Prepare Prelims 2017-Day-17-Modern India History

First Major Challenge to British Rule in India
Result of Exploitative Colonial Policies of British in India

Causes Of the Revolt
Economic Causes

  • Collapse of Indian Agriculture
  • Higher Taxation on the Peasants
  • Loss of Support for the Artisans and Handicraftsmen
  • Lack of Employment Opportunities
  • Zamindars rights taken away

Political Causes

  • Doctrine of Lapse
  • Subsidiary Alliance

Socio-Religious Causes

  • Activities of Christian Missionaries
  • Reforms such as Abolition of Sati, Widow Remarriage and Education of Women
  • Tax on Temples and Mosques
  • Religious Disabilities Act

Influence of Outside Events

  • First Afghan War (1838-42)
  • Punjab Wars (1845-49)
  • Santhal Rebellion (1855-57)

Soldiers in the British Army

  • Racial Discrimination in salary and Promotions
  • Restrictions on wearing Caste and Sectarian Marks
  • Rumours of Conversion by Christian Missionaries
  • General Services Enlistment Act
  • Discontinuation of Foreign Allowance (Bhatta) when Serving in Sindh and

Beginning and Spread of Revolt
Trigger for the Revolt

  • Introduction of Enfield Rifle
  • Rumours of Mixing Bone Dust in Atta
  • Started on May 10 1857 in Meerut and Spread to rest of the North India
    Challenges to British Rule before 1857
    19th Native Infantry at Berhampur (Feb 1857)
    34th Native Infantry at Barrackpore led by Mangal Pandey (April 1857)
    Timeline of Events
    3rd Native Cavalry at Meerut breaks out in Mutiny on May 10
    March to Delhi and Killed an European Officer Simon Fraser
    On May 12, Bahadur Shah Zafar declared as Emperor of India
    Civilian Population Joins the Soldiers in the Rebellion

Spread of Revolt
Delhi – Bahadur Shah (Nominal Head)
General Bakht Khan ( Headed the Council of Soldiers)
Kanpur – Nana Saheb (Adopted Son of last Peshwa Baji Rao II) defeated HughWheeler
Lucknow – Begum Hazrat Mahal declared her Son Birjis Qadir as Nawab

Bareilly – Khan bahadur
Bihar – Kunwar Singh defeated William Taylor and Vincent Eyre
Faizabad – Maulvi Ahmadullah (Defeated Henry Lawrence in the Battle ofChinhat)
Jhansi – Rani Laxmi Bai
Gwalior – Tantia Tope
Meerut – Kadam Singh
Mathura- Devi Singh
Allahabad – Liaqat Ali

Sep 20 1857

  • Delhi captured by John Nicholson
  • Lt. Hudson killed the Royal Princes
  • Bahadur Shah Exiled to Rangoon
  • Sir Colin Campbell Captured Kanpur. Nana Saheb Escaped to Nepal
  • Jhansi Captured by HughRose
  • Benaras- Rebellion was crushed by Colonel Neill

Reasons for Failure of Revolt

  • Not an All India Revolt
  • Eastern, Southern and Western Parts of India not part of Revolt
  • Many Sections of People did not Participate
  • Big Zamindars
  • Money Lenders
  • Indian Rulers 
  • Educated Indians
  • No Central Leadership
  • Soldiers were poorly Equipped
  • Exceptional Leadership of British Officers

Bahadur Shah Zafar Proclaimed as Emperor
Ban on Slaughter of Cows after the Success of Revolt
Nana Saheb – Support of Azimullah
Laxmi Bai – Support of Afghans
Begum Hazrat Mahal- Support of Maharaja Bal Krishna and Jiya Lal

Nature of Revolt
Planned War of Indian Independence – V.D.Savarkar
It began as fight for religion but ended as a war for Independence – S.N.Sen
First war of Indian Independence is neither First nor war of Independence nor national–
Selfish and Unpatriotic Mutiny of Sepoys which had no Central Leadeship- John Seeley

Consequences of the Revolt
Company Rule Abolished
Direct Responsibility by the British Government (Queen’s Proclamation)
Promise by the British not to annex Indian States
Policy of Divide and Rule
Reorganization of British Army

Factors that led to Growth of Indian Nationalism

  • Political, Administrative and Economic Unification of Country
  • Western Thought and Education
  • Role of Press and Literature
  • Rediscovery of India’s Past
  • Socio-Religious Reform Movements
  • Rise of Middle Class

Reactionary Policies ofLytton

  • Reduction in Maximum age for ICS Examination from 21 years to 19 years
  • Grand Delhi Durbar when the rest of the country was in Famine
  • Vernacular Press act (1878)
  • Arms Act (1878)

Political Associations before INC

  • Bangabasha Prakasika Sabha – Associates of Raja Ram Mohan Roy
  • Zamindari Association
  • Bengal British India Society
  • British Indian Association
  • East Indian Association (Dada Bhai Naoroji)
  • Indian League by Sisir Kumar Ghosh
  • Indian Association of Calcutta (Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose)
  • Poona Sarvajanik Sabha (MG Ranade)
  • Bombay Presidency Association ( Badruddin Tyabji, Pherozshah Mehta, K.T. Kelang)
  • Madras Mahajan Sabha (Veeraghavchari, Subramaniam Aiyer, Anandacharalu)

Pre Congress Campaigns
Imposition of Import Duty on Cotton
Indianisation of Government Services
Reduction in the Maximum age for ICS
Repeal of Vernacular Press act (1878) and Arms Act (1878)
Support of Ilbert Bill
Right to Join Volunteer Groups
Campaign in Britain to vote for Pro-India Party

INC- Aims and Objectives
First Session of INC held in Dec 1885 at Bombay.

Founded by A.O Hume and supported by Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose
Kadambini Ganguly- First Woman Graduate to address Congress Session

Aims and Objectives:
Democratic and Nationalistic Movement
Politically Educate People
Develop National Unity
Present the Demands of the People before the Government
Safety Valve Theory
Lightning Conductor Theory

Method of Moderates( 1885-1905)

  • INC dominated by Moderates in the Initial Period. Included Dada Bhai Naoroji, Badruddin
  • Tyabji, Surendranath Banerjee ,M.G. Ranade etc

Basic Ideology of Moderates

  • Contitutional Agitation
  • British Rule in India helpful
  • Presented demands to the British through prayers and petitions
  • Educate the Masses
  • Did not Involve the Common people in the Freedom Struggle

Contribution of Moderates

  • Nurture and Develop INC
  • Awakening of the Masses
  • Separated Politics from Religion

Drain Theory

  • Dada Bhai Naoroji (Poverty and Unbritish Rule in India)
  • M G Ranade (Essays in Indian Economics)
  • R C Dutt ( Economic History of India)
  • No taxation without Representation
  • Indian Councils Act 1892

Leave a Reply