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Prelims in Focus-Part-04
Ahaththiyam➖A text on grammar for literature, music and dance, for which manuscripts are not available, predated the available Tholkappiam (5 BC).
- Tholkappiam➖A book on Tamil grammar that presents koothu (dance) as a special-occasion community activity and analyses emotions in Aham (love) literature with concepts of abhinaya theory such as ashta rasa, eight basic emotions, as also natyadharmi and lokadharmi, stylised and realistic presentation
- Panchamarabu➖Denoting dance with music and poetry, nrittam, 108 karanams, sounds used in Koothu
- Ekaharya Lasyanga
➖Solo performance depicting themes of love and relationships, mentioned in the Sanskrit text Natyasastra (2BC-2AD)
➖Natyasastra written in Kashmir by Abhinavagupta (9th-10thC) reached all over India, just as karanas from the Natyasastra were found carved in the 11th c Brihadeeswara temple in the South
➖A pre-Thanjavur Quartet repertoire of a solo Nati or Nartaki from Sangita Muktavali (15 C) featured: Pushpanjali, Mukhacaali, Suddha-Yati nrtta, Raagaanga- Yati-nrtta, Sabdanrtta, Rupa-nrtta, dance and abhinaya to songs in dance-dramas (Rupakas), Dhvaada, Sabdacaali, Sudasabda, Sudagita, various Gita-prabandhas, followed by local dances like Cindu, Daru, Dhrupad, etc.
- A Bilateral Netting agreement enables two counterparties in a financial contract to offset claims against each other to determine a single net payment obligation that is due from one counterparty to the other, meaning that the payables and receivables are netted off.
- Global Internet Forum to Counter Terrorism (GIFCT) is formed by Facebook, Microsoft, Twitter and YouTube, it formalizes and structures how the companies work together to curtail the spread of terrorism and violent extremism.
- The PDSA Gold Medal was initiated in 2002 and rewards civilian acts of animal bravery and “devotion to duty”. It is the highest honour recognising extraordinary bravery of animals.
- Only the OECD member states can become members of the International Energy Agency (IEA)
➖Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative R&D Agreements established within the IEA
➖Promotes reduction of CO2 emissions for both conventional fossil-fuel carbon capture and storage (CCS) and for bioenergy with CCS (BECCS)
➖India is an associate members of IEA
- 🔺Due to the reservation of one-third of the total seats in local bodies for women, India has 1.4 million women in elected positions.
🔺Municipal revenue accounts for a small share of gross domestic product (GDP) in India, hovering around 1% of GDP from 2007-08 to 2017-18. This proportion was 4.5% for Poland, 6.0% for South Africa, 7.4% for Brazil, 13.9% for the United Kingdom and 14.2% for Norway in 2010.
- Malnutrition remains the predominant risk factor for child deaths, accounting for 68 per cent of total under-five deaths and 17 per cent of the total disability-adjusted life years.