Revolutionary Activity during First World War
• Based at San Francisco in USA. Founded by Lala Hardyal and Sohan
• Consisted of Ex-Soldiers and Peasants from Punjab who had migrated to
USA and Canada in Search for better Employment Opportunities
• Publish Revolutionary Material in Ghadar Newspaper
• Launch Revolutionary Activity in India and other British Colonies
• Organize assassination of Unpopular British Officials
• Procure arms
• Enraged by Komagata Maru Incident (1914)
• Ghadar party Fixed Feb 21, 1915 for carrying out all India Revolt. Kartar
Singh Saraba and Raghubar Dayal Gupta left to India to carry out Revolt.
• Cracked down on Ghadar party through Defence of India Rules
Zimmerman plan with the help of Germans
• Raja Mahendra Pratap, Barkatullah and Obeidullah Siddhi set up Provisional Indian Government
Mutiny in Singapore
• Jamadar Chisti Khan
• Jamadar Abdul Gani
• Subedar Daud Khan
Revolutionary Activity in India
• Jatin Mukherjee (Bagha Jain) Planned disruption of railway lines, seizure of Fort
William and landing of German Arms
Home Rule League Movement
• Started by Annie Besant and Tilak in 1916
• Propagate the Idea of Home Rule as Self- Government
• Inspired from Irish Home League
• Public Meetings, Organizing reading rooms etc
• Annie Besant’s New India and CommonWeal
• Launched without the Full support of Congress
• Restricted to Maharashtra, Karnataka, Central Provinces
• Covered the Rest of India
• Supported by Arundale and Wadia
• Home rule league joined by Motilal and Jawahar Lal Nehru, Bhulabhai Desai,
C.R Das, Jinnah, Lala lajpat rai etc
• Gandhi who had come to India on Jan 9,1915 did not join Home Rule League
• Anglo-Indians, Muslims and Non-Brahmins from the South did not join as they
felt Home Rule would mean rule of Hindus
• On arrest of Annie Besant, Sir Subramaniam Aiyar gave up his knighthood
Lucknow Session (1916)
• Readmission of Extremists to Congress. Session was presided by Ambika Charan Majumdar
• Death of two moderates Gokhale and Pherozshah Mehta
• Split led to Political Inactivity
• Efforts of Annie Besant and Tilak
• Lucknow Pact between Congress and Muslim League
• Government to declare self Government at the earliest
• Expansion of legislative Councils so that elected members get majority
• Half of Viceroy’s executive Council to be Indians
• Britain’s refusal to help Turkey in the Balkan Wars
• Annulment of Partition
• Refusal of British to set up University at Aligarh with powers to affiliate Colleges
• Younger Muslim League members- Nationalist
1909 Indian Councils Act or Minto-Morely Reforms
Governor General from 1894-1910
• Lord Elgin 1894-1899
• Lord Curzon 1899-1905
• Lord Minto 1905-1910
Increased representation to the Indians in Council
• The size of the Legislative Councils was enlarged by according more representation to
the various classes of persons and bodies.
• In the case of Governor General Council the total membership was raised from 16 to 60.
• The maximum number of members of the Provincial Council of Bengal, Bombay and
Madras was raised from 20 to 50 members and for U.P from 15 to 50members.
• The Central Legislative Council was to consist of 37 official and 23 non-officials.
• Out of 37 officials, 28 were to be nominated by the Governor General and the rest were
• The ex-officio members were to be the Governor General, and 8 council members.
• Out of 23 non-official members, 5 were to be nominated by the Governor General and
the rest were to be elected.
• The majority of the members were to be non-officials in the Presidencies i.e. (35+15).
Some of the non-officials were to be nominated by the Governor.
• In view of the Government of India was the territorial representation was not suited to the
people of India.
• Instead of territorial representation they introduced separate electorates for the different
communities and classes in the presidencies.
• In the provinces, the University Senates, landlords, District Boards and Municipalities
and Chambers of Commerce were to elect members.
Ex-officio members ( Governor General and Council)
• who by virtue of office held by them in the government were to be given membership.
Nominated officials I.C.S officers
• The Governor General was empowered to nominate civil servants as members.
• The Governor General was empowered to nominate certain persons from public life
who did not hold any office under the Government.
The Elected members
• Those who were elected on basis of elections, namely, members of Chambers
of Commerce, Municipalities, District Boards and landlord class etc.
Enlargement of the functions of legislative councils
• The Act gave powers to the members to move resolutions relating to loan to local
bodies, additional grants and new tax proposals, but on certain matters no right
to discussion was made available.
• The members were also empowered to discuss and move resolutions relating to
matter of public interest.
• The President could disallow any resolution or a part of a resolution without giving
Changes in the electoral system
• There were three types of electorates
General Electorates: Consisting of non-officials members either of Provincial legislative Councils or of Municipal and District Boards.
Class Electorates: Consisting of landlords and Mohammedans.
Special Electorates: Consisting of Presidency Corporations, Universities, Chamber of
Commerce and trade and business interests.
One Indian was to be appointed to the viceroy’s executive council (Satyendra Sinha
was the first to be appointed in 1909.
Komagata Maru Incident
The importance of this event lies in the fact that it created an explosive situation in the
Komagata Maru was the name of a ship which was carrying 370 passengers, mainly
Sikh and Punjabi Muslim would-be immigrants, from Singapore to Vancouver.
They were turned back by Canadian authorities after two months of privation and
It was generally believed that the Canadian authorities were influenced by the British
The ship finally anchored at Calcutta in September 1914.
The inmates refused to board the Punjab-bound train.
In the ensuing with the police at Budge Budge near Calcutta, 22 persons died.