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Prelims in Focus-Part-23
Radhanagri Wildlife Sanctuary (RWS), which is home to elephants and tigers is situated in the state of Maharashtra
➖Serve as a corridor for tigers and elephants moving between three states — Goa, Karnataka and Maharashtra.
➖Located towards the southern hills of the Sahyadri range of Western Ghats
➖Along with Tungareshwar and Tansa wildlife sanctuaries, Radhanagri were Eco Sensitive Zone
- The Medium-term Fiscal Policy Statement, presented to Parliament under Section 3(2) of the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act, 2003, sets out three-year rolling targets for four specific fiscal indicators in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) at market prices —
(i) Revenue Deficit,
(ii) Fiscal Deficit,
(iii) Tax to GDP ratio and
(iv) Total outstanding Debt at the end of the year.
➖Devoted several chapters of Brahma-sphuta-siddhanta to mathematics.
➖Laid the foundations of the two major fields of Indian mathematics, pati-ganita (“mathematics of procedures,” or algorithms) and bija-ganita (“mathematics of seeds,” or equations), which roughly correspond to arithmetic (including mensuration) and algebra, respectively.
- The Shulba Sutras or Sulbasutras
➖Sutra texts belonging to the Śrauta ritual and containing geometry related to fire-altar construction.
➖Only sources of knowledge of Indian mathematics from the Vedic period
➖Four major Shulba Sutras, mathematically the most significant, are those attributed to Baudhayana, Manava, Apastamba and Katyayana and language is late Vedic Sanskrit,
- Siddhanta Siromani
➖Major treatise of Indian mathematician Bhaskara II
➖Composed in Sanskrit
➖Book comes from his daughter, Lilavati
➖Ganitadhyaya and Goladhyaya of Siddhānta-Śiromani are devoted to astronomy
➖Mahaviracharya, “Mahavira the Teacher”) was a 9th-century Jain mathematician
(Ganita Sara Sangraha) or the Compendium on the gist of Mathematics in 850 CE
➖Separated astrology from mathematics
➖Earliest Indian text entirely devoted to mathematics
- Pandharpur Wari
➖Related to Bhakti Movment
🔹An annual pilgrimage (yatra) to Pandharpur – the seat of the Hindu god Vithal in Palakhis carrying the paduka (foot prints) of various saints – most notably Dnyaneshwar and Tukaram – from the Varkari (Warkari, “one who performs the Wari”) sect (which venerates Vithal)
➖Tukaram is best known for his devotional poetry called Abhanga and community-oriented worship with spiritual songs known as kirtans
13th-century Marathi saint, poet, philosopher and yogi of the Nath Vaishnava tradition.
➖Ideas reflect the non-dualistic Advaita Vedanta
➖Legacy inspired saint-poets such as and Tukaram
- Butterflies originate from Western Ghats ranges, such as Kodagu, Wayanad, Nilgiris, Siruvani and Anamalai, and move toward the Eastern Ghats consisting Yercaud, Pachamalai, Kolli, and Kalvarayan hills during the first migration
- Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary is the northernmost wildlife sanctuary of Kerala, southwest India. It is located on the western slope of the Western Ghats.
State of Global Air 2020 (SoGA 2020)
➖High particulate matter contributed to the deaths of more than 116,000 Indian infants who did not survive their 1st month
➖1/2 of these deaths were associated with outdoor PM2.5 and use of solid fuels such as charcoal, wood, and animal dung for cooking
➖Outdoor and household air pollution contributed to over 1.67 million annual deaths in India in 2019
➖Infants, most deaths were related to low birth weight and preterm birth.
➖Air pollution is now the biggest risk factor for death among others
➖Published by Health Effects Institute (HEI1)