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Prelims in Focus-Part-32
➖Representatives of the world’s major snow leopard range countries signed a consensus on global snow leopard conservation
➖Signed during the International Conference for Snow Leopard Conservation
- Results-based payments are the final phase in REDD+ as outlined in the Paris Climate Agreement that provides financial incentives to developing countries that have proved through rigorous UN-backed technical evaluation they have halted deforestation during a period of time.
Note- REDD+ refers to the UNFCCC-based accounting and funding mechanism that supports developing countries’ efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, and (the plus) foster conservation, sustainable management of forests, and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.
- Commitment to Reducing Inequality (CRI) Index 2020
➖Multidimensional index which ranks 158 countries on their policy performance to reduce inequality
➖Developed and delivered through a partnership between Development Finance International and Oxfam International, with inputs from independent experts
➖Most of the countries near the top of the index are Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development(OECD) countries.
➖Norway tops the Index, notably scoring top on labour rights. and at the bottom of the Index is South Sudan
➖Ranks governments on their policies in Three pillars:
1. Public services, which include education, health and social protection
2. Progressive taxation, including corporate income tax and tax collection
3. Labour, which includes women’s rights in the workplace and the minimum wage
India Specific Findings
➖Ranked at 129 in the index,
➖India’s health budget is the fourth lowest in the world.
➖Just half of its population have access to even the most essential health services, and more than 70% of health spending is being met by people themselves, one of the highest levels in the world.
➖So far India’s response to COVID-19 has been woeful, with huge numbers of deaths and millions of people forced into destitution.
- The World Economic Forum’s UpLink platform has launched the COVID Social Justice Challenge, a competition to find ideas and solutions that tackle social inequalities and injustices within the COVID response and recovery.
- The Economic Survey of 2019 projects total Indian population growth in the two decades between 2020 and 2041 as being just over 12 per cent.
➖By 2031, the size of the working-age population will start to decline in 11 states.
- SIR and SEIR Models of Infectious Diseases
➖SIR models are commonly used to study the number of people having an infectious disease in a population.
- Asian–African Legal Consultative Organization (AALCO)
➖An international governmental organization formed in 1956, initially to serve as an advisory board to member states on matters on international law.
➖An outgrowth of the Bandung Conference
➖48 countries comprising almost all the major States from Asia and Africa are presently the Members of the Organization.
- Green Term Ahead Market (GTAM) for electricity
➖1st Step towards Greening the Indian short term power Market
➖ Launched by Minister of State Power and New & Renewable Energy & Minister of State (Skill Development and Entrepreneurship)
➖Mmove that will lead to an increase in the participants in the renewable energy sector.
➖Will also help in achieving the renewable energy(RE) capacity addition targets of the country.
- Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA)
➖A framework for the provision of support through liquidity and precautionary instruments in response to actual or potential short-term balance of payments pressures.
➖Established in 2015 by the BRICS countries Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
- Basel Ban Amendment
➖In 2019, it became international law.
➖Adopted by the parties to the Basel Convention in 1995, prohibits the export of hazardous wastes from member states of the European Union (EU), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and Liechtenstein to all other countries.
➖Countries like the US, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, Russia, India, Brazil, and Mexico are yet to ratify the ban.
➖Croatia became the 97th country to ratify the ban, which was adopted by the parties to the Basel Convention in 1995, to protect human health and the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes, according to Basel Action Network (BAN).