The One-China policy refers to the policy or view that there is only one state called “China”, despite the existence of two governments that claim to be “China”. As a policy, this means that countries seeking diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China (PRC, Mainland China) must break official relations with the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan) and vice versa.
The One China policy is different from the “One China principle”, which is the principle that insists both Taiwan and mainland China are inalienable parts of a single “China”.
India initially for a long period accepted the One China policy. However, External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj said: For India to agree to a one-China policy, China should reaffirm a one-India policy.It means that “One India” policy is an acknowledgment from Beijing that Arunachal Pradesh that is claimed by Beijing as South Tibet — is a part of India. When they raised with us the issue of Tibet and Taiwan, we shared their sensitivities regarding Arunachal Pradesh.
In 2010, a joint statement signed following a high-level meeting between India’s former prime minister, Manmohan Singh, and China’s former premier, Wen Jiabao, omitted any mention of India respecting the “One China” policy. New Delhi pressed Beijing to acknowledge Kashmir as an integral part of India in exchange for a declaration of support for the “One China” . Beijing refused out of consideration for its “all-weather friend,” Pakistan. In 2013, India further extended its ambiguous position on the “One China” policy by refraining from including Tibet in a joint statement.
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