Prelims-2016 (Geography Session)-Antarctica Fact File

  • Discovery of Antarctica:It was James Cook who first crossed the Antarctica circle but unable to discover anything. Firstly, Sir James Clark Ross discovered the “Ross Sea”, the “Victoria Island” and the “Magnetic Pole”. In a race contest to South Pole, Robert F Scott, and Roald Amundsen, participated. On    14th    December     1911,   Norwegian, Amundsen was able to beat Scott to victory.
  • Southernmost Post Office:It is situated in Antarctica and operated by a lady.
  • Aurora Australis: It is the fantastic display of light in characteristic colour, bands and rings of various hues. It is caused by stream of charged particles from the sun, entering into the earth’s upper atmosphere. A more or less similar phenomena in the northern hemisphere is called “Aurora Borealis”.
  • Fastest Antarctica Crossing:It is “Trans Antarctica” completed by RanulphFiennes, Oliver Shepard and Charles Burton in 1980 – 82. It is also the leg of Trans – Globe Expedition in 67 days from 28th October 1980 to 11th January 1981.
  • Ozone Hole:It is the ozone – layer over the continent of Antarctica which was discovered in mid 1970s. Its corresponding annual hole was identified over the Arctic Ocean in 1986. This hole is most prominent during the coldest seasons.
  • Land of Ice:The entire Antarctica is covered with the ice sheet which is as thick as 1800 metres. If all the ice of it melts, the sea would rise by 60 metres.
  • Cold – Pole: It refers to the     point with lowest-mean annual     temperature in each hemisphere. In the northern hemisphere, this is at “Verkhoyansk” in      north – east Siberia, Russia. In the south hemisphere, the lowest recorded temperature has been at the  “Soviet Research Station” of Vostok on the Antarctic      ice    plateau.      “Vostok”     and “Verkhoyansk” are together known as the “Cold Poles of the Earth”.
  • Southern Ocean:It includes southern portion of India. Atlantic and Pacific ocean and is considered as a separate ocean due to its uniform lower temperature and salt concentration,
  • Ross – ice – shelf:It is the largest ice- shelf in the world which is as large as France.
  • Mt. Erebus:It is a type of active volcano which, along with many other volcanoes, dots the coastal and island regions.
  • Vinson Massif:It is the highest Peak in Antarctica.

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