National Integration


  • Nation Integration is the awareness of a common identity among the citizens of a country, this means that although we belong to different castes, religions and speak different languages, we recognize the fact that we are all one.

  • It is not just a national feeling, but the spirit which brings people of all dialects and beliefs together in a similar endeavor. National Integration‘ arises thought the behaviour and determination of citizens.
  • It is the duty of every person as a citizen to oppose the forces and ideas that weaken national unity and integrity.
  • National Integration is the bond and togetherness between people regardless of their caste, creed, religion or gender. It is the feeling of oneness, brotherhood and social unity under communities and society in a country.
  • Political, economic, social, cultural and psychological dimensions and the inter-relations between them.
  • Dr S. Radhakrishna defines that national integration cannot be made by bricks and mortar, mould and hammer, but it quietly grows in people’s minds through education. The great ideologist and author Myron Weiner, defines “National integration implies the avoidance of divisive movements that will balance the presence of attitudes in the nation and society that distinguish national and public interest from parochial interest”.

Advantages of National Integration

  • Increases the feeling of brotherhood.
  • Reduces differences about religion, region, race, culture.
  • Reduces murders, massacres and riots etc.
  • Supports in developing the nation.
  • Increase unity among people.
  • Disadvantages of National Integration:
  • Social tension
  • Corruption and illiteracy
  • Lack of urbanization in some states
  • Diversity with diverse issues
  • Reduces differences regarding religion, region, race, culture or caste.
  • Cycle of Poverty

Obstacles of National Integration

  • Regionalism
    • Demand of the people of certain states for secession from the Indian Union
    • Demand of the people of certain areas for separate statehood

      National Integration
      Credit: Quora
    • Demand of people of certain Union Territories for full-fledged statehood
    • Inter-state boundary disputes (like Chandigarh and Belgaum) and river water disputes
    • Formation of organisations with regional motives which advocates a militant approach in pursuing its policies and goals
    • ‘Sons of the soil theory’ which advocates preference to local people in government jobs, private jobs, permits
  • Communalism
    • Formation of political parties based on religion
    • Emergence of pressure groups
    • Communal riots
    • Dispute over religious structures like temples, mosques and others
  • Casteism
    • Formation of political parties on the basis of caste
    • Emergence of pressure groups
    • Allotment of party tickets during elections and the formation of council of ministers in the states on caste lines
    • Caste conflicts between higher and lower castes or between dominant castes in various states
    • Violent disputes and agitations over the reservation policy
  • Linguism

National Integration Council (NIC)

  • Constituted in 1961
  • Consisted of the prime minister as chairman, central home minister, chief ministers of states, seven leaders of political parties, the chairman of the UGC, two educationists, the commissioner for SCs and STs and seven other persons nominated by the prime minister.
  • 16th meeting was held on 2013

National Foundation for Communal Harmony (NFCH)

  • Setup in 1992
  • autonomous body under the administrative control of the Union Home Ministry
  • promotes communal harmony, fraternity and national integration
  • Activities
    • provide financial assistance to the child victims of societal violence
    • promote communal harmony and national integration
    • conduct studies and grant scholarships to institutions /scholars
    • confer awards for outstanding contribution to communal harmony and national integration
    • involve Central / state governments / UT Administrations, industrial / commercial organisations, NGOs in promoting
    • provide information services, publish monographs and books, etc.

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