drought and adverse
    weather events.
  • Forests cover 31% of the global land area.
  • More than half of the world’s forests are found in only 5 countries – Brazil, Canada, China, Russia and US.
  • Forests provide more than 86 million green jobs and support the livelihoods of an estimated 880 million people worldwide, most of them women.
  • Forests provide habitats for 80% of amphibian species, 75% of bird species and 68% of mammal species.