DEVELOPMENT OF PRESS
Portugese were the first to bring Printing Press to India
James Augustus Hickey started the first Newspaper in India, The Bengal Gazette or Calcutta General Advertiser
- Censorship of Press act, 1799
- Licensing Regulations Act, 1823
- Press Act or Metcalfe Act 1835 (Liberator of Indian Press)
- Licensing Act 1857
- Registration Act 1867 replaced Metcalfe’s Act of 1835
- Vernacular Press Act 1878-the gagging Act, In 1883, Surendranath Banerjee became the first Indian journalist to be imprisoned.
- Tilak had been building up anti- imperialist sentiments among the public through
- Ganapati festivals (started in 1893), Shivaji festivals (started in 1896) and through his newspapers Kesari and Maharatta.
- He was among the first to advocate bringing the lower middle classes, the peasants, artisans and workers into the Congress fold.
- Indian Press (Emergency Powers) Act, 1931-This Act gave sweeping powers to provincial governments to suppress propaganda for Civil Disobedience Movement.
DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION
Earlier Efforts of British :
- Calcutta Madrassa – Warren Hastings ( 1781)
- Sanskrit College in Benaras – Jonathan Duncan
- Fort William College set up by Wellesley
- Need for Modern Education
- Enthusiasm of Christian Missionaries to Promote Christanity
- Enlightened Indians thought that Western Education Could remove social evils in our Society
- Regular supply of qualified Indians to British Administration at lower levels
- Charter Act of 1813 Sanctioned 1 lakh rupees annually for the Promotion of Education in India
- Orientalist Anglicist Debate
Lord Macaulay’s Minute (1835)
- Favoured the viewpoint of the Anglicists
- Teaching of Western Sciences and Literature through Medium of English
- Mass Education to be neglected
- Indians in blood and Colour but English in tastes, Opinions and Intellect
- Downward Filtration Theory
Woods Despatch (1854) : Magna Carta of English Education in India
- Downward Filtration theory to be given up
- Focus on Mass primary Education
- Vernacular Primary Schools , Anglo Vernacular High Schools and College at District
- Level and Universities at Bombay, Madras and Calcutta
- English as Medium of Instruction for Higher studies and Vernaculars at School level
- Stressed on Female and Vocational Education
- Agriculture Research Institute at Pusa (Bihar) and Engineering Institute at Roorkee started
The Bethune School founded by Bethune at Calcutta (1849) was the first fruit of a powerful movement for education of women which arose in 1840s and 1850s.
Hunter Education Commission (1882- 83)
- Transfer of Control of Primary Education to district and muncipal Boards
- Secondary Education : 2 Divisions
- Literary – Leading to University
- Vocational – Leading to Employment
Rayleigh Commission (1904) on Universities- Based on its recommendations, the Indian Universities Act was passed in 1904.
Saddler University Commission (1919)
Commission was set up to study and report on problems of Calcutta University but its recommendations were applicable more or less to other universities also.
School Course for 12 years
Hartog Committee (1929)
Emphasis on Primary Education
Only Deserving students should go to University
Average Students to be diverted to Vocational Courses after Class VIII
Wardha Scheme of Education ( Zakir Hussain Committee in 1937)
Learning through Activity
Inclusion of basic handicraft in the Syllabus
Teaching to be in Hindi upto Class VIII
Free and Compulsory Primary Education
Sergeant Plan of Education (1944)– The Sergeant Plan (Sergeant was the educational advisor to
the Government) was worked out by the Central Advisory Board of Education in 1944.