Prelims inFocus-July 2020

  1. Recently, researchers from the S.N. Bose National Centre For Basic Sciences (SNBNCBS), Kolkata have developed a device called AJO-Neo which is a non-contact and non-invasive spectrometry-based technique for measurement of neonatal bilirubin level without limitations of other available bilirubin meters.
  2. Bilirubin is a yellowish substancein the blood. It forms after red blood cells break down, and it travels through liver, gallbladder, and digestive tract before being excreted. It is a necessary process in the body’s clearance of waste products that arise from the destruction of aged or abnormal red blood cells.
  3. BelYo is the country’s first COVID-19 blockchain platform that converts COVID-19 related clinical and vaccination data of citizens from physical form into digital assets which can be retrieved by contact tracing apps like Aarogya Setu. It is developed by BelfricsBT, a global blockchain start-up along with IlIT Bangalore.
  4. Ammonia is a colourless gas and is used as an industrial chemical in the production of fertilisers, plastics, synthetic fibres, dyes and other products. It occurs naturally in the environment from the breakdown of organic waste matter, and may also find its way to ground and surface water sources through industrial effluents, contamination by sewage or through agricultural runoff. Ammonia reduces the amount of oxygen in water as it is transformed to oxidised forms of nitrogen. Hence, it also increases Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD).
  5. Recently, the Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD) has launched the ‘Manodarpan’initiative which is aimed to provide psychosocial support to students, family members and teachers for their mental health and well-being during the times of Covid-19.
  6. UN Transparency and Confidence Building Measures (TCBMs) includes registering space objects with the UN register, pre-launch notifications etc. India shares these details with the UN.
  7. The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a multilateral development bankwith a mission to improve social and economic outcomes in Asia. It’s headquartered is situated in Beijing (China). It began operations in January 2016 and has now grown to 103 approved members worldwide. India is its second-largest shareholder after China.
  8. The Government of India instituted Subhash Chandra Bose Aapda Prabandhan Puraskaar to recognise the excellent work done by the individuals and institutions in the field of disaster management. It is administered by National Disaster Management Authority.  Only Indian nationals and Indian institutions can apply for the award.
  9. Information Technology Agreement is a plurilateral agreement enforced by the WTO and concluded by 29 participants in the Ministerial Declaration on Trade in Information Technology Products at Singapore in 1996. It seeks to accelerate and deepen the reduction of trade barriers for the critically important ICT industry. Currently, the number of participants has grown to 82, representing about 97% of world trade in IT products. India is a signatory to the agreement.
  10. A nuclear reaction is the process in which two nuclei, or a nucleus and an external subatomic particle, collide to produce one or more new nuclides. A nuclear reaction must cause a transformation of at least one nuclide to another. Currently all commercial nuclear reactors are based on nuclear fission.
  11. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a collaboration of 35 nations launched in  It aims to build the world’s largest tokamak to prove the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy. The project is based on fusion which is also an energy source for the Sun and stars. ITER will be the first fusion device to maintain fusion for long periods of time and also to test the integrated technologies, materials, and physics regimes necessary for the commercial production of fusion-based electricity. The ITER members include China, the European Union, India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and the United States. According to the ITER Agreement (2006), the above mentioned seven members will share the cost of project construction, operation and decommissioning.
  12. Recently, the ITER Organization is celebrating the Start of Assembly of the ITER Tokamak with a ceremony at Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance, France. India stands proud with its fair share of contributions in terms of its in-kind contributions, viz., the cryostat, in vessel shields, substantial contributions to the cooling water, cryogenic and cryo-distribution systems, auxiliary heating devices using RF and beam technologies, multi megawatt power supplies and several diagnostics to help ITER to achieve and demonstrate its goal.
  13. The hydrogen bombis based on a thermonuclear fusion reaction. However, a nuclear bomb based on the fission of uranium or plutonium is placed at the core of the hydrogen bomb to provide initial energy.
  14. The Milk Tea Alliance is a term used to describe an online democratic solidaritymovement made up of netizens from Thailand, Hong Kong, and Taiwan. It originally started as a meme and has evolved into a dynamic cross-national protest movement pushing for democracy and human rights in Southeast Asia.
  15. Mauritius is the second largest source of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) for India after Singapore. The country is a member of African Union, Indian Ocean Rim Association and the Indian Ocean Commission
  16. In the Kihoto Hollohan judgment (1992), the Supreme Court held that Members of Parliament (MPs) and Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) are elected on the political and ideological platform of their party.
  17. Recently, Natesa,a rare sandstone idol from the 9th century Pratihara Style of Rajasthan has been retrieved after 22 years by Rajasthan police. Pratihara Style is a famous temple architecture belonging to the Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty of Rajasthan. Ruled much of Northern India from the mid-8th to the 11th century. Significant Rulers: Nagabhata Il, Mhir Bhoj, Mahenedra pal I. Belonging to Nagara Style of temple Architecture. They used most common sandstones for idols that have various shades of red, caused by iron oxide. Greatest development at Khajuraho (Madhya Pradesh), a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  18. The Nagpur city derives its name from the Nag river which passes through the city. The Nag river originates from the Ambazari Lake in west Nagpur. Pili River is the major tributaries and the rives confluence with Kanhan River.
  19. Hepatitis B and C together are the most common causeof deaths, with 1.3 million lives lost each year. In 2018, the government launched the National Viral Hepatitis Program. The program is the largest program for Hepatitis B and C diagnosis and treatment in the world. Hepatitis B is included under India’s Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) which provides free of cost vaccination against eleven (excluding Hepatitis B) vaccine-preventable diseases i.e. Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Pneumonia and Meningitis due to Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib), Measles, Rubella, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Rotavirus diarrhoea.
  20. Extradition Treaty is the formal process of one state surrendering an individual to another state for prosecution or punishment for crimes committed in the requesting country’s jurisdiction. It is generally enabled through a bilateral or multilateral treaty.
  21. MICA Missile System is a very versatile air-to-air missile. It comes with a radar seeker and can be fired for the short-range to long-range as well right up to 100 km.
  22. Chambal, Sindh, Betwa and Ken are important Tributaries of Yamuna. The Yamuna river, is a major tributary of river Ganges. It meets the Ganges at the Sangam in Prayagraj, Uttar Pradesh after flowing through Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Delhi.
  23. Access, Watch and Reserve (AWaRe) is a global campaign urging governments to adopt a tool to reduce the spread of antimicrobial resistance, adverse events and costs. The AWaRe tool was developed by the WHO Essential Medicines List to contain rising resistance and make antibiotic use safer and more effective.
  24. The Advanced Persistent Threat 29 (APT-29), more popularly known as “Cozy Bear” and The Dukes, are a familiar name in cybersecurity circles. They are one of two groups that researchers in cybersecurity have long since thought is linked to Russia’s intelligence services. “APT29 is using custom malware known as ‘WellMess’ and ‘WellMail’ to target a number of organisations globally…[including] those organisations involved with COVID-19 vaccine development.
  25. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are located at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea. The islands dominate the Bay of Bengal, the Six Degree and the Ten Degree Channels that more than sixty thousand commercial vessels traverse each year. Geopolitically, the ANI connects South Asia with South-East Asia. While the northernmost point of the archipelago is only 22 nautical miles from Myanmar, the southernmost point, Indira Point, is a mere 90 nautical miles from Indonesia. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands constitute just 0.2% of India’s landmass but provide near 30% of its Exclusive Economic Zone. Andaman and Nicobar is the only Tri-Command structure in India.
  26. Kyaukpyuis a major town in Rakhine State, in western Myanmar. It is located on the north western corner of Yanbye Island on Combermere Bay, and is 250 miles north-west of Yangon.
  27. The Foreign Investment Facilitation Portal(FIFP) facilitates the single window clearance of applications which are through approval route. This portal is administered by the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
  28. The Reserve Bank of India(RBI) has been vested with the sole power to issue/interpret the rules regarding 100% FDI of NRIs.
  29. Until now India has tended to deal with the so-called Vanilla islandsof the south western Indian Ocean — Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mayotte, Reunion and Seychelles — on a bilateral basis.
  30. Several SIDS, including Comoros, Guinea-Bissau, Sao Tome and Principe, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, are experiencing a sharper population growth.
  31. Primarily, radar operates in X band and resorted to S band during inclement weather.
  32. The primary aim of Costal Surveillance Radar (CSR) design is to detect and track small fishing vessels for Coastal surveillance application. However, the radar can also be directly used for VTS (Vessel Traffic management Services) application, harbor surveillance and navigational purposes. By mounting on ship, it can also be tuned to the role of Sea Surface Target Surveillance Radar. It can be used for Airport Surface Target Surveillance as it is solid state coherent radar with Doppler processing.
  33. India has 70% of the world’s tiger population.It is tirelessly working with all 13 tiger range countries towards nurturing the tiger.
  34. Australia, Britain and Canada along with New Zealand and the USAare part of the Five Eyes (FVEY), which is an intelligence-sharing alliance between these five countries.
  35. Only for four diseases i.e. HIV-AIDS (1st December), TB (24th March), Malaria (25th April), and Hepatitis,the World Health Organization (WHO) officially endorses disease-specific global awareness days.
  36. NASA announced that it had started the construction of DART, which is scheduled to launch in 2021 with an aim to slam into the smaller asteroid of the Didymos system at around 6 km per second in 2022. Didymos,is a binary near-Earth asteroid, that could pose the most likely significant threat to Earth.
  37. Currency Swapsare used to obtain foreign currency loans at a better interest rate than could be obtained by borrowing directly in a foreign market. Central banks and Governments engage in currency swaps with foreign counterparts to meet short term foreign exchange liquidity requirements or to ensure adequate foreign currency to avoid Balance of Payments (BOP) crisis till longer arrangements can be made.
  38. Supreme Court and High Courts derive their contempt powers from the Constitution. The Contempt of Court Act, 1971, Act only outlines the procedure in relation to investigation and punishment for contempt. The Constitution allows superior courts to punish for their contempt. The Contempt of Court Act additionally allows the High Court to punish for contempt of subordinate courts.
  39. The Perseverance is a rover name for NASA’s Mars 2020 mission. It will seek signs of ancient life and collect rock and soil samples from the planet.
  40. Chattogram Port is a major coastal city and financial centrein southeastern Bangladesh. Recently the Syama Prasad Mookerjee Port (SMP), Kolkata, today introduced a new service between Kolkata Dock System (KDS) and Chattogram (Chittagong)Port, Bangladesh, through Indo-Bangladesh Protocol Route.
  41. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) report, Israel is the third largest supplier of defence items to India after Russia and the USA, the first and second respectively.
  42. In Puttaswamy Case (2017), the Supreme Court declared privacy a fundamental right. This set the government in motion to take steps to bring a new data protection legislation for the country.
  43. The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)has launched an innovation contest ‘Dare to Dream 2.0’. The ‘Dare to Dream 2.0’ is an open challenge to promote the innovators and startups of the country, for innovation in defence and aerospace technologies in the country after the call of Atmanirbhar Bharat.
  44. The President or a Governor cannot refuse to perform the constitutional duty of delivering an address to the legislature. The President’s speech follows the convention of the British system, where it contains legislative and policy proposals that the government intends to initiate. The speech also recaps the government’s accomplishment in the previous years. The contents of the speech are put together by aggregating inputs from various ministries of the government.
  45. The Constitution binds the President and the Governor to act on the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers of the Union and state governments respectively, on a majority of issues. Therefore, the speech that the President or the Governor reads before the legislature is the viewpoint of the government and is prepared by it.
  46. Through the Berubari case, the Supreme Court stated that ‘Preamble is the key to open the mind of the makers’ but it cannot be considered as part of the Constitution. Therefore, it is not enforceable in a court of law. The concept of Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity in our Preamble was adopted from the French Motto of the French Revolution. As of now, the preamble is only amended once through the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976.
  47. Only four countries which are Russia, the USA, China and India, have demonstrated an anti-satellite capability over the past decades. India under the Mission Shakti, successfully tested the Anti-Satellite System (A-SAT) System making it the fourth country to acquire the capability of space warfare. A-SAT System is a missile-based system to attack moving satellites and successfully destroyed a live satellite in the low-earth orbit (LEO).
  48. Hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and the northeastern Pacific Ocean. These are formed over the warm ocean waters near the equator. They typically form between 5 to 15 degrees latitude north and south of the equator.
  49. The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones – that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds. The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale is based on the highest average wind over a one-minute time span and is officially used only to describe hurricanes that form in the Atlantic Ocean and northern Pacific Ocean east of the International Date Line.
  50. In 2016, the Supreme Courtin Nabam Rebia and Bamang Felix vs Deputy Speaker case (the Arunachal Pradesh Assembly case) said that the power to summon the House is not solely vested in the Governor and should be exercised with aid and advice of Council of Ministers and not at his own.
  51. India is the world’s second-largest gold consumer after China. Gold is a part of RBI’s forex reserves.
  52. Metamaterials are artificially crafted composite materials that derive their properties from internal micro structure, rather than chemical composition found in natural materials. The core concept of meta materials is to craft materials by using artificially designed and fabricated structural units to achieve the desired properties and functionalities. These structural units – the constituent artificial ‘atoms’ and ‘molecules’ of the meta material – can be tailored in shape and size, the lattice constant and interatomic interaction can be artificially tuned, and ‘defects’ can be designed and placed at desired locations. Meta materials are used in potentially novel applications in antenna and radar design, sub wavelength imaging, and invisibility cloak design.
  53. The Diaoyu archipelago (known as the Senkakus in Japanese) is an uninhabited chain of islands in the East China Sea claimed by China, Taiwan and Japan. Senkaku islands are a part of the Ryukyu chain of islands. The center of the former Ryukyu Kingdom, Okinawa Main Island is by far the largest and most populous island in Okinawa Prefecture and the regional transportation hub.
  54. The Tuting-Tidding Suture Zone (TTSZ) is a major part of the Eastern Himalaya, where the Himalaya takes a sharp southward bend and connects with the Indo-Burma Range. This part of the Arunachal Himalaya has gained significant importance in recent times due to the growing need of constructing roads and hydropower projects, making the need for understanding the pattern of seismicity in this region critical.
  55. The boundary between crust and the mantle technically called the Moho discontinuity. It is defined by the distinct change in velocity of seismological waves as they pass through changing densities of rock.
  56. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS)is a constituent unit of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
  57. A nontariff barrier is a way to restrict trade by using barriers other than a tariff. These include quotas, embargoes, sanctions, and levies.
  58. The PRIASoft(Panchayati Raj Institutions Accounting Software) is the Online Payment Module whereby Gram Panchayats are carrying out online payments to the vendors and service providers.
  59. Dibru-Saikhowa is a National Park as well as a Biosphere Reserve situated in the south bank of the river Brahmaputra in Assam. The forest type of Dibru-Saikhowa comprises semi-evergreen forests, deciduous forests, littoral and swamp forests and patches of wet evergreen forests. It is the largest swamp forest in north-eastern India. It is an identified Important Bird Area (IBA), notified by the Birdlife International. It is most famous for the rare white-winged wood ducks as well as feral horses. Maguri Motapung wetland is a part of the Reserve.
  60. Port Louis is the capitalcity of Mauritius. Port Louis is home to the biggest port facility in the Indian Ocean region and one of Africa’s major financial centers.
  61. The Cape of Good Hope is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula in South Africa.
  62. Karan -4 (CO-0238), a sugarcane variety has enhanced sugar recovery and has replaced traditionally grown varieties in Uttar Pradesh. It is a high yielding and high sugar content variety.
  63. Bhagwa, a variety of Pomegranate is rich in Iron, Potassium, Vitamin C and Anti-oxidants.
  64. Maguri Motapung beel (Wetland) is a critical part of the Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve, Assam is an ecological corridor to Namdhapa National Park, and sustains the ecological integrity of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot. The wetland, that is fed by the Dibru and Lohit rivers, is classified as an important bird and biodiversity area. The beelfalls within the eco-sensitive zone of the national park and biosphere reserve. The rare black-breasted parrotbill is also a unique endemic species found here. The first-ever records in India of the Baikal Bush Warbler and White-browed crake were from the Maguri wetlands. This landscape comprises a mosaic of many ecosystems like wetlands, swamp forests and grasslands.
  65. After Gandhi suspended the non-cooperation movement in 1922, Chandra Shekhar Azad joined the Hindustan Republican Association (HRA), a revolutionary organisation formed by Ram Prasad Bismil, Sachindra Nath Sanyal and others. Chandra Shekhar Azad took charge of HRA after Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, Rajendra Lahiri and Thankur Roshan Singh were sentenced to death in the Kakori train robbery case. After the capture of the main leaders of the HRA, Chandra Shekhar Azad and Bhagat Singh secretly reorganised the HRA as the HSRA (Hindustan Socialist Republic Army) in September 1928.
  66. Hindustan Republican Association was a revolutionary organization of India established in 1924 in East Bengal by Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Narendra Mohan Sen and Pratul Gangulyas an offshoot of Anushilan Samiti. Hindustan Socialist Republican Association was established in 1928 at Feroz Shah Kotla in New Delhi by Chandra Shekhar Azad, Ashfaqulla Khan, Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thapar and Jogesh Chandra Chatterjee.
  67. The Global Fund is an international financing and partnership organization. It was created in 2000 and itssecretariat is located in Geneva, Switzerland. The Global Fund aims to attract, leverage and invest additional resources to end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria to support attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals. India joined the Global Fund as a donor in 2006. 
  68. Bal Gangadhar Tilak was called ‘father of the Indian unrest” by British colonial rulers. While Jawaharlal Nehru called him the ‘father of Indian revolution’, Mahatma Gandhi described Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak as ‘the maker of modern India’. He wrote the famous ‘Gita Rahasya‘ – an analysis of the Karma Yoga which finds its source in The Bhagavad Gita. founded and edited two newspapers – Kesari in Marathi and The Mahratta in English. He founded the Deccan Education Society in 1884 with an aim to educate common people in English. Part of the Lal-Bal-Pal (Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal) troika. Tilak describes in his work the “Polar attributes” of Vedic deities such as Usha, the goddess of dawn, and the happy land of Airyana Vaêjo or the Aryan Paradise, where the sun glimmered once a year and was lost with the “invasion of snow and ice”.  A few months before Tilak’s death, the Spitzbergen Treaty was signed that defined Norway’s sovereignty over the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard. India, as part of the British Empire, was party to the treaty. In remembering Tilak, one is reminded that the Arctic has spectacular roots in Indian thinking and is thus a familiar region to Indians. All India Home Rule League was founded by Tilak in April 1916 at Belgaum. Indian Home Rule Movement which was started in 1916, it is believed to have set the stage for the independence movement under the leadership of Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak for the educated English-speaking upper-class Indians.
  69. Plasmids are circular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vectors that can be used as vaccines to prevent various types of diseases.
  70. Gram Sabha is a body consisting of all persons whose names are included in the electoral rolls for the Panchayat at the village level. The term is defined in the Constitution of India under Article 243(b). All eligible voters of the village can participate in the Gram Sabha. The decisions taken by the Gram Sabha cannot be annulled by any other body except itself.
  71. The Char Dham projectproposes to provide all-weather connectivity to Yamunotri, Gangotri, Badrinath and Kedarnath.
  72. International Centre for Automotive Technology is a leading world class automotive testing, certification and R&D service provider under the aegis of NATRiP (National Automotive Testing and R&d Infrastructure Project), Government of India.
  73. Sacred groves arecommunally protected forests which usually have a significant religious connotation for the protecting community. In India, there are over a lakh sacred groves across different states called by different names like Kaavu in Malayalam, Koyil kaadu in Tamil, Orans in Rajasthan, Devara kaadu in Karnataka, and Sernas in Madhya Pradesh. Sacred groves have been legally protected under ‘community reserves’ in the Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002.
  74. Plea bargaining wasintroduced in 2006 as part of a set of amendments to the CrPC as Chapter XXI-A, containing Sections 265A to 265L. Plea Bargaining refers to a person charged with a criminal offence (accused) negotiating with the prosecution for a lesser punishment than what is provided in law by pleading guilty to a less serious offence. In India, the plea-bargaining process can be initiated only by the accused.
  75. Since 1984, when China and Bhutan began talks, the areas of dispute have only included Pasamlung and Jakarlung valleys to the north (what China calls middle) area, and Doklam and other pasturelands to the west.  Sakteng forest sanctuary- in eastern Bhutan’s Trashigang district. The sanctuary, located in the easternmost part of Bhutan, covers 650 sq km, and has not been disputed by China in the past.
  76. DDT is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical Its insecticidal action was discovered by the Swiss chemist Paul Hermann Muller in 1939. Originally developed as an insecticide, it became infamous for its environmental impacts. A worldwide ban on agricultural use was formalized under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. However, its limited use in disease vector control continues, because of its effectiveness in reducing malarial infections.
  77. Sero-surveillance seeks to assess the prevalence of disease in a population by detecting the presence of specific antibodies against the virus. It can also be conducted to check if a person has developed immunity to certain diseases. It indicates past infections (and which triggered an immune response), and is not used to detect active infections.
  78. Rapid Antigen Detection Tests is a test on swabbed nasal samples that detects antigens (foreign substances that induce an immune response in the body) that are found on or within the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It is a point-of-care test, performed outside the conventional laboratory setting, and is used to quickly obtain a diagnostic result. Like RT-PCR, the rapid antigen detection test too seeks to detect the virus rather than the antibodies produced by the body.
  79. A Passage Exercise (PASSEX) is normally undertaken whenever an opportunity arises, in contrast to pre-planned maritime drills. Recently, the Indian Navy had also conducted similar PASSEXs with the Japanese Navy, the French Navy and the S. Navy.
  80. The earthquake events are scaled either according to the magnitude or intensity of the shock. The magnitude scale is known as the Richter scale. The magnitude relates to the energy released during the earthquake which is expressed in absolute numbers, 0-10. The intensity scale or Mercalli scale takes into account the visible damage caused by the event. The range of intensity scale is from 1-12.
  81. In the Galwan Valley,the Line of Actual Control  (LAC) ran east of the bend of the Galwan river, called the Y-nallah, which is now claimed by China. The Y-nallah was the site of the recent clash between Indian and Chinese troops.
  82. Madhubani Painting (Mithila or Madhubani art) has its origins in Mithila region of Traces of Madhubani art can also be noticed in the Ramayana, the Indian epic. These paintings are popular because of their tribal motifs and use of bright earthy colours. Both men and Women drew these paintings on the walls.  It includes geometrical patterns, floral, animal and bird motifs. The colours used in paintings comprise natural extracts from plants and other natural sources. It is based on the mythological characters which depict the life of Hindu deities like Krishna, Rama, Lakshmi, Shiva, Durga, and Saraswati.
  83. As a signatory to Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), India extended copyright protection to computer databases in 1999.
  84. Direct Monetization means that the Reserve Bank of India (RBI)directly funds the Central government’s deficit against government bonds or securities. In “indirect” monetization, RBI does when it conducts the Open Market Operations (OMOs) and/or purchases bonds in the secondary market.
  85. New Millennium Indian Technology Leadership Initiative (NMITLI) is the largest Public-Private-Partnership effort within the R&D domain in the country. It seeks to catalyze innovation centred scientific and technological developments as a vehicle to attain for Indian industry a global leadership position, in selected niche areas. It synergizes the best competencies of publicly funded R&D institutions, academia, and private industry.
  86. Himalayas are in seismic zone V a major earthquake can happen anytime. 
  87. BlackRock is abanking Trojan and said to be an enhanced version of existing Xerxes malware which itself is a variant of the LokiBot Android trojan. It collects user information by abusing the Accessibility Service of Android and overlaying a fake screen on top of a genuine app. It uses Android DPC (Device Policy Controller) to provide access to other permissions. Despite being a banking Trojan, BlackRock is said to target non-financial apps.
  88. Theravada Buddhism (“doctrine of the elders”) is the oldest and most orthodox of Buddhism’s three major sects. Regarded as the belief closest to the one taught by The Buddha himself, it is based on the recollections of The Buddha’s teachings amassed by the Elders—the elder monks who were Buddha’s companions. Theravada Buddhism is strongest in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos, Myanmar (Burma) and the Mekong Delta areas of Vietnam. It is sometimes called ‘Southern Buddhism’. Theravada Buddhism is sometimes referred to in a somewhat dismissing way as Hinayana (‘Lesser Vehicle’) Buddhism by Mahayana Buddhists.
  89. supercritical CO2(sCO2) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or above its critical temperature and critical pressure.
  90. Paraffin waxis a soft colorless solid derived from petroleum, coal or shale oil that consists of a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules.
  91. The Global Burden of Disease Study is a comprehensive regional and global assessment of mortality and disabilityfrom major diseases, injuries and risk factors. The study was initiated in the 1990s as a collaborative effort of hundreds of experts worldwide, including researchers at the World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Bank.
  92. Currently, only the following voters are allowed to cast their votes through postal ballot: Service voters (armed forces, the armed police force of a state and government servants posted abroad), Voters on election duty, Voters above 80 years of age or Persons with Disabilities (PwD) and Voters under preventive detention. The exception to the mentioned category of voters is provided under Section 60 of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
  93. National Financial Reporting Authority (NFRA) was constituted in 2018by the Government of India under section 132 (1) of the Companies Act, 2013. It is an audit regulator. It consists of a chairperson, who shall be a person of eminence and having expertise in accountancy, auditing, finance or law, appointed by the Central Government and such other members not exceeding 15. Its account is monitored by the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.
  94. The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC)uses Consumer Price Index (CPI) data to control inflation. Base Year for CPI is 2012. In India, the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation measures inflation.
  95. In the background of the failure of the global community to reach any agreement in the recently concluded COP 25, the European Union(EU) has come up with a climate action plan known as the European Green Deal. The European Union is the third-largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world after China and the United States.
  96. The alternate investment fund, called Special Window for Completion of Construction of Affordable and Mid-Income Housing Projects or SWAMIH. SWAMIH Investment Fund I has been formed to complete construction of stalled, brownfield, RERA registered residential developments that are in the affordable housing / mid-income category, are net worth positive and requires last mile funding to complete construction. The Sponsor of the Fund is the Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Government of India on behalf of the Government of India. The Investment Manager of the Fund is SBICAP Ventures Ltd., an asset management company that is a wholly owned subsidiary of SBI Capital Markets Ltd which in turn is a wholly owned subsidiary of the State Bank of India.
  97. National Calamity Contingency Fund (NCCF) was renamed as National Disaster Response Fund (NDRF) with the enactment of the Disaster Management Act in 2005. It is placed in the“Public Account” of Government of India under “reserve funds not bearing interest “. Department of Agriculture and Cooperation under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer Welfare monitors relief activities for calamities associated with drought, hailstorms, pest attacks and cold wave/frost while rest of the natural calamities are monitored by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA). Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) audits the accounts of NDRF.
  98. Casuarina, also known as kattadi and savukku, is a plant genus with over 17 species with Casuarina equisetifolia being introduced in India in the 19th century. They have a role in nitrogen fixation in symbiotic association with bacteria Frankia. They provide fuel wood, pulp for paper making and of late is a preferred choice for biomass-based power generation. They are also used at construction sites for scaffolding. They are used as shelterbelts in coastal areas and windbreaks for protecting agricultural crops and banana plantations. They also play a key role in reclaiming mined areas and afforesting nutrient-poor sites.
  99. Verbal Autopsy (VA) instruments are administered for the deaths reported under the Sample Registration System (SRS) on a regular basis to yield a cause-specific mortality profile in the country.
  100. Global Trends for Youth reportis released by International Labour Organisation (ILO).
  101. Bhagirathi Eco- Sensitive Zone is located in the upper Himalayas, the notified area of the Bhagirathi eco- sensitive zone is an interwoven, interdependent fragile Ganga- Himalayan Basin. Geographically the area falls under the Garhwal lesser Himalayas and Higher Himalayas.
  102. A person is multidimensionally poor if she/he is deprived in one third or more (means 33% or more) of the weighted indicators (out of the ten indicators). Those who are deprived in one half or more of the weighted indicators are considered living in extreme multidimensional poverty.
  103. G-4 is a group of four countriese. Brazil, Germany, India and Japan which support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council (UNSC).
  104. Uttarakhand which has two tiger reserves– Corbett and Rajaji falls under ‘Shivalik Hills and Gangetic Plains Landscape’ along with protected areas in states of Uttar Pardesh and Bihar.
  105. Kaziranga National Park and Tiger Reserve (KNPTR)is sandwiched between the Brahmaputra river and the Karbi Anglong Hills. The entire area is formed by alluvial deposits from the Brahmaputra and its tributaries.
  106. Under section 38V (1) of the Wild Life Protection Act 1972, “The state government shall on the recommendation of the tiger conservation authority, notify an area as Tiger Reserve”. So it becomes mandatory for the state to accept the recommendation.
  107. Maternal Mortality Ratio of the Country has declined to 113in 2016-18 from 122 in 2015-17 and 130 in 2014-2016.
  108. Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple is built in the unique Chera style of architecture, and its main deity is Lord Vishnu who is found in the Anantha Shayana posture (reclined posture of eternal yoga) on Adishesha or king of all serpents. It is known to be one of the 108 holy temples associated with Vaishnavism in India.
  109. Purchasing Managers’ Index (PMI) is an index of the prevailing direction of economic trends in the manufacturing and service sectors.
  110. Directorate General Quality Assurance is under the Department of Defence Production, Ministry of Defence. The organisation provides Quality Assurance (QA) cover for the entire range of Arms, Ammunitions, Equipments and Stores supplied to Armed Forces.
  111. Karbi Anglong district is one of the 33 administrative districts of the state of Assam in India. Diphu is the administrative headquarter of the district. The district is administrated by Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council according to the Sixth Schedule of the Constitution of India.
  112. Article 72 and Article 161 empowers the President and the Governors respectively, the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence.
  113. United States Agency for International Development (USAID)and NITI Aayog jointly launched the India Energy Modeling Forum to build a network of modeling communities and its linkage with Government for analytical work and policy making exercise. USAID launched the South Asia Women in Energy (SAWIE) platform focused on the power sector and both the countries have been working to incorporate gender-focused activities across the technical pillars. United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and Energy Efficiency Services Ltd (EESL), India has jointly initiated “Retrofit of Air Conditioning to Improve Air Quality for Safety and Efficiency” (RAISE) for healthy and energy efficient buildings.
  114. Spike-LR are the 4th generation Anti-Tank Missiles developed and manufactured by the Rafael Advanced Defence Systems, Israel. It is a portable anti-armour weapon system with a range of up to 4 km, which can be operated in fire-and-forget mode and in the fire, observe and update mode using the fibre-optic data link. These are used by infantry soldiers, special rapid reaction forces, ground forces and helicopter aircrew. It can work in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) mode allowing the gunner to operate from a covered position.
  115. Market Integration and Transformation Program for Energy Efficiency (MAITREE) program is a part of the US-India bilateral Partnership between the Ministry of Power and USAID and is aimed at accelerating the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency as a standard practice within buildings, and specifically focuses on cooling.
  116. Eco-Sensitive Zone (ESZ) are the ecologically important areas designated to be protected from industrial pollution and unregulated development under the Environment Protection Act of 1986. Eco-Sensitive Zones or Ecologically Fragile Areas are areas within 10 kms around Protected Areas, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries.
  117. National Investment and Infrastructure Fund Limited is a collaborative investment platform for international and Indian investors, anchored by the Government of India. It was set up in December 2015 to catalyse funding into the country’s core sector. It was registered with the Securities and Exchange Board of India(SEBI) as a Category II Alternate Investment Fund.
  118. National Initiative for School Heads’ and Teachers’ Holistic Advancement (NISHTHA)is a capacity building programme for improving the quality of school education through integrated teacher training while DIKSHA Portal was launched by the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) provides a digital platform for teachers giving them an opportunity to learn and train themselves and connect with the teacher community.
  119. Farzad B gas field is an offshore natural gas field located in Persian Gulf under the control of Iranian sovereignty.
  120. The Indus River and its major tributaries, the Shyok-Nubra, Chang Chenmo, Hanle, Zanskar, and Suru-dras rivers, drain the region of Ladakh. Glacio-fluvial processes aided by freeze- thaw weathering have formed the high-altitude landscape of Ladakh.
  121. Germplasm is a live information source for all the genes present in the respective plant, which can be conserved for long periods and regenerated whenever it is required in the future.
  122. Nitrates are a common fertilizer, however, when mixed with proper amounts of fuel, the material can become an explosive as powerful as Trinitrotoluene (TNT).
  123. European Union (EU), is an international organization comprising 27 European countries and governing common economic, social, and security policies. The EU was created by the Maastricht Treaty, which entered into force on November 1, 1993.
  124. Chabahar port is located on the Gulf of Omanand is only 72 km away from the Gwadar port in Pakistan which has been developed by China. The port serves as the only oceanic port of Iran and consists of two separate ports named Shahid Beheshti and Shahid Kalantari.
  125. The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 to FP7 with “FP8” being named “Horizon 2020”, are funding programmes created by the European Union/European Commission to support and foster research in the European Research Area (ERA). The specific objectives and actions vary between funding periods. In FP6 and FP7 focus was still in technological research, in Horizon 2020 the focus is in innovation, delivering economic growth faster and delivering solutions to end users that are often governmental agencies. Horizon 2020 will be succeeded by Horizon Europe.
  126. Plague is caused by the bacteria Yersinia pest is usually found in small mammals and their fleas. It is transmitted between animals and humans by the bite of infected fleas, direct contact with infected tissues and inhalation of infected respiratory droplets. It is one of the examples of bacterial zoonoses.
  127. IMPETUS (Information Management Portal to Enable the inTegration of Unmanned Systems) is addressing the scientific analysis of information management requirements for a safe and efficient integration of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in very low level airspace. As a result, technologically and commercially feasible service solutions are elaborated and deployed in an experimental testing environment.
  128. The Horizon 2020 Initiative was launched inviting all committed stakeholders to join efforts in substantially reducing pollution in the Mediterranean by the year 2020 by tackling the sources of pollution that are said to account for around 80% of the overall pollution of the Mediterranean Sea: municipal waste, urban waste water and industrial pollution.
  129. India Newborn Action Plan was launched in 2014 to make concerted efforts towards attainment of the goal of “Single Digit Neonatal Mortality Rate” and “Single Digit Still-birth Rate”.
  130. The lands around the Persian Gulf are shared by eight countries namely, Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Out of the Persian Gulf countries, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, UAE and Saudi Arabia are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC). UAE, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait are members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).
  131. The Azad Pattan project is one of five hydropower schemes on the Jhelum, the other four are Mahl, Kohala, Chakothi Hattian and Karot projects. Azad Pattan, Kohala and Karot are being developed under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) framework, a part of the One Belt One Road (OBOR).
  132. The Khandu, Khapra, Sipna, Gadga and Dolar all rivers are tributaries of the river Tapti.
  133. Chambal river sanctuarywhich passes through three states i.e. Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.
  134. India is not a member of the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) settles investment-disputes between investors and countries.
  135. The Incheon Declaration was adopted on 21 May 2015 at the World Education Forum (WEF 2015) held in Incheon, Republic of Korea. The Incheon Declaration constitutes the commitment of the education community to Education 2030 and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, recognizing the important role of education as a main driver of development.
  136. Friends of Police is a community policing initiative aimed to bring police and the public closer. It was started in 1993 at Ramanathapuram district. It is estimated that there are around 4,000 active FoP members in police stations across Tamil Nadu.
  137. Voluntary National Review(VNR) is a process through which countries assess and present progress made in achieving the global goals and the pledge to leave no one behind. The purpose of VNRs is to present a snapshot of where the country stands in SDG implementation, with a view to help accelerate progress through experience sharing, peer-learning, identifying gaps and good practices, and mobilizing partnerships.
  138. As per the data from the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, theUSA remained India’s top trading partner for the second consecutive fiscal year in 2019-20.
  139. Goods and Services Tax (GST)Council to be formed by the President to administer & govern GST. Its Chairman is Union Finance Minister of India with ministers nominated by the state governments as its members. Goods & Services Tax Council is a constitutional body for making recommendations to the Union and State Government on issues related to Goods and Service Tax. As per Article 279A (1) of the amended Constitution, the GST Council has to be constituted by the President within 60 days of the commencement of Article 279A.
  140. Oort Cloud is a collection of small objects that are still under the influence of the sun’s gravity. The boundary of the solar system is considered to be beyond the outer edge of the Oort Cloud. The width of the Oort Cloud is not known precisely, but it is estimated to begin at about 1,000 astronomical units (AU) from the sun and to extend to about 100,000 AU (1 AU is the distance from the sun to Earth).
  141. In-Silico drug discovery process is the identification of the drug target molecule by employing bioinformatics tools.
  142. Zoonoses or Zoonotic Disease is a disease that passes into the human population from an animal sourcedirectly or through an intermediary species. Zoonotic infections can be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in nature, with animals playing a vital role in maintaining such infections. HIV-AIDSEbolaMalaria, and Covid-19 are examples of zoonoses.
  143. National Electronic Toll Collection was developed by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI)in 2016 for electronic toll collection at toll plazas using FASTag.
  144. The solar wind, emanating from the Sun, creates a bubble that extends far past the orbits of the planets. This bubble is the heliosphere, shaped like a long windsock as it moves with the Sun through interstellar space. The heliosheath is the outer region of the heliosphere, just beyond the termination shock, the point where the solar wind slows abruptly, becoming denser and hotter. The solar wind piles up as it presses outward against the approaching wind in interstellar space.
  145. Nagarhole National Park is one of India’s premier Tiger Reserves along with the adjoining Bandipur Tiger Reserve and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary. This park was declared the thirty seventh Project Tiger, Tiger reserves of India in 1999. It is part of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. The park ranges the foothills of the Western Ghatsspreading down the Brahmagiri hills and south towards Kerala Together with the adjoining Bandipur National Park , Mudumalai National Park and Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary. it forms the largest protected area in Southern India. Its water sources include the Lakshmmantirtha river, Sarati Hole, Nagar Hole, Balle Halla, Kabini River. Flagship species like Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), gaur (Bos gaurus) and Indian elephants (Elephas maximus indicus) are found in large numbers inside the park.  The Jenu Kurubas, primary inhabitants of this forest area, are a tribe in Karnataka state and their traditional practices and rituals are slowly disappearing. 
  146. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources was established in December 1983, under the aegis of Indian Council of Agricultural Research(ICAR).
  147. The CogX Awards are given out to the best-of-the-best in AI and emerging technologies across the world.
  148. Sajnekhali Bird Sanctuaryis a part of Sundarban and is famous for the sight of rare birds.
  149. Article 164 (1A)of the Constitution prescribed that the total number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister, in the Council of Ministers in a State shall not exceed 15% of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of that State. Provided that the number of Ministers, including the Chief Minister in a State shall not be less than twelve.
  150. The boundary between solar wind and the interstellar wind is the heliopause, where the pressure of the two winds are in balance. This balance in pressure causes the solar wind to turn back and flow down the tail of the heliosphere.
  151. Bandar-e-Jask port lies to west of Chabahar (Iran) & right before Straits of Hormuz. 
  152. Article 172(1)states that, in case of a state of Emergency, an election can be postponed for one year at a time in addition to a period of six months after the Emergency is lifted. There is no specific legal provision that specifies the circumstances under which elections can be deferred in non-Emergency situations.
  153. Article 78 of the Constitutionempowers the President to be informed about the affairs of the union government which is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament. Article 78 of the Indian Constitution belongs to Part V of the Constitution. Part V is about Union Government and gives a detailed provisions regarding the powers and the duties of the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, Council of Minister and the likes. Article 78 specifically lists down the duties of the Prime Minister.
  154. Treaty of Sugauli, was an agreement between the Gurkha chiefs of Nepal and the British Indian government that ended the Anglo-Nepalese (Gurkha) War.
  155. Plaque psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune condition in which skin cells build up and form scales and itchy, dry patches.
  156. United Nations Population Fund is a subsidiary organ of the UN General Assemblyand works as a sexual and reproductive health agency. The UNPFA released the State of the World Population 2020 report.
  157. The Central Zoo Authority (CZA) is astatutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. It was constituted in 1992 under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  158. Directorate General of Lighthouses and Lightships is a subordinate office under the Ministry of Shipping to provide general aids to marine navigation along the Indian coast. Its mission is to help the mariners and local fisherman to navigate safely in the Indian waters.
  159. The India Cycles4Change Challengeis an initiative of the Smart Cities Mission, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs, Government of India to inspire and support Indian cities to quickly implement cycling-friendly initiatives in response to COVID-19. The Challenge aims to help cities connect with their citizens as well as experts to develop a unified vision and initiatives to promote cycling. The India Programme of the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP) will be the knowledge partner of the Smart Cities Mission to assist the Mission in conducting this challenge and guiding cities in developing and implementing their proposals.
  160. Swabhiman Anchal issituated along the Odisha-Andhra Pradesh border, and had long been a stronghold of left-wing extremists. The region is covered by water from three sides and another side by inhospitable terrain.
  161. The eight core sector industriesinclude coal, crude oil, natural gas, refinery products, fertilizer, steel, cement and electricity.
  162. The Office of the Registrar General is under the Ministry of Home Affairs.It issues the Sample Registration System bulletin, which provides estimates of birth rate, death rate and infant mortality rate for states.
  163. Delhi Urban Art Commission is a statutory body formed by an Act of Parliament in 1973. It is meant to advise the Centre on matters of preservation, development and maintenance of the aesthetic quality of the capital’s urban and environmental design.
  164. Dal is a lake in Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is an urban lake, which is the second largest in the union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It is integral to tourism and recreation in Kashmir and is named the “Lake of Flowers”,”Jewel in the crown of Kashmir” or “Srinagar’s Jewel”. Scenic views of the lake can be witnessed from the shore line Mughal gardens, such as Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh built during the reign of Mughal Emperor Jahangir. The lake is part of a natural wetland including its floating gardens. The floating gardens, known as “Rad” in Kashmiri. The wetland is divided by causewaysinto four basins; Gagribal, Lokut Dal, Bod Dal and Nigeen (although Nigeen is also considered as an independent lake). Irreversible changes through urban developments have placed further restrictions on the flow of the lake and as a result, marshy lands have emerged on the peripheral zones, notably in the foothill areas of the Shankaracharya and Zaharbwan hills. It is the remnants of a post-glacial lake, which has undergone drastic changes in size over the years and the other theory is that it is of fluvial origin from an old flood spill channel or ox-bows of the Jhelum River. The ecosystem of Dal is ecologically rich in macrophytes, submerged macrophytes, floating macrophytes and phytoplankton.
  165. Nimo (also known as Nimu or Nimoo) is the headquarters of the Nimoo block in the Leh district of Ladakh, India. It is located in the south-eastern part of Ladakh region. It is surrounded by the Zanskar range. Magnet Hill or Nimoo-Leh Magnet Hill is a gravity hill located near Leh in Ladakh, India. It is famous for offering view of the confluence of the Indus and Zanskar rivers.
  166. Hong Kong is governed by amini-constitution called the Basic Law, which affirms the principle of “one country, two systems”.
  167. Katchatheevu is an uninhabited volcanic island administered by Sri Lankaand was a disputed territory claimed by India until 1976. The island is located between Neduntheevu, Sri Lanka and Rameswaram, India and has been traditionally used by both Sri Lankan Tamil and Indian fishermen.
  168. State Election Commissioner (SEC) is a Constitutionally defined functionary under Article 243K of the Constitution, and it has a right to function till completion of tenure. According to Article 243K (2) of the Constitution, the SEC shall not be removed from his office except in like manner and on the like ground as a Judge of a High Court and the conditions of service of the State Election Commissioner shall not be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment.
  169. India has achieved a reduction of 21% in emission intensity of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP)between 2005 and 2014, thereby on its way to achieving its voluntary target under its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC).
  170. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) compels countries that have ratified it to protect and preserve basic human rights such as the right to life and human dignity, equality before the law etc. The treaty is monitored by the United Nations Human Rights Committee. The ICCPR is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). India is a party to the Treaty and has issued a declaration. Committee Against Torture (CAT) is the body of 10 independent experts that monitors implementation of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (1987) by its State parties.India is not a state party but signatory to the Convention.
  171. The Bibek Debroy Committee in 2015 recommended that private entry into running both freight and passenger trains should be allowed.
  172. The Doha Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health was adopted by the WTO Ministerial Conference of 2001in Doha on November 14, 2001. It reaffirmed flexibility of TRIPS member states in circumventing patent rights for better access to essential medicines. Under the declaration, each Member has the right to grant compulsory licenses and the freedom to determine the grounds upon which such licenses are granted. Each Member has the right to determine what constitutes a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency, it being understood that public health crises, including those relating to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other epidemics, can represent a national emergency or other circumstances of extreme urgency. In India, Compulsory Licencing is regulated under the Indian Patent Act, 1970.
  173. A fire at Iran’s underground Natanz nuclear facility has caused significant damage that could slow the development of advanced centrifuges used to enrich uranium. Natanz is located in Iran’s central Isfahan province in Tehran, Natanz hosts the country’s main uranium enrichment facility. It is known as the first Pilot Fuel Enrichment Plantof Iran. It is one of several Iranian facilities monitored by inspectors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the U.N. nuclear watchdog.
  174. The United Nations University is the academic and research arm of the United Nations. Headquartered in Shibuya, TokyoJapan, with diplomatic status as a U.N. institution, its mission is to help resolve global issues related to human development and welfare through collaborative research and education.
  175. The Global Methane Initiative (GMI) is a voluntary, international partnership that brings together national governments, private sector entities, development banks, NGOs and other interested stakeholders in a collaborative effort to reduce methane gasemissions and advance methane recovery and use as a clean energy The initiative currently focuses on five sectors, which are known sources of anthropogenic methane emissions: agriculture, coal mining, municipal solid waste, municipal wastewater, and oil and gas systems. National governments are encouraged to join GMI as Partner Countries, while other non-State organizations may join GMI’s extensive Project Network.
  176. Okavango Delta (or Okavango Grassland) in Botswana is a swampy inland delta formed where the Okavango River reaches a tectonic trough in the central part of the endorheic basin of the Kalahari. All the water reaching the delta is ultimately evaporated and transpired and does not flow into any sea or ocean. The area was once part of Lake Makgadikgadi, an ancient lake that had mostly dried up by the early Holocene. The Okavango Delta became the 1000th site to be officially inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
  177. Botswana is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. More than 70 % of its territory being the Kalahari Desert. It is bordered by South Africa to the south and southeast, Namibia to the west and north, Zimbabwe to the northeast and Zambia to the north.
  178. The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is an intergovernmental organizationlocated in The Hague, Netherlands. It is not a court in the traditional sense, but provides services of arbitral tribunal to resolve disputes that arise out of international agreements between member states, international organizations or private parties. The cases span a range of legal issues involving territorial and maritime boundaries, sovereignty, human rights, international investment, and international and regional trade. The organization is not a United Nations agency, but the PCA is an official United Nations Observer.
  179. The first Prof. P. C. Mahalanobis National Award in Official Statistics for lifetime achievement was conferred on Dr. C. Rangarajan in recognition of his outstanding contribution in laying the foundation for holistic reforms in national statistical system. Prof. P. C. Mahalanobis is known as father of Indian Statistics. He is the founder of Indian Statistical Institute (ISI). The Mahalanobis model was instrumental in formulating India’s strategy for industrialization in the Second Five-Year Plan (1956–61).
  180. Located along the foothills of the Shivalik range, the Rajaji National Park spans 820 square kilometres and is home to the Van Gujjars in the winters. The tribe is one of the few forest-dwelling nomadic communities in the country.  Usually, they migrate to the bugyals (grasslands) located in the upper Himalayas with their buffaloes and return only at the end of monsoons to their makeshift huts, deras, in the foothills. The Van Gujjars traditionally practice buffalo husbandry; a family owns up to 25 heads of buffaloes. They rely on buffaloes for milk, which gets them a good price in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh markets.
  181. International Seabed Authority (ISA) is an intergovernmental body based in Kingston, Jamaica, established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. It is mandated to organize, regulate and control all mineral related activities in the international seabed area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, an area underlying most of the world’s oceans. All Parties to the 1982 United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) are members of ISA.
  182. Indian Naval ships Jalashwa, Airavat, Shardul and Magarsteamed more than 23,000 kilometres during Op Samudra Setu and undertook the evacuation operation in a smooth and coordinated manner.
  183. World Bank and Government of India recently signed a $750 million Agreement for Emergency Response Programme for Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).
  184. The Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) is the abbreviated name of the 1963 Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water, which prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground. It is also abbreviated as the Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) and Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT), though the latter may also refer to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), which succeeded the PTBT for ratifying parties. India has signed and ratified the treaty.
  185. International Transport Forum (ITF) is an inter-governmental organisation within the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) system. It is the only global body with a mandate for all modes of transport. India has been a member of ITF since 2008.
  186. Direct-seeded rice (DSR), also called broadcasting seed technique, an alternative way of sowing rice. The traditional and the prevalent way across India is transplanting rice (TPR) seedlings from a nursery to waterlogged fields. But TPR is extremely labour- and water-intensive, unlike DSR. It also stated that DSR can reduce labour needs by 60 per cent and the cost of production by $30-51 per ha. The transplanting technique is also a major source of methane, a greenhouse gas.
  187. The Global Carbon Projectis a Global Research Project of Future Earth and a research partner of the World Climate Research Programme. It was formed to work with the international science community to establish a common and mutually agreed knowledge base to support policy debate and action to slow down and ultimately stop the increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The Global Carbon Project was established in 2001 by a shared partnership between the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and Diversitas. This partnership constituted the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP) which subsequently evolved into Future Earth.
  188. In 2012, the governments of Bangladesh, Canada, Ghana, Mexico, Sweden and the United States, along with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), came together to initiate efforts to treat short-lived climate pollutants as an urgent and collective challenge. Together, they formed the Climate & Clean Air Coalition to support fast action and deliver benefits on several fronts at once: climate, public health, energy efficiency, and food security. The Climate and Clean Air Coalition is a voluntary partnership of governments, intergovernmental organizations, businesses, scientific institutions and civil society organizations committed to improving air quality and protecting the climate through actions to reduce short-lived climate pollutants. India has formally joined the Climate & Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), becoming the 65thcountry to join the partnership.
  189. The ASHAs in Jharkhand, known as “Sahiyas”, have been supporting delivery of health care services to the last mile, especially in the tribal areas.
  190. The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal, usually known as the Basel Convention, is an international treatythat was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs). It does not, however, address the movement of radioactive waste. The Convention is also intended to minimize the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, to ensure their environmentally sound management as closely as possible to the source of generation, and to assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and other wastes they generate. As of October 2018, 186 states and the European Union are parties to the Convention. Haiti and the United States have signed the Convention but not ratified The Convention covers toxic, poisonous, explosive, corrosive, flammable, ecotoxic and infectious wastes.
  191. The Rotterdam Convention (formally, the Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade) is a multilateral treatyto promote shared responsibilities in relation to importation of hazardous chemicals.
  192. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmentaltreaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
  193. The Bamako Convention (in full: Bamako Convention on the Ban on the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa) is a treatyof African nations prohibiting the import of any hazardous (including radioactive) waste. 
  194. The Great Green Wall is a symbol of hope in the face of one of the biggest challenges of our time – desertification. Launched in 2007 by the African Union, this game-changing African-led initiative aims to restore Africa’s degraded landscapes and transform millions of lives in one of the world’s poorest regions, the Sahel. 
  195. The Peace Forest Initiative, an initiative of South Korea could ultimately contribute to the alleviation of political tension, reconciliation and can become a part of permanent peace building processes. COP14 will provide an opportunity for relevant and like-minded stakeholders to discuss the future initiative as a way to deliver common sustainable development goals (SDGs). The Peace Forest Initiative (PFI) is a global initiative serving as a partnership framework with a focus on land degradation neutrality (LDN) in fragile and conflict affected regions. LDN is defined as “a state whereby the amount and quality of land resources necessary to support ecosystem functions and services and enhance food security remain stable or increase within specified temporal and spatial scales and ecosystems” by the Parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD). PFI to be launched at the UNCCD COP14 in New Delhi and high-level Luncheon on 9th September 2019.
  196. Land Degradation Neutrality (LDN) is a unique approach that balances the expected loss of productive land with the recovery of degraded areas. Today, over 120 countries with various economic and geographical conditions are successfully integrating voluntary LDN targets into their planning systems. UNCCD is the custodian agency for LDN. The UNCCD Parties have recognized LDN as a strong vehicle for driving the implementation of the Convention and adopted it as a key goal.
  197. World Wide Fund for Nature is helping tiger range countries to implement CA|TS.
  198. United Nations Sustainable Stock Exchanges (SSE) initiative is a UN Partnership Programme organised by UNCTAD, the UN Global Compact, UNEP FI and the PRI. The SSE’s mission is to provide a global platform for exploring how exchanges, in collaboration with investors, companies (issuers), regulators, policymakers and relevant international organizations, can enhance performance on ESG (environmental, social and corporate governance) issues and encourage sustainable investment, including the financing of the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
  199. The UN announced Convened by Secretary-General António Guterres, the Global Investors for Sustainable Development (GISD) Alliance which includes 30 influential leaders from the corporate world will work together over the next two years in a bid to free up trillions of dollars from the private sector to finance the Sustainable Development Goals. The GISD Alliance is part of the UN’s strategy on financing for sustainable development, informed by the Addis Ababa Action Agenda.The Action Agenda provides a global framework for financing sustainable development by aligning all financing flows and policies with economic, social and environmental priorities. It includes a set of policy actions, with measures that draw upon all sources of finance, technology, innovation, trade, debt and data, in order to support achievement of the Sustainable Development.
  200. Co-chaired by Norway and Palau, the High-Level Panel for Sustainable Ocean Economy also known as Ocean Panel is the only ocean policy body made up of serving world leaders with the authority needed to trigger, amplify and accelerate action worldwide for ocean priorities. The Ocean Panel comprises members from Australia, Canada, Chile, Fiji, Ghana, Indonesia, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Namibia, Norway, Palau and Portugal and is supported by the UN Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for the Ocean. The Ocean Panel represents nations of highly diverse oceanic, economic and political perspectives. They are nations large and small, across all ocean basins, at every stage of economic development, at every extreme of the ocean environment from the tropics to the Artic. These nations account for nearly a third of the world’s coastlines and a third of the world’s exclusive economic zones (EEZs), 20 percent of the world’s fisheries and 20 percent of the world’s shipping fleet.  India is not a member of the panel.
  201. Almost one-third of the world’s population faces dangerous temperatures for more than 20 days a year, while heatwaves cause 12,000 deaths annually.
  202. The United Nations Environment Programme and the International Energy Agency released a report on “Cooling Emissions and Policy Synthesis”. The report cited benefits of cooling efficiency and Kigali Amendment report.
  203. Arunachal’s Dibang Valley, home to the minuscule Idu Mishmi tribe, borders Tibet and China. River Dibang, also known as Sikang by the Adi tribe and Talon by the Idu, is one of the principal rivers that flows by the Mishmi hills of Arunachal. By merging the waters of Dibang and Lohit, the Brahmaputra enters Assam and thereafter flows into Bangladesh before joining the Bay of Bengal.
  204. The contentious 3,097-megawatt Etalin Hydroelectric Project (EHEP), an ambitious project — a combination of two run-of-the-river schemes with limited storage requiring concrete gravity dams on rivers Tangon and Dri. Arunachal Pradesh falls in the category ‘Zone V’ (maximum risk) in the mapping of seismic zones in India.
  205. Tatya Tope who is also known as Ramachandra Pandurang Yawalkar, he was one of the most notable Indian freedom fighters and a general in the Rebellion of 1857. He was an intimate friend and the right hand of Nana Sahib, the adopted son of Peshwa. He won the battle over the Indian troops of the East India Company at Kanpur. Tatya Tope came to the relief of Rani Lakshmibai of Jhansiand with her seized the city of Gwalior. He forced General Windham to retreat from the city of Gwalior.
  206. Himachal Pradesh has become the first state in the country where 100 percent households have LPG connections. Under the central government’s ‘Pradhan Mantri Ujjawala Yojana’, gas connections were provided free of cost to women of rural areas. The state government had launched ‘Himachal Grihini Suvidha Yojana’ to cover the left-out families in the state, who were not covered under the Centre’s scheme.
  207. Hul Divas is observed annually on June 30 in memory of tribals — Sidho and Kanhu Murmu — who led the Santhal hul (rebellion) on June 30, 1855, at Bhognadih in Sahebganj district from the state of Jharkhand. Mostly Santhals from Jharkhand and neighboring states, gather. Fighters like Siddho-Kanhu, Chand-Bhairav, Phulo-Jhanu and others led the rebellion, caused panic in the British Rule.
  208. The ‘Accessibility Standards’ of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (MIB), framed in September 2019 under the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016, require 50% of all entertainment content on TV to carry captions in the same language, or SLS, by 2025.
  209. Yellow fever — an acute, viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes (belonging to the Aedes and Haemogogus species) — is projected to shift to Central and East Africa from West Africa by 2050. West African countries currently have the largest yellow fever disease burdenon the continent. Yellow fever is endemic in 34 countries in the sub-Saharan African region, despite the existence of a vaccine for the disease. An endemic disease is one where infection is constantly maintained in a geographic area without any external inputs.
  210. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients is a chemical compound that is the most important raw material to produce a finished medicine. In medicine, API produces the intended effects to cure the disease. For instance, Paracetamol is the API for Crocin and it is the API paracetamol that gives relief from body ache and fever. Fixed-dose combination drugs use multiple APIs, while single-dose drugs like Crocin use just one API.
  211. Malik Ambar (1548-1626) was the most consequential of Africans. He came from Abyssinia via Baghdad to the Deccan as a slave. During a period of flux, Ambar seized the opportunity to rise into prominence as a military commander with his own army of soldiers. To him goes the credit for building and effectively utilising a light cavalry that moved swiftly. This was an approach refined and used with devastating effect later by the Marathas. Ambar was an important player in the many power struggles in the Deccan of that era and was a thorn in the flesh of the Mughals who kept trying to push the frontiers of their empire further south.
  212. Kannapuram, which is home to many indigenous mango varieties, has much to cheer about because on July 22 — National Mango Day — the village will be declared an ‘Indigenous Mango Heritage Area’. The Kerala State Biodiversity Board identified the area as heritage zone in coordination with the Kannapuram grama panchayat.
  213. In India, a privy purse was a payment made to the ruling families of erstwhile princely statesas part of their agreements to first integrate with India in 1947 after the independence of India, and later to merge their states in 1949 whereby they lost all ruling rights. The privy purses continued to be paid to the royal families until the 26th Amendment in 1971, by which all their privileges and allowances from the central government ceased to exist, was implemented after a two-year legal battle. The definition of Ruler was amended by the Twenty Sixth (Constitutional) Amendment Act, 1971, which abolished the privy purses. Article 366 (22) reads, “Ruler” means the Prince, Chief or other person who, at any time before the commencement of the Twenty Sixth (Constitutional) Amendment Act, 1971, was recognised as the Ruler of an Indian State or was recognised as the successor of such Ruler.
  214. The Chiang Mai Initiative (CMI) is a multilateral currency swaparrangement among the ten members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the People’s Republic of China (including Hong Kong), Japan, and South Korea. The initiative began as a series of bilateral swap arrangements after the ASEAN Plus Three countries met on 6 May 2000 in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
  215. Human Growth Hormone (hGH) is produced in the body and secreted by the pituitary gland near the base of the brain. HGH helps in bone, organ and cartilage growth and also helps in repairing damaged muscles. hGH is banned both in-competition as well as out-of-competition by the World Anti- Doping Agency (WADA) as hGH is known to increase muscle mass, strength as well as tissue-repairing effects. 
  216. Earthquakes have happened and will happen in that part of Mizoram because it is caught between two geological faults. These are the Churachandpur Mao Fault and the Mat Fault. The Churachandpur Mao Fault is named after two places in Manipur and runs north-south into Myanmar along the border of Champhai. The Mat Fault runs northwest-southeast across Mizoram, beneath river Mat near Serchhip.
  217. Arad and Carmel are two new Israeli assault rifles set to be manufactured in India under the ‘Make in India’ initiative in Madhya Pradesh.
  218. Colorectal cancer that affects the large intestine (colon) and rectum is the 5th leading cause of cancer death in India, mainly because late detection minimizes chances of recovery. In the last decade, the country has witnessed a rapid increase in the rate of colorectal cancer among younger people due to poor dietary habits, lack of physical activity, obesity, increased alcohol consumption, and chronic smoking.  Extracellular vesicles (EVs) embody molecular information about the parent malignant tissue and hold a huge potential for convenient cancer diagnostics. 
  219. According to 7th Constitutional Amendment Act 1956, the same person can be the Governor of two or more states. Both the governors and lieutenant-governors are appointed by the president.
  220. An invasive mussel native to the South and Central American coasts is spreading quickly in the backwaters of Kerala, elbowing out other mussel and clam species and threatening the livelihoods of fishermen engaged in molluscan fisheries. Surveys show the presence of the Charru mussel in the Kadinamkulam, Paravur, Edava Nadayara, Ashtamudi, Kayamkulam, Vembanad, Chettuva and Ponnani estuaries / backwaters. Ashtamudi Lake, a Ramsar site in Kollam district, remains the worst­hit. 
  221. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a NASA mission to the moon within the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP) in preparation for future manned missions to the moon and beyond (Mars). LRO is the first mission of NASA’s `New Vision for Space Exploration’.
  222. Biosafety levels (BSL) are used to identify the protective measures needed in a laboratory setting to protect workers, the environment, and the public. The four biosafety levels are BSL-1, BSL-2, BSL-3, and BSL-4, with BSL-4 being the highest (maximum) level of containment. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have specified these levels. In India high risk pathogens can be tested only in BSL4 lab with highest level of biological safety, a BSL4 lab consists of work with highly dangerous and exotic microbes. Infections caused by microbes, including Ebola, Nipah and Marburg viruses, are frequently fatal, and come without treatment or vaccines are tested in BSL4 lab.
  223. A melting glacier at Europe’s Mont Blanc mountain range was in news. is the second-highest mountainin Europe after Mount Elbrus. It is the highest mountain in the Alps. It is the eleventh-most prominent peak in the world. The mountain stands in a range called the Graian Alps, between the regions of Aosta Valley, Italy, and Savoie and Haute-Savoie, France.
  224. Marsh Crocodile aka ‘Mugger’(Crocodylus palustris) is a Schedule I reptilian species protected under the Indian Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
  225. Smart India Hackathon is theWorld’s largest Nation-Building Digital Initiative of the HRD Ministry and conceptualized to harness the creativity and energy of bright young students for the development of our nation.
  226. Bathukamma is floral festival celebrated predominantly by the Telangana and some parts of Andhra Pradesh.
  227. Mapillah Uprising (1921)-The Non­-Cooperation Movement combined with the Khilafat agitation provided the spark that lit the fire of Mapillah revolt against the British rulers and their Hindu landlords. The immediate trigger of the uprising was the Non­-Cooperation Movement launched by the Congress in 1920 in tandem with the Khilafat agitation. Variyamkunnath Kunhahamed Haji, was a leading figure in the Mapillah revolt against British rule.
  228. Newly described species from Madagascar which suggests that dinosaurs and pterosaurs (extinct flying reptiles) had extremely small ancestors — just 10 centimetres tall. It was named Kongonaphon kely. In Malagasy, the national language of Madagascar, kongona means bug. The Greek suffix phon, means a slayer. And kely in Malagasy means tiny. So that makes it the Tiny Bug Slayer. Madagascar was directly attached to India as part of the supercontinent Gondwana. “Triassic vertebrate fossils of similar age have been found in a band of rocks extending across Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Odisha, but thus far nothing like Kongonaphon has been found there.