The long-term average of a region’s weather events.
The phrase ‘climate change’ represents a change in the long-term weather patterns
The measurable effects of the continual warming trend.
Usually measured in major shifts in temperature, rainfall, snow, and wind
patterns lasting decades or more
An average increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth’s surface and in the
troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns
The greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring phenomenon that blankets the earth lower
atmosphere and warms it, maintaining the temperature suitable for living things to
water vapor and green house gases warms the Earth.
The Sun emits energy that is transmitted to Earth.
Because the Sun is very hot, the energy is emitted in high-energy short wavelengths
that penetrate the Earth’s atmosphere.
About 30% of the Sun’s energy is reflected directly back into space by the
atmosphere, clouds, and surface of the Earth.
The rest of the Sun’s energy is absorbed into the Earth’s system (70%)
The Earth re-emits energy back into the atmosphere.
Because the Earth is cooler than the Sun, the energy is emitted in the form of
infrared radiation, at wavelengths longer than the incoming solar energy.
Role of Greenhouse Gases
Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere absorb much of the long-wave energy
(infrared radiation) emitted from the Earth’s surface,
The greenhouse gases then re-emit this energy in all directions, warming the Earth’s
surface and lower atmosphere.
GREEN HOUSE GASES
Greenhouse gases” means those gaseous constituents of the atmosphere,
both natural and anthropogenic, those absorbs and re-emit infrared radiation.
1. WATER VAPOUR
the biggest overall contributor to the greenhouse effect and humans are not directly
responsible for emitting this gas in quantities sufficient to change its
concentration in the atmosphere.
CO2 and other greenhouse gases is increasing the amount of water vapour in the
air by boosting the rate of evaporation.
2. CARBON DIOXIDE
The main sources
i. The combustion of fossil fuels to generate electricity.
ii. The combustion of fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel used for transportation
iii. Many industrial processes emit CO2 through fossil fuel combustion.
iv. Several processes also produce CO2 emissions through chemical reactions that do
not involve combustion.
Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions – The most effective way to reduce
carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is to reduce fossil fuel consumption.
Other strategies include Energy Efficiency, Energy Conservation, Carbon Capture
(CH4) is emitted by natural sources such as wetlands, as well as human activities
such as leakage from natural gas systems and the raising of livestock.
Natural processes in soil and chemical reactions in the atmosphere help remove CH4 from
Agriculture: Domestic livestock such as cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and camels
produce large amounts of CH4 as part of their normal digestive process.
Globally, the Agriculture sector is the primary source of CH4 emissions
Methane is the primary component of natural gas.
Some amount of, CH4 is emitted to the atmosphere during the production,
processing, storage, transmission, and distribution of crude oil & natural gas.
(N20) is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of the Earth’s nitrogen cycle, and
has a variety of natural sources.
Natural emissions of N20 are mainly from bacteria breaking down nitrogen
In soils and the oceans.
emitted when people add nitrogen to the soil through the use of synthetic
also emitted during the breakdown of nitrogen in livestock manure and
urine, which contributed to 6% of N20 emissions in 2010
emitted when transportation fuels are burned
generated as a byproduct during the production of nitric acid, which is used
to make synthetic commercial fertilizer, and in the production of adipic acid,
which is used to make fibers, like nylon, and other synthetic products.
removed from the atmosphere when it is absorbed by certain types of bacteria or
destroyed by ultraviolet radiation or chemical reactions.
5. FLUORINATED GASES
They are emitted through a variety of industrial processes such as aluminum and
semiconductor manufacturing & Substitution for Ozone-Depleting Substances.
very high global warming potentials (GWPs) relative to other greenhouse gases.
well-mixed in the atmosphere, spreading around the world after they’re emitted.
removed from the atmosphere only when they are destroyed by sunlight in
the far upper atmosphere.
The most potent and longest lasting type of greenhouse gases emitted by human activities.
1. hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs),
2. perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and
3. sulfur hexafluoride (SF6).
Hydrofluorocarbons are used as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, solvents, and fire retardants. These chemicals were developed as a replacement for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydro chlorofluoro carbons (HCFCs) because
they do not deplete the stratospheric ozone layer.
Unfortunately, HFCs are potent greenhouse gases with long atmospheric lifetimes and high GWPs,
Perfluorocarbons are compounds produced as a by-product of various ,industrial processes associated with aluminum production and the manufacturing of semiconductors.
Like HFCs, PFCs generally have long atmospheric lifetimes and high. GWPs.
Sulfur hexafluoride is used in magnesium processing and semiconductor
manufacturing, as well as a tracer gas for leak detection. Sulfur hexafluoride is
used in electrical transmission equipment, induding circuit breakers.
commonly known as soot, is a form of particulate air pollutant, produced from incomplete combustion.
consists of pure carbon in several linked forms.
a solid particle or aerosol, (though not a gas) contributes to warming of the atmosphere.
biomass burning, cooking with solid fuels, diesel exhaust, etc
warms the Earth by absorbing heat in the atmosphere and by reducing albedo, (the ability to reflect sunlight) when deposited on snow and ice.
the strongest absorber of sunlight and heats the air directly.
it darkens snow packs and glaciers through deposition and leads to melting of ice and
disrupts cloudiness and monsoon rainfall and accelerates melting of mountain
glaciers such as the Hindu Kush-Himalayan glaciers
Project Surya has been launched to reduce black carbon in atmosphere by introducing
efficient stove technologies, solar cookers, solar lamps and biogas plants
a ubiquitous and unidentified component of organic aerosol which has recently come
into the forefront of atmospheric research.
Light-absorbing organic matter (other than soot) in atmospheric aerosols of various
origins, e.g., soil humics, humic-like substances (HLTLIS), tarry materials from
combustion, bio aerosols.
are factors in the climate system that either increase or decrease the effects to the
Positive forcings such as excess greenhouse gases warm the earth
negative forcings, such as the effects of most aerosols and volcanic eruptions,
actually cool the earth.
include changes in the amount of energy emitted by the Sun, very slow variations in
Earth’s orbit, and volcanic eruptions
Activities include greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions from burning fossil fuels and
modifications of the land surface, such as deforestation.
Greenhouse gases are a positive climate forcing; that is, they have a warming
Carbon dioxide emitted from the burning of fossil fuel is presently the largest single
climate forcing agent, accounting for more than half of the total positive forcing since
Burning fossil fuels adds aerosols to the atmosphere.
Aerosols are tiny particles in the atmosphere composed of many things, including
water, ice, ash, mineral dust, or acidic droplets.
Aerosols can deflect the Sun’s energy and impact the formation and lifetime of
clouds. Aerosols are a negative forcing; that is, they have a cooling effect.
Estimate the effect of each gas (three main factors)
1. How much of these gases are in the atmosphere
2. How long do they stay in the atmosphere
3. How strongly do they impact global temperatures
GLOBAL WARNING POTENTIAL
The Global Warming Potential (GWP) for a gas is a measure of the total energy that a
gas absorbs over a particular period of time (usually 100 years), compared to
Gases with a higher GWP absorb more energy, per pound, than gases with a lower
GWP, and thus contribute more to warming Earth.
Methane (CH4) has a GWP more than 20 times higher than CO2 for a 100-year time scale
Nitrous Oxide (N20) has a GWP 300 times that of CO2 for a 100-year timescale
Chloro fluoro carbons (CFCs), hydro fluoro carbons (HFCs), hydro chloro
fluoro carbons (HCFCs), perfluoro carbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride
(SF6) are called high-GWP.
GLOBAL EMISSIONS BY SOURCE
Energy Supply (26%)
Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (17%)
Waste and Wastewater (3%)
the rainfall that has been acidified.
formed when oxides of sulfur and nitrogen react with the moisture in the
rain with a pH of less than 5.6.
TYPES OF ACID DEPOSITION
Acid rain” is a broad term referring to a mixture of wet and dry deposition (form of deposition
material) from the atmosphere
Sources of compounds causing acid rain
1) Natural sources: – seas and oceans, volcanic eruptions,
Biological processes in the soil e.g.,
Decomposition of organic matter.
2) Man-made sources:
burning of coal (60% of S02) and
petroleum products (30% of S02), and
The smelting of metal sulfide ores to obtain the pure metals.
Industrial production of Sulfuric acid in metallurgical, chemical and
Natural sources: lightening, volcanic eruption, and Biological activity.
Anthropogenic sources: Forest fires Combustion of oil, coal, and gas
(c) Formic acid
Biomass burning due to forest fires causes emission of formic acid (HCOOH)
and formaldehyde (HCHO) into the atmosphere.
Large fraction formaldehyde gets photo – oxidation and forms formic acid in the
These are three main compounds that cause acidification of rain in the atmosphere
Chlorine, Phosphoric acid, Hydrochloric acid (smokestacks), Carbon monoxide and
carbon dioxide(automobiles). These become carbonic acid.
Lichgns serve as good bio-indicators for air pollution
Acid rain containing ions of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and hydrogen falls as wet
Impact Of Acid Rain
The exchange. between hydrogen ions and the nutrient cations like potassium and
magnesium in the soil cause leaching Of the nutrients, making soil infertile.
Increase in ammonia in the soil due to a decrease in other nutrients decrease the rate of
The impact of acid rain on soil is less India; because Indian soils are mostly
alkaline, with good buffering ability.
pH determines the proliferation of any microbial species in a particular environment and the rate at
which it can produce.
The optimum pH of most bacteria and protozoa is near neutrality; most fungi-prefer an acidic
most blue-green bacteria prefer ‘an alkaline environment.
after a long run of acid rain, microbial species in the soil and water shift from bacteria-bound to fungibound
cause an imbalance in the microflora.
causes a delay in the decomposition of soil organic material, and an increase in fungal disease in
aquatic life and forests.
Acid rain affects human health is a number of ways.
The obvious ones are bad smells, reduced visibility; irritation of the skin, eyes and the
Some direct effects include chronic bronchitis, pulmonary emphysema and cancer
Acid rain damage on Materials
Metals, stone, Paints , Paper, Photographic Micro material , Leather—by sulpher oxide
mainly and some other gas oxides .
Rubber- ozone gas
Textiles- nitrogen oxide
Ceramic and Surface glass- Acid gases, fluoride-containing
Trigger Effect of Acid Rain on Pollutants:
Methyl mercury and related short chain alkyl, mercurial compounds are most
dangerous to humans, as they accumulate in edible fish tissue.
Although acid deposition may not increase the production of methyl mercury, it
may increase the partitioning of methyl mercury into the water column.
The use of lime has helped in reducing the mercury levels in fish.
Acidified waters are known to leach substantial amounts of aluminum from
Even at relatively low levels, aluminum has been implicated in dialysis dementia, a
disorder of the central nervous system, which may be toxic to individuals with
impaired kidney function
Cadmium can enter the drinking water supply through corrosion of galvanized pipe or
from the copper-zinc through corrosion of galvanized piper or from the copper-zinc
solder used in the distribution systems.
A decrease in water pH from 6.5 to 4.5 can result in a fivefold increase in cadmium
and could cause renal tubular damage
Foetuses and infants are highly susceptible to drinking water lead contamination.
High blood lead levels in children (>30 mug/ Ml) are believed to induce biochemical and
However, lower than normal blood levels of lead can cause mental deficiencies and
the change in ocean chemistry – lowering of ocean pH (i.e. increase in
concentration of hydrogen ions) driven by the uptake of carbon compounds by the
ocean from the atmosphere.
As the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the ocean increases, the concentration of
hydrogen, ions in the ocean increases, the concentration of carbonate ions decreases, the pH of
the oceans decreases and the oceans become less alkaline — this process is know as ocean
The ocean currently has a pH around 8.0 and is therefore ‘basic’
Forms of calcium carbonate
1- Calcite is the mineral form found in the shells of planktonic algae, amoeboid protists, some
corals, echinoderms, and some molluscs (e.g. oysters); it is relatively less soluble.
2 – Aragonite is a more soluble form of calcium carbonate; it is found in most corals, most
mollusks (small planktonic snails), as well as some species Effect of ocean acidification
Seawater absorbs CO, to produce carbonic acid (H,CO3), bicarbonate (HCO3–)
and carbonate ions (Co2-).
These carbonate ions are essential to the calcification process that allows certain
marine organisms to build their calcium carbonate shells and skeletons.
increases in atmospheric CO2 levels lead to decrease in pH level, increase
in the concentration of carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions, causing a decrease in the
concentration of carbonate ions.
Thus carbonate ions are less available and calcification is therefore harder to achieve Saturation horizons
Deep, cold ocean waters are naturally under saturated with carbonate ions causing the shells of most calcifying organisms to dissolve.
Surface waters are oversaturated with carbonate ions and do not readily dissolve shells of calcifying organisms.
The saturation horizon is the level below which calcium carbonate minerals undergo dissolution
The saturation horizon of calcite occurs at a greater ocean depth than that for aragonite, but both horizons have moved closer to the surface presently when compared to the 1800s.
lysocline, the depth at which dissolution strongly increases in the deep ocean.
carbonate compensation depth(CCD), the depth at which all carbonate is dissolved
It is found in two different layers of the atmosphere.
Ozone in the troposphere is “bad” because it dirties the air and helps to form smog, which is not good to breathe.
Ozone in the stratosphere is “good” because it protects life on Earth by absorbing some of the sun’s harmful Ultra Violet (UV) rays
decrease in the concentration of ozone in a particular region of the atmosphere – ‘ozone hole’
The best example of such an ozone hole is theatmosphere over the Antarctic which has only about 50 percent of the ozone that originally occurred there.
1. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs):
CFCs molecules are made up of chlorine, fluorine and carbon.
They are used as refrigerants(66%) ; propellants in aerosol sprays, foaming agents in plastic manufacturing(30%) , fire extinguishing agents, solvents for cleaning electronic and metallic components, for freezing foods etc
CFCs has a wide and varied application due to its properties like non-corrosiveness,
non-inflammability, low toxicity and chemical stability, etc.
the residence time of CFCs in the atmosphere estimated to be between 40 and 150 years
The chemical reaction
CFCs + UV radiation = freeing chlorine atoms.
A free chlorine atom + ozone molecule to = chlorine monoxide (00).
chlorine monoxide + atom of oxygen.= (02) and reformation of the free chlorine atom
The element that destroys 03 (i.e chlorine) is being reformed at the end of cycle.
A single chlorine atom destroy thousands of ozone molecules before encountering reactive nitrogen or hydrogen compounds that eventually return chlorine to its reservoirs.
The chemical reaction- Nitric oxide (NO) catalytically destroys ozone.
Nitric oxide + ozone =Nitrogen dioxide + o2
Nitrogen dioxide + monoxide =Nitric oxide + Oxygen
containing compounds called halons and HBFCs, i.e. hydrobromo fluorocarbons [both used in fire extinguishers and methyl bromide (a widely used pesticide)].
Each bromine atom destroys hundred times of more ozone molecules than what a chlorine atom does.
Sulphuric acid particles:
These particles free chlorine from molecular reservoirs, and convert reactive nitrogen into inert forms thus preventing, the formation of chlorine reservoirs.
Role of polar stratospheric clouds in ozone depletion
The ice particles of the cloud provided substrates for chemical reactions which freed chlorine from its reservoirs.
the reaction between HC1 and C1ONO2 is very slow, but this reaction occurs at a faster rate in the presence of a suitable substrate which is provided by the stratospheric clouds at the poles.
The PSCs not only activate chlorine, but they also absorb reactive nitrogen.
If nitrogen, – oxides were present they would combine with chlorine monoxide to form a
reservoir of chlorine nitrate, (ClONO2).
Every spring, a hole as big as the USA develops in the ozone layer over Antarctica, in the South Pole.
A smaller hole develops each year over the Arctic, at the North Pole.
Why is the ozone hole predominant at the Antarctic?
The Antarctic stratosphere is much colder. The low temperature enables the formation of Polar stratospheric Clouds (PSCs), below 20 km
The vortex is a ring of rapidly circulating air that confines the ozone depletion in the Antarctic region.
The longetivity of the Antarctic vortex is another factor, enhancing favorable conditions
for the depletion of ozone.
The vortex remains, in fact, throughout the polar winter, well into midspring Whereasthe vortex in the Arctic disintegrates by the time the polar spring (March-April) arrives.
The ozone measurement instruments and techniques are varied. Some of them are the Dobson spectrophotometer and the filter ozonometer called M83, and total
ozone mapping pectrometer (TOMS) in the Nimbus-7 satellite.
The Umheher technique- The most common measure of total ozone
abundance is the Dobson unit (named afterthe pioneering atmospheric physical
Gordon Dobson) which is the thickness of the ozone column (compressed at
Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)) in milli-centimeters.
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECURITY
The Third Assessment Report of the IPCC, 2001 concluded that climate change would hit the poorest countries severely in terms of reducing the agricultural products
Crop yield would be reduced in most tropical and sub-tropical regions due to decreased water availability, and new or changed insect/pest incidence.
Impacts on Indian agriculture
Agriculture will be adversely affected not only by an increase or decrease in the overall amounts of rainfall but also by shifts in the timing of the rainfall.
Summer rainfall accounts for almost 70 per cent of the total annual rainfall over India and is crucial to Indian agriculture
Semi arid regions of western India are expected to receive higher than normal rainfall as temperatures soar, while central India will experience a decrease of between 10 and 20 per cent in winter rainfall by the 2050s
there would be a decline in the productivity of rabi as compared to kharif season crops
WATER STRESS AND WATER INSECURITY
By 2020, between 75 and 250 million people are projected to be exposed to increased water stress due
to climate change
By 2050s freshwater availability in Central, South, East and South-East Asia, particularly in large river basins, is projected to decrease.
Impacts on water situation in India
Available records suggest that the Gangotri glacier is retreating about 28 m per year
A serious environmental problem has also been witnessed in the Indo-Gangetic Plain Region (IGPR) in the past whereby different rivers (including Kosi, Ganga, Ghaghara, Son, Indus and its tributaries and Yamuna) changed their course a number of times.
available statistics on water demand shows that the agriculture sector is the largest consumer of water in India
Impacts on Coastal States in India
The coastal states of Maharashtra, Goa and Gujarat face a grave risk from the sea level rise,
which could flood land (including agricultural land) and cause damage to coastal infrastructure
and other property.
Goa will be the worst hit, losing a large percentage of its total land area, including many
of its famous beaches and tourist infrastructure
The states along the coasts like Orissa will experience worse cyclones. Many species living
along the coastline are also threatened.
The coral reefs that India has in its biosphere reserves are also saline sensitive and thus the rising sea level threatens their existence too, not only the coral reefs but the phytoplankton.
ECOSYSTEMS AND BIO-DIVERSITY
International World Wildlife Fund (WWF) asserted that one-fifth of the world’s most vulnerable natural areas may be facing a “catastrophic” loss of species
IMPACTS ON INDIA’S BIODIVERSITY
It is predicted that there will be an increase in the phenomenon of Glacial Lake: Outburst Floods (GLOFs) in the eastern and the central Himalayas, causing catastrophic flooding downstream, with serious damage.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND HEALTH
The warmer the climate the likelihood of its impact on human health becomes worse.
It is anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of deaths due to greater frequency and severity of heat waves and other extreme weather events.
The World Health Organization (WHO) in their studies have indicated that due to rising temperatures, malaria cases are now being .” reported for the first time from countries like Nepal and Bhutan.
The projections by WHO and IPCC suggest that the negative effects of climate change on health are greater
Carbon capture and storage, also known as CCS or carbon sequestration, describes the technologies designed to tackle global warming by capturing CO2 at power stations, industrial sites or even directly from the air
and permanently storing it underground.
Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon
‘carbon sinks’— an area that absorbs carbon.
• Natural sinks – Oceans, forests, soil etc.
• Artificial sinks – Depleted oil reserves, unmineable mines, etc
There are three main steps to carbon capture and storage (CCS) —
trapping and separating the CO2 from other gases,
transporting this captured CO2 to a storage location, and
storing that CO2 far away from the atmosphere (underground or deep in the ocean).
Ocean Sequestration: Carbon stored in oceans through direct injection or fertilization.
Geologic Sequestration: Natural pore spaces in geologic formations serve as reservoirs for long-term carbon dioxide storage.
Terrestrial Sequestration: A large amount of carbon is stored in soils and vegetation, which are our natural carbon sinks. Increasing carbon fixation through photosynthesis, slowing down or reducing decomposition of organic matter, and changing land use practices can enhance”• carbon uptake in these natural sinks.
Geologic Sequestration is thought to have the largest potential for near-term application
Carbon dioxide can be effectively stored in the earth’s subsurface by hydrodynamic trapping and solubility trapping – usually a combination of the two is most effective
Green carbon is carbon removed by photosynthesis and stored in the plants and soil of natural ecosystems and is a vital part of the global carbon cycle.
Blue Carbon refers to coastal, aquatic and marine carbon sinks held by the indicative vegetation, marine organism and sediments
These coastal ecosystems are very efficient at sequestering and storing carbon – each square mile of these systems can remove carbon from the atmosphere and oceans at rates higher than each square mile of mature tropical forests.
A carbon credit is a Tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit
one tonne of carbon or carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e).
An organisation which produces one tonne less of carbon or carbon dioxide equivalent
than the standard level of carbon emission allowed for its outfit or activity, earns a
Countries which are signatories to the Kyoto Protocol under the UNFCCC have laid down gas emission norms for their companies to be met by 2012. In such cases, a company has two ways to reduce emissions.
(i) It can reduce the GHG (greenhouse gases) by adopting new technology or improving upon the existing technology to attain the new norms for emission of gases.
(ii) It can tie up with developing nations and help them set up new technology that is
eco-friendly, thereby helping developing country or its companies ‘earn’ credits.
This credit becomes a permit for the company to emit GHGs in its own country.
However, only a portion of carbon credits of the company in developing country can be transferred to the company in developed country.
Carbon, like any other commodity, has begun to be traded on India’s Multi Commodity Exchange.
MCX has become first exchange in Asia to trade carbon credits.
are credits for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions made at another location, such as wind farms which create renewable energy and reduce the need for fossil-fuel powered energy.
are quantified and sold in metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e)
the fastest way to achieve the deepest reductions within businesses and it also often delivers added benefits at the project site, such as employment opportunities, community development programmes and training and education.
For a Carbon offset to be credible it must meet essential quality criteria, including proof that it
is additional (the reduction in emissions would not have occurred without the carbon finance), that it will be retired from the carbon market so it cannot be double counted, and
it addresses issues such as permanence (it delivers the reductions it stated) and leakage (the emission reduction in one area doesn’t cause an increase in emissions somewhere else)
the potential alternative to the ‘cap and trade’ method currently used by the protocol.
The aim of this tax is to cause less fossil fuel use and hopefully cause an incentive to use other sources of energy.
India’s Position on carbon tax:
India will bring a WTO challenge against any “carbon taxes” that rich countries impose on Indian imports.
Geo-engineering primarily aims at modifying and cooling Earth’s environment, defeating the environmental damage and ensuing climate changes to make the planet more inhabitable.
Geo engineering, at this point, is still only a theoretical Concept
Hydrogen sulfide is an even better candidate for atmospheric seeding than sulfur dioxide.
Effects of National Emergency :
A proclamation of Emergency has drastic and wide ranging effects on the political system. These
consequences can be grouped into three categories:
1. Effect on the Centre–state relations,
2. Effect on the life of the Lok Sabha and State assembly, and
3. Effect on the Fundamental Rights.
4. Effect on the Centre–state Relations While a proclamation of Emergency is in force, the normal fabric
of the Centre–state relations undergoes a basic change. This can be studied under three heads, namely,
executive, legislative and financial.
During a national emergency, the executive power of the Centre extends to directing any state
regarding the manner in which its executive power is to be exercised.
In normal times, the Centre can give executive directions to a state only on certain specified
However, during a national emergency, the Centre becomes entitled to give executive directions to a
state on‗any‘ matter.
Thus, the state governments are brought under the complete control of the Centre, though they are
During a national emergency, the Parliament becomes empowered to make laws on any subject
mentioned in the State List.
Although the legislative power of a state legislature is not suspended, it becomes subject to the
overriding power of the Parliament.
Thus, the normal distribution of the legislative powers between the Centre and states is suspended,
though the states Legislatures are not suspended.
In brief, the Constitution becomes unitary rather than federal.
The laws made by Parliament on the state subjects during a National Emergency become inoperative six
months after the emergency has ceased to operate.
Notably, while a proclamation of national emergency is in operation, the President can issue
ordinances on the state subjects also, if the Parliament is not insession.
Further, the Parliament can confer powers and impose duties upon the Centre or its officers and
authorities in respect of matters outside the Union List, in order to carry out the laws made by it under
its extended jurisdiction as a result of the proclamation of a NationalEmergency.
The 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 provided that the two consequences mentioned above (executive
and legislative) extends not only to a state where the Emergency is in operation but also to any other
While a proclamation of national emergency is in operation, the President can modify the
constitutional distribution of revenues between the centre and the states.
The president can either reduce or cancel the transfer of finances from Centre to the states.
Such modification continues till the end of the financial year in which the Emergency ceases to
Every such order of the President has to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament.
Effect on the Life of the Lok Sabha and State Assembly
While a proclamation of National Emergency is in operation, the life of the Lok Sabha may be
extended beyond its normal term (five years) by a law of Parliament for one year at a time (for any
length of time).
However, this extension cannot continue beyond a period of six months after the emergency has ceased
For example, the term of the Fifth Lok Sabha (1971–1977) was extended two times by one year at a
Similarly, the Parliament may extend the normal tenure of a state legislative assembly (five years) by
one year each time (for any length of time) during a national emergency, subject to a maximum period
of six months after the Emergency has ceased to operate.
Effect on the Fundamental Rights
Articles 358 and 359 describe the effect of a National Emergency on the Fundamental Rights.
Article 358 deals with the suspension of the Fundamental Rights guaranteed by Article 19, while
Article 359 deals with the suspension of other Fundamental Rights (except those guaranteed by
Articles 20 and 21). These two provisions are explained below:
(a) Suspension of Fundamental Rights under Article 19
According to Article 358, when a proclamation of national emergency is made, the six Fundamental
Rights under Article 19 are automatically suspended.
No separate order for their suspension is required.
While a proclamation of national emergency is in operation, the state is freed from the restrictions
imposed by Article 19.
In other words, the state can make any law or can take any executive action abridging or taking away
the six Fundamental Rights guaranteed by Article 19.
Any such law or executive action cannot be challenged on the ground that they are inconsistent with the
six Fundamental Rights guaranteed by Article 19.
When the National Emergency ceases to operate, Article 19 automatically revives and comes into
Any law made during Emergency, to the extentof inconsistency with Article 19, ceases to have effect.
However, no remedy lies for anything done during the Emergency even after the Emergency expires.
This means that the legislative and executive actions taken during the emergency cannot be challenged
even after the Emergency ceases to operate.
The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 restricted the scope of Article 358 in two ways.
Firstly, the six Fundamental Rights under Article 19 can be suspended only when the National
Emergency is declared on the ground of war or external aggression and not on the ground of armed
Secondly, only those laws which are related with the Emergency are protected from being challenged
and not other laws.
Also, the executive action taken only under such a law is protected.
(b) Suspension of other Fundamental Rights
Article 359 authorises the presi-dent to suspend the right to move any court for the enforcement of
Fundamental Rights during a National Emergency.
This means that under Article 359, the Fundamental Rights as such are not suspended, but only their
The said rights are theoretically alive but the right to seek remedy is suspended.
The suspension of enforcement relates to only those Fundamental Rights that are specified in the
Further, the suspension could be for the period during the operation of emergency or for a shorter
period as mentioned in the order, and the suspension order may extend to the whole or any part of the
It should be laid before each House of Parliament forapproval.
While a Presidential Order is in force, the State can make any law or can take any executive
action abridging or taking away the specified Fundamental Rights.
Any such law or executive action cannot be challenged on the ground that they are inconsistent with
the specified Fundamental Rights.
When the Order ceases to operate, any law so made, to the extent of inconsistency with the specified
Fundamental Rights, ceases to have effect.
But no remedy lies for anything done during the operation of the order even after the order ceases to
This means that the legislative and executive actions taken during the operation of the Order cannot be
challenged even after the Order expires.
The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 restricted the scope of Article 359 in two ways.
Firstly, the President cannot suspend the right to move the Court for the enforcement of fundamental
rights guaranteed by Articles 20 to 21.
In other words, the right to protection in respect of conviction for offences (Article 20) and the
right to life and personal liberty (Article 21) remain enforceable even during emergency.
Secondly, only those laws which are related with the emergency are protected from being challenged
and not other laws and the executive action taken only under such a law, is protected.
Distinction between Articles 358 and 359
The differences between Articles 358 and 359 can be summarised as follows:
1. Article 358 is confined to Fundamental Rights under Article 19 only whereas Article 359 extends to
all those Fundamental Rights whose enforcement is suspended by the Presidential Order.
2. Article 358 automatically suspends the fundamental rights under Article 19 as soon as the emergency
is declared. On the other hand, Article 359 does not automatically suspend any Fundamental Right. It
only empowers the president to suspend the enforcement of the specified Fundamental Rights.
3. Article 358 operates only in case of Ex-ternal Emergency (that is, when the emergency is declared
on the grounds of war or external aggression) and not in the case of Internal Emergency (ie, when the
Emergency is declared on the ground of armed rebellion). Article 359, on the other hand, operates
in case of both External Emergency as well as Internal Emergency.
4. Article 358 suspends Fundamental Rights under Article 19 for the entire duration of Emergency
while Article 359 suspends the enforcement of Fundamental Rights for a period specified by the
president which may either be the entire duration of Emergency or a shorter period.
5. Article 358 extends to the entire country whereas Article 359 may extend to the entire country or a
part of it.
6. Article 358 suspends Article 19 completely while Article 359 does not empower the suspension of
the enforcement of Articles 20 and21.
7. Article 358 enables the State to make any law or take any executive action inconsistent with
Fundamental Rights under Article 19 while Article 359 enables the State to make any law or take
any executive action inconsistent with those Fundamental Rights whose enforcement is suspended by
the Presidential Order.
Grounds of Imposition
Article 355 imposes a duty on the Centre to ensure that the government of every state is carried on in
accordance with the provisions of the Constitution.
It is this duty in the performance of which the Centre takes over the government of a state under
Article 356 in case of failure of constitutional machinery in state.
This is popularly known as ‗President‘s Rule‘. It is also known as ‗State Emergency‘ or ‗Constitutional Emergency‘.
The President‘s Rule can be proclaimed un-der Article 356 on two grounds—one mentioned in Article 356 itself and another in Article 365:
1. Article 356 empowers the President to issue a proclamation, if he is satisfied that a situation has
arisen in which the government of a state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of
the Constitution. Notably, the president can act either on a report of the governor of the state or
otherwise too (i.e. even without the governor‘s report).
2. Article 365 says that whenever a state fails to comply with or to give effect to any direction from
the Centre, it will be lawful for the president to hold that a situation has arisen in which the
government of the state cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions ofthe Constitution.
Parliamentary Approval and Duration
A proclamation imposing President‘s Rule must be approved by both the Houses of Parliament within
two months from the date of its issue.
However, if the proclamation of President‘s Rule is issued at a time when the Lok Sabha has been
dissolved or the dissolution of the Lok Sabha takes place during the period of two months without
approving the proclamation, then the proclamation survives until 30 days from the first sitting of the
Lok Sabha after its reconstitution, provided the Rajya Sabha approves it in the meantime.
If approved by both the Houses of Parliament, the President‘s Rule continues for six months.
It can be extended for a maximum period of three years with the approval of the Parliament,
every six months.
However, if the dissolution of the Lok Sabha takes place during the period of six months without
approving the further continuation of the President‘s Rule, then the proclamation survives until 30
days from the first sitting of the Lok Sabha after its reconstitution, provided the Rajya Sabha has in
the meantime approved its continuance.
Every resolution approving the proclamation of President‘s Rule or its continuation can be passed by
either House of Parliament only by a simple majority, that is, a majority of the members of that House
present and voting.
The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 introduced a new provision to put restraint on the power of
Parliament to extend a proclamation of President‘s Rule beyond one year.
Thus, it provided that, beyond one year, the President‘s Rule can be extended by six months at a time
only when the following two conditions are fulfilled:
1. a proclamation of National Emergency should be in operation in the whole of India, or in the
whole or any part of the state; and
2. The Election Commission must certify that the general elections to the legislative assembly of the
concerned state cannot be held on account of difficulties.
A proclamation of President‘s Rule may be revoked by the President at any time by a subsequent
proclamation. Such a proclamation does not require the parliamentary approval.
Cconsequences of President’s Rule
The President acquires the following extraordinary powers when the President‘s Rule is imposed in a state:
1. He can take up the functions of the state government and powers vested in the governor or any other executive authority in the state.
2. He can declare that the powers of the state legislature are to be exercised by the Parliament.
3. He can take all other necessary steps including the suspension of the constitutional provisions
relating to anybody or authority in the state.
When the President‘s Rule is imposed in a state, the President dismisses the state council of ministers
headed by the chief minister.
The state governor, on behalf of the President, carries on the state administration with the help of the
chief secretary of the state or the advisors appointed by the President. This is the reason why a
proclamation under Article 356 is popularly known as the imposition of ‗President‘s Rule‘ in a state.
Further, the President either suspends or dissolves the state legislative assembly.
The Parliament passes the state legislative bills and the state budget.
When the state legislature is thus suspended or dissolved:
1. the Parliament can delegate the power to make laws for the state to the President or to any other
authority specified by him in this regard,
2. the Parliament or in case of delegation, the President or any other specified authority can make laws
conferring powers and imposing duties on the Centre or its officers and authorities,
3. the President can authorise, when the Lok Sabha is not in session, expenditure from the state
consolidated fund pending its sanction by the Parliament, and the President can promulgate, when
the Parliament is not in session, ordinances for the governance of the state.
Grounds of Declaration
Article 360 empowers the president to proclaim a Financial Emergency if he is satisfied that a
situation has arisen due to which the financial stability or credit of India or any part of its territory is
The 38th Amendment Act of 1975 made the satisfaction of the president in declaring a Financial
Emergency final and conclusive and not questionable in any court on any ground.
But, this provision was subsequently deleted by the 44th Amendment Act of 1978 implying that the
satisfaction of the president is not beyond judicial review.
Parliamentary Approval and Duration
A proclamation declaring financial emergency must be approved by both the Houses of Parliament
within two months from the date of its issue.
However, if the proclamation of Financial Emergency is issued at a time when the Lok Sabha has
been dissolved or the dissolution of the Lok Sabha takes place during the period of two months
without approving the proclamation, then the proclamation survives until 30 days from the first sitting
of the Lok Sabha after its reconstitution, provided the Rajya Sabha has in the meantime approved it.
Once approved by both the Houses of Parliament, the Financial Emergency continues indefinitely till
it is revoked. This implies two things:
1. there is no maximum period prescribed for its operation; and
2. repeated parliamentary approval is not required for its continuation.
A resolution approving the proclamation of financial emergency can be passed by either House of
Parliament only by a simple majority, that is, a majority of the members of that house present
A proclamation of Financial Emergency may be revoked by the president at any time by a
subsequent proclamation. Such a proclamation does not require the parliamentary approval.
Effects of Financial Emergency
The consequences of the proclamation of a Financial Emergency are as follows:
1. The executive authority of the Centre extends (a) to directing any state to observe such canons of
financial propriety as are specified by it; and (b) to directions as the President may deem
necessary and adequate for the purpose.
2. Any such direction may include a provision requiring (a) the reduction of salaries and allowances
of all or any class of persons serving in the state; and (b) the reservation of all money bills or
other financial bills for the consideration of the President after they are passed by the legislature of
3. The President may issue directions for the reduction of salaries and allowances of (a) all or any
class of persons serving the Union; and (b) the judges of the Supreme Court and the high court.
During the operation of a financial emergency, the Centre acquires full control over the states in
No Financial Emergency has been declared so far, though there was a financial crisis in 1991.
The term panchayat raj in India signifies the system of rural local self government. It is created in
all states in India by the acts of concerned state legislature to establish democracy at grass root
It is entrusted with duties and the responsibility in the field of rural development. It was
constitutionalized through 73rd amendment act of 1992.
At the central level, the ministry of rural development looks after the matters relating to the
panchayati raj bodies.
Local government is a subject of the state list
The fifth entry of the state list in the seventh schedule of the constitution of India deals with
the local government.
Balwant Rai Mehta Committee
1. In January 1957, the government of India appointed a committee to examine the functioning of the
community development programme (1952) and the national extension service (1953) and to suggest
measures for their better performance.
2. The committee submitted its report in November 1957 and recommended the establishment of the
scheme for democratic decentralization which ultimately came to be known as the Panchayat Raj.
The specific recommendations made by Balwant Rai Mehta committee are
1. Establishment of a three tier panchayati raj system which includes Zila Parishad at the District
level, Panchayati Samiti at the block level and Gram Panchayat at the village level.
2. These tires should be organically linked together through a device of indirect elections.
3. The village panchayat should be constituted with directly elected representatives, whereas the
Panchayat Samiti and the Zila Parishad should be constituted with indirectly elected members.
4. All the planning and developmental activities should be entrusted to these bodies.
5. The panchayat Samiti should be the executive body while the Zila Parishad should be the advisory,
coordinating and supervisory body.
6. The district collector should be the chairman of the Zila Parishad.
7. There should be a genuine transfer of power and responsibility to these democratic bodies.
8. Adequate resources should be transferred to these bodies to enable them to discharge their
functions and fulfil their responsibilities.
9. A system should be evolved to effect further devolution of authority in future.
10. These recommendations were accepted by the National Development Council in January, 1958.
11. The council did not insist on a single rigid pattern and left it to the states to evolve their own
patterns suitable to the local conditions.
12. But the basic principles and the broad fundamentals should be identical throughout the
13. Rajasthan was the first state to establish the institution of panchayati raj.
14. The scheme was inaugurated by the then prime minister Pt Jawahar Lal Nehru on October 2, 1959
in Nagaur District.
15. Rajasthan was followed by Andhra Pradesh which also adopted the system in 1959.
16. Rajasthan adopted a three – tier system.
Ashok Mehta Committee
1. In December 1977, the Janta Government appointed a committee on panchayat raj institutions
under the chairmanship of Ashok Mehta.
2. It submitted its report in August 1978 and made 132 recommendations to revive and strengthen the
declining panchayati raj system in the country.
73RD AMENDMENT ACT OF 1992
This act corresponds to part IX of constitution of India.
It is entitled as the panchayats and consists provision of Articles – 243 to 243 – Q.
The act has also added the eleventh schedule to the constitution of India.
It contains 29 functional items of the panchayats and deals with Article 243 – G.
The act has given a practical shape to article 40 of the constitution.
The act gives a constitutional status to the panchayat raj institutions.
The state governments are under the constitutional obligation to adopt the new panchayati raj
system in accordance with the provision of the act.
Neither the formation of the panchayats nor the holding of elections at regular intervals depends
on the will of the state government.
The provisions of the act can be grouped into two categories – compulsory and voluntary.
The compulsory provisions on the other hand, may be included at the discretion of the states.
It transforms the representative democracy into the participatory democracy.
State finance commission
1. The governor of a state shall, after every five years, constitute a finance commission to review the
financial position of the panchayats.
The act does not apply the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram and
certain other areas
A-243. in this part, unless the context otherwise requires:-
District means a district in state
Gram Sabha means a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls relating to a village
comprised within the area of panchayat at the village level;
Intermediate level means a level between the village and district levels specified by the governor of a
state by public notification to be the intermediate level for the purpose of this part
Panchayat means an institution (by weather name called) of self – government constituted under
article 243B, for the rural areas.
243A. Gram Sabha
243B. Constitution of panchayats
243C. Composition of Panchayats
243D. Reservation of seats
243E. Duration of panchayats etc.
243F. Disqualifications for membership
243G. Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats
243H. Powers to impose taxes by and funds of the panchayat
243I Constitution of finance commission to review financial position
243J Audit of accounts of Panchayats
243K Elections to the Panchayats
243L Application to union territories
243M Part not to apply to certain areas
1. Nothing in this part shall apply to the scheduled areas referred to in clause (1), and the tribal areas
referred to in clause (2), of article 244.
2. Nothing in this part shall apply to
a) The states of Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram:
b) The hill areas in the state of Manipur
243N Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats
243O Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters