Environment: (Day-9 Indian Polity is posted separately)
a broad term encompassing all aspects of crop production, livestock farming, fisheries,
accounts for about 14.7% of the total export earnings and provide raw material to
a large number of Industries.
Problems of Indian agriculture
Fragmentation of land holding.
Existence of small and marginal farmers
Dependence of seasonal rainfall.
Low productivity of land.
Increasing of disguised unemployment
Disorder in marketing of Agricultural products.
Weak land reformation.
|Revolution Related with|
| Green Food grain Production|
| Golden Fruit Production|
| Grey Fertilizer Production|
| Blue Fish Production|
| Black Petroleum Production|
| Pink Prawn Production|
| Round Potato Production|
| Red Meat/Tomato Production|
| Silver Egg/Poultry Production|
| White Milk Production|
| Yellow Oil seeds Production|
CROP AND ITS CLASSIFICATIONS:
Classification based on climate –
1. Tropical: Crops grow well in warm & hot climate. E.g. Rice, sugarcane, Jowar etc
2. Temperate: Crops grow well in COO1 climate. E.g. Wheat, Oats, Gram, Potato etc.
Classification Based on-growing-season:
1. Kharif/Rainy/Monsoon crops:
crops grown in monsoon months from June to Oct-Nov,
require warm, wet, weather at major period of crop growth,
also required short day length for flowering.
E.g. Cotton, Rice, Jowar, bajara.
2. Rabi/winter/cold seasons crops:
The crops grown in winter season from Oct to March month.
Crops grow well in cold and dry weather.
Require longer day length for flowering.
E.g. Wheat, gram, sunflower etc.
3. Summer/Zaid crops:
crops grown in summer month from March to June.
Require warm dry weather for major growth period and longer day length for flowering.
E.g. Groundnuts, Watermelon, Pumpkins, Gourds.
Agronomic Classification of Crops :
cultivated grasses grown for their edible starchy grains.
Larger grains used as staple food are cereals Rice, wheat, maize, barley and oats.
The important cereal of world RICE.
annual grasses of the group cereals. But they are grown in less area or less important area whose
productivity and economics are also less important.
staple food of poor people. In India pearl millet is a staple food in Rajasthan
It is based on area production and productivity and grain size.
Major millets- Sorghum /Jowar/Cholam, Pearl Millet /Bajra/cumbu, Finger millet or ragi
Minor millets- Fox tail millet / Thenai, Little millet / Samai, Common millet /Panivaraugu,
Barnyard millet /Kudiraivali, Kodomillet / Varagu
Juice extracted from stem used for jiggery or sugar
Number of by products like Molasses, bagasse, pressmud
Molasses used for alcohol and yeast formation
Bagasse for paper making and fuel
Pressmud used for soil amendment
Trash (green leaf + dry foliage) — the waste is used for cattle feed
Sugar beet =Tuber for extraction of sugar
Starch Crops or Tuber Crops
1. Potato 2. Tapioca or cassava 3. Sweet potato
Epidermal hairs of seed coats is the economic portion
Lint (cappas — seed) has industrial value (fibre)
Stalk is of fuel nature, garment purpose Seed for cattle feed, Oil is edible
Gassypium arboreum (Karunganni)
G. herbaceuth (uppam cotton)
G. hirsutirm (American cotton or Cambodium cotton)
G. barbadense (Egyptian cotton or Sea island cotton)
Jute (channal), Mesta (pulicha keerai) , Sun hemp, SiSal hemp
Spices and Condiments
Products of crop plants are used to flavour taste and sometime color the fresh preserved
E.g. ginger,garlic,chili, cumin onion; coriander, cardamom, pepper, turmeric etc.
Medicinal & aromatic crops: Medicinal plants includes cinchona, isabgali, opium
poppy, senna, belladonna, rauwolfra, iycorice and
Aromatic plants such as lemon grass, citronella grass, palmorsa, Japanese mint,
peppermint, rose, jasmine, henna etc.
Classification based on No. of cotyledons:
1. Monocots or monocotyledons: Having one cotyledon in the seed. E.g. all cereals & Millets.
2. Dicots or dicotyledonous: Crops having two cotyledons in the seed. E.g. all legumes & pulses
and almost all the trees.
Classification based on length of photoperiod required for floral initiation:
Most plants are influenced by relative length of the day & night, especially for floral
initiation, the effect on plant is known as photoperiodism depending on the length of photoperiod required
for floral ignition, plants are classified as
Short-day plants: Flower initiation takes place when days are short less then ten hours.
E.g rice, Jowar, green gram, black gram etc.
2 Long day’s plants: require long days are more than ten hours for floral initiation. E.g.
Wheat, Barley, etc.
Day neutral plants: Photoperiod does not have much influence for phase change for
these plants. E.g. Cotton, sunflower, etc.
1. Zero tillage (No tillage)::In this, new crop is planted in the residues of the previous
crop without any prior soil tillage or seed bed preparation and it is-possible when all
the weeds are controlled by. the use of herbicides.
Advantages of Zero –tillage:
1. Zero tilled soils are homogenous in structure with more number of earthworms
2. Organic matter content increases due to less mineralization
3. Surface runoff is reduced due to presence of mulch
1. Higher amount of nitrogen has to be applied for mineralization of orgartie-matter in zero
2. Perennial weeds may be a problem
3. High number of volunteer plants and build-up of pests
Number of crops cultivated in a piece of land per annum is cropping intensity.
In Punjab and Tamilnadu the cropping intensity is more than 100 percent i.e. around 140-
145%. In Rajasthan the cropping intensity is less
The yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops and fallow on a given area is
called cropping pattern
Multiple cropping system:
Growing more than two crops in a Piece of land in a year in orderly succession.
also called as intensive cropping.
used to intensify the production. It is possible only When assured resources are available (land,
labour, capital and water).
Repetitive growing of the same sole crop in the same land.
Continuous production of one and the same crop year after year or season season is called mono
One crop variety grown alone in a pure stand at normal density
Growing the succeeding crop when previous crop attend its maturity stage-or-sowing of
the next crop immediately before the harvest of the standing crops. E.g.Paddy-Lucerne, RiceCauliflower-Onion-summer gourds.
Growing two or more crops simultaneously with distinct row arrangement on the same field at
the same time.
primary crop which is planted/ sown at its optimum sole crop population in an
This is a second crop planted in between rows of base crop with a view to obtain extra yields
,with intercrop without compromise in the main crop yields.
Ex: Maize + Cowpea; Sorghum + Red gram; Groundnut + Red gram; Potato + Mustard
;Wheat + Mustard
Yields of both crops are higher than of their pure crops on unit area basis
Ex: Sugarcane + Potato Multi
Growing of two Or more crops’ simultaneously intermingled without row arrangement is
known as mixed-cropping
It is a common practice in most of dryland tracts in India
Seeds of different crops are mixed in certain proportion and are sown
Ex: Sorghum, Bajra and cowpea are mixed and broadcasted in rainfed conditions (with
low rainfall situations) to avoid complete crop failures and with ascertaining the minimum
is the practice of crop production entirely depending upon rainfall and the moisture
conserved in the soil.
This is practiced in areas where annual rainfall is less than 750mm. The crops may face moisture
stress frequently due to erratic distribution or failure of monsoon
Rain fed farming
Crop production in areas where rainfall is more than 750mm (i.e assured rainfall areas).
Here moisture stress will be minimum. Soil conservation is given more importance.
ELEMENTS REQUIRED IN PLANT GROWTH:
1. Macro nutrients: Based on the relative abundance in plants, viz.,
Nitrogen (N); Phosphorous (P), Potassium (K), Sulfur (S), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium
Their concentration is very small. They are also referred to as minor elements.
Iron (Fe); Zinc (Zn); Manganese (Mg),Copper (Cu),Boron (B), Chlorine (Cl) and
Molybdenum (Mo) .In some plants, other than the above, Sodium (Na), Cobalt (Co),
Vanadium (Va), Nickel (Ni) and Silicon (Si) are considered as essential micronutrients
N is an essential constituent of proteins and is present in many other compounds of
greatly physiological importance in plant metabolism
N is an integral part of chlorophyll, which is primary observer of light energy needed
N also imparts vigorous vegetative growth and dark green colour to plants.
is an essential part of the enzymes which help the crop to fix light energy.
It forms an integral part of nucleic acids, the carriers of genetic information, and is
important in stimulating root growth
is involved in processeswhich ensure carbon assimilation and the transportation of
photosynthates throughout the plant for growth and the storage of sugars and
The potassium ion is also important for water regulation and uptake.
Furthermore, the presence of potassium in sufficient amounts ensures resistance to
frost, drought and certain diseases
occurs in chlorophyll and is also an activator of enzymes,
forms part of two essential amino adds which are among the many building blocks
of protein. It is also found in vitamin B1 and in several important enzymes.
is required for plant growth, cell division and enlargement.
The growth of root and shoot tips and storage organs is also
Concentrated organic manures
There are many varieties of oil cakes which contains not only nitrogen but also some P
and K along with large percentage of organic matter. These oil cakes are of two types.
i. Edible oil cakes- suitable for feeding cattle.
ii. Non-edible oil cakes-not suitable for feeding cattle.
Oil cakes are quick acting organic manure. Though they are insoluble in water, their
nitrogen became quickly available to plants in about a week or in 10 days after
Integrated Nutrient Management (INM)
Judicious combination of organic, inorganic and biofertilizers which replenishes
the soil nutrients which are removed by the crops is referred as Integrated Nutrient Management system
Genetically modified crops (GM crops, orbiotech crops)
are plants, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering
techniques, which are then used in agriculture.
A watershed is an area of land and water bounded by a drainage divide within
which the surface runoff collects and flows out of the watershed through a single
outlet into a lager river (or) lake.
The vertical section of the soil showing the various layers from the surface to the
unaffected parent material is known as a soil profile. The various layers are known
There are 5 master horizons in the soil profile. Not all soil profiles contain all 5
horizons; and so, soil profiles differ from one location to another.
A type of soil texture with good water holding capacity and drainage suitable for
cultivation of variety of crops.
The arrangement and organization of primary and secondary particles in a soil mass is known as
Acid soils are characteristically low in pH ( < 6.0). Predominance of H + and Al3+ cause
acidity resulting in deficiency of P, K, Ca, Mg, Mo and B.
The term laterite is derived from the word later meaning brick or tile and was originally
applied to a group of high clay Indian soils found in Malabar hills of Kerala, Tamil Nadu,
Karnataka and Maharashtra.
Laterization is the process that removes silica, instead of sesquioxides from the
upper layers and thereby leaving sesquioxides to concentrate in the solum
System of Rice Intensification (SRI)-
Emerged in the 1980’s as a synthesis of locally advantageous rice production- practices
encountered in Madagascar by Fr Henri de Laulanie
A combination of several practices those include changes in nursery management, time of
transplanting, water and weed management.
It emphasizes altering of certain agronomic practices of the conventional way of rice
cultivation. All these new practices are together known as System of Rice Intensification (SRI).
Principle – ‘More with Less’
SRI is not a fixed package of technical specifications, but a system of
production with four main components, viz., soil fertility management, planting
method, weed control and water (irrigation) management.
Rice yield increased with less water and with reduction in chemical inputs
Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI)
an innovative set of agronomic practices that involves using less seeds, raising seeds in
a nursery, and following new planting methods, with wider seed spacing, and better water
and nutrient management to increase the cane yields significantly.
SSI methods can increase sugarcane yields by at least 20% with 30% less water and a
25% reduction in chemical inputs.
The SSI method of sugarcane cultivation was evolved from the principles of ‘More with Less’
followed in SRI (System of Rice Intensification) and introduced in India by the WWF-ICRISAT
collaborative project in 2009.
ACT AND POLICIES
On 5th June 1972, environment was first discussed as an item of international agenda
in the U.N. Conference of Human. There for 5th June is celebrated all over the world as World
The Wildlife (Protection) Act was passed in 1972, followed by the Water (Prevention and
Control of Pollution) Act 1974, the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980, Air (Prevention and Control
of Pollution) Act, 1981 and subsequently the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
though the 42nd amendment
Article-48-A of the constitution provides:
“The state shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard
forest and wildlife of the country
Article 51-A (g) Provides:
It shall be duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment
including forests, lakes, rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures.
The Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972
Provides the basic framework to ensure the protection and management of wildlife.
has 7 Chapters, 66 Sections and 6 Schedules. The Act with its various amendments
provides the necessary tool to prevent damage to the wildlife.
With the amendment of the Act in 1991, powers of the State Governments have been
withdrawn almost totally.
Now the State Governments are not empowered to declare any wild animal a vermin.
Further by addition of provision, immunization of livestock within a radius of 5 km from
a National Park or sanctuary has been made compulsory
ENVIRONMENT (PROTECTION) ACT, 1986
a more effective and bold measure to fight the problem of pollution.
The genesis of the Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986, is in Article 48A (Directive
Principles of State Policy) and Article 51A (g) (Fundamental Duties) of the Indian
The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 has 26 Sections and it has been divided into
four chapters relating to i) Preliminary, ii) General Powers of the Central Government,
iii) Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Environmental Pollution, iv) Miscellaneous.
The minimum penalty for contravention or violation of any provision of the law is an
imprisonment for a term which may extend to five years or fine up to one lakh rupees, or
The Act prescribes a special procedure for handling hazardous substances.
Act, 1986 has relaxed the rule of “Locus Standi” and because of such relaxation even a
common citizen can approach the Court provided he has given a notice of sixty days of
the alleged offence and his intention to make a complaint
NATIONAL FOREST POLICY-1988
The principal aim is to ensure environmental stability and maintenance of ecological
balance including atmospheric equilibrium which are vital for sustenance of all life
forms, human, animal and plant.
Conserving the natural heritage of the country by preserving the remaining natural
forests with the vast variety of flora and fauna, which represent the remarkable biological
diversity and genetic resources of the country.
Checking soil erosion and denudation in the catchments areas of rivers, lakes, reservoirs
Checking the extension of sand-dunes in the desert areas of Rajasthan and along the
Increasing substantially the forest/tree cover in the country and Increasing the productivity
of forests to meet essential national needs
Creating a massive people’s movement with, the involvement of women, for achieving
these objectives and to minimise pressure on existing forests
BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ACT, 2002
It was born out of India’s attempt to realize the objectives enshrined in the United
Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 1992
An Act to provide for conservation of biological diversity, sustainable use of its
components and fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the use of
biological resources, knowledge and for matters connected therewith or incidental
three-tier structure to regulate access to the biological resources, comprising of National
Biodiversity Authority (NBA), State Biodiversity Boards (SBB) and Biodiversity
Management Committees (BMC) at the local level
THE SCHEDULED “TRIBES AND OTHER TRADITIONAL FOREST DWELLERS (RECOGNITION OF
FOREST RIGHTS) ACT, 2006
provides for the restitution of deprived forest rights across India, including both individual rights to
cultivated land in forestland and community rights over common property resources.
The Act is significant as it provides scope and historic opportunity of integrating conservation and
livelihood rights of the people.
FRA is a potential tool
I. To empower and strengthen the local self governance
II. To address the livelihood security of the people
III To address the issues of Conservation and management of the Natural Resources and
conservation governance of India.
Nodal Agency for the implementation is MoTA
The maximum limit of the recognizing rights on forest land is 4 ha.
National Parks and Sanctuaries have been included along with Reserve Forest, Protected
Forests for the recognition of Rights.
The Act recognizes the right of ownership access to collect, use, and dispose of minor forest produce
which has been traditionally collected within or outside village boundaries.
term “minor forest produce” to include all non-timber forest produce of plant origin,
including bamboo, brush wood, stumps, cane, tussar, cocoons, honey, wax, lac, tendu or kendu
leaves, medicinal plants and herbs, roots, tubers and the like.
diversion of forest land for the purpose of schools, hospitals, anganwadis, drinking water
supply and water pipelines, roads, electric and telecommunication lines, etc.
The rights conferred under the Act shall be heritable but not alienable or transferable
Gram Sabha has been designated as the competent authority
COASTAL REGULATION ZONE (CRZ)
The coastal stretches of seas, bays, estuaries, creeks, rivers and back waters which are influenced by tidal
action up to 500 meters from the High Tide Line (HTL) and the land between the Low Tide Line
(LTL) and the HTL are declared “Coastal Regulation Zone” (CRZ), on 19.2.1991.
National Coastal Zone Management Authority (NCZMA) and State Coastal Zone Management Authority
(SCZIVIA) for enforcement and monitoring of the CRZ Notification.
Classification Criteria and Regulatory Norms:
The coastal regulation zone has been classified for the purpose of regulation of the permitted activities.
Ecological sensitive area and the area between High Tide Line (HTL) and Low Tide Line (LTL).
No new construction is permitted except for a few specified most essential activities like support
activities for Atomic Energy Plants and Defense requirements, facilities required for disposal of treated
effluents and other port related water front activities
The area that have been developed up to or close to the shore line which includes the designated urban
areas that are substantially built up.
Buildings permitted only on the landward side of the existing road (or roads approved in the coastal zone
Management Plan of the area) or on the landward side of the existing authorized structures as defined in
The areas that are relatively undisturbed and those which do not belong to either CRZ-I or CRZ-II which
includes mainly the rural area and those not substantially built up within designated urban areas.
The area up to 200 meters from HTL is earmarked as “No Development Zone”.
No construction is permitted within this zone except for repairs to the existing authorized, structures
without exceeding existing FSI, plinth area and density.
Development of vacant plots between 200 and 500 meters of HTL is permitted in CRZ III for the purpose
of construction of dwelling units and hotels/beach resorts subject to certain conditions
No untreated sewage effluents, ballast water, ship washes, fly-ash or solid waste from all activities
including from aquaculture operations shall be let off or dumped.
A comprehensive plan for treatment of sewage generating from the coastal towns and cities shall be
formulated within a period of one year in consultation with stakeholders including traditional coastal
communities, traditional fisher folk and implemented;
Pollution from oil and gas exploration and drilling, mining, boat house and shipping;
There shall be no restriction on the traditional fishing and allied activities undertaken by local
WETLANDS (CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT) RULES 2010
The Ministry of Environment and Forests has notified the Wetlands (Conservation and Management)
Rules 2010 in Order to ensure that there is no further degradation of wetlands.
The rules specify activities which are harmful to wetlands.
Central Wetland Regulatory Authority has been set up to ensure proper implementation of the Rules and
perform all functions for management of wetlands in India.
NATIONAL GREEN TRIBUNAL (NGT)
The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 is aAct of the Parliament of India which enables creation of a
special tribunal to handle the expeditious disposal of the cases pertaining to environmental issues. It was
enacted under India’s constitutional provision of Article 21, which assures the citizens of India the right to
a healthy environment.
India is third country in the world to full-fledged green tribunal followed by New-Zealand and Australia.
NGT is mandated to dispose the cases within six months of their respective appeals.
10 expert members and 10 judicial members although the act allows for up to 20 of each.
The Chairman of the tribunal is required to be a serving or retired Chief Justice of a High Court or a
judge of the Supreme Court of India
Members are chosen by a selection committee (headed by a sitting judge of the Supreme Court of India)
that reviews their applications and conducts interviews. The Judicial members are chosen from applicants
who are serving or retired judges of High Courts.
THE OZONE DEPLETING SUBSTANCES RULES
The Ozone Depleting Substances (Regulation and Control)Rules, 2000 under the Environment
(Protection)Act, in July 2000
These Rules set the deadlines for phasing out of various ODSs, besides regulating production, trade
import and export of ODSs and the product containing ODS.
These Rules prohibit the use of CFCs in manufacturing various products beyond 1st January 2003 except
in metered dose inhaler and for other medical purposes.
use of halons is prohibited after 1st January 2001 except for essential use.
Other ODSs such as carbon tetrachloride and methylchoroform and CFC for metered dose inhalers can be
used upto 1st January 2010.
Further, the use of methyl bromide has been allowed upto 1st January 2015.
Since HCFCs are used as interim substitute to replace CFC, these are allowed upto 1st January 2040.
INSTITUTIONS AND MEASURES
NATIONAL WILDLIFE ACTION PLAN
The first National Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP) was adopted in 1983
The plan had outlined the strategies and action points for wildlife conservation
The first National Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP) of 1983 has been revised and the new Wildlife Action
Plan (2002-2016) has been adopted.
Strengthening and Enhancing the Protected Area Network
Effective Management of Protected Areas’
Conservation of Wild and Endangered Species and Their Habitats
Restoration of Degraded Habitats outside Protected Areas
Control of Poaching, Taxidermy and Illegal Trade in Wild Animal and Plant Species
Monitoring and Research
Ensuring Peoples’ Participation in Wildlife Conservation
Conservation Awareness and Education X Wildlife Tourism
Domestic Legislation and International Conventions
Enhancing Financial Allocation for Ensuring Sustained Fund Flow to the Wildlife Sector
Integration of National Wildlife Action Plan with Other Sectoral Programmes
NATIONAL AFFORESTATION AND ECO-DEVELOPMENT BOARD
The Ministry of Environment and Forests
evolved specific schemes for promoting afforestation and management strategies,
National Afforestation Programme
Launched in 2002, which involves plantation in degraded forests of the country
NAFP is a flagship programme of National Afforestation and Eco-development Board (NAEB)
provides physical and capacity building support to the Forest Development Agencies (FDAs), which are
the implementing agencies.
COMPENSATORY AFFORESTATION FUND MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING
In April 2004, the central government, under the orders of the Supreme Court, constituted (CAMPA)
for the management of money towards compensatory afforestation, and other money recoverable, in
compliance of the conditions stipulated by the central government and in accordance with the Forest
These remittances relate to Compensatory Afforestation (CA), Additional Compensatory Afforestation
(ACA), Penal Compensatory Afforestation (PCA), Catchment Area Treatment (CAT) Plan, Protected
Area Management and Net Present Value (NPV) etc.
the Supreme Court order, a sum of Rs.1000 crores per year, for the 5 years, shall be released to the State
CAMPAs in proportion of 10% of the principal amount deposited by the States/Union Territories in Adhoc CAMPA.
JOINT FOREST MANAGEMENT (JFM)
an initiative to institutionalize participatory governance of country’s forest resources by involving the
local communities living close to the forest.
a co-management institution to develop partnerships between forest fringe communities and the Forest
Department (FD) on the basis of mutual trust and jointly defined roles and responsibilities with regard to
forest protection and regeneration.
started in consonance with the National Forest Policy 1988
Most of the states in India have adopted JFM
Under JFM, both forest departments and local communities come to an agreement to form the committee
to manage and protect forests by sharing the costs and benefits.
One of the key objectives is the rehabilitation of degraded forestlands with people’s participation
involving Forest Protection Committees
win-win situation for both forest departments as well as the local communities in terms of greater access
to minor forest produces from these regenerated forests.
The National Commission on Agriculture, Government of India, first used the term ‘social forestry’ in
It was then that India embarked upon a social forestry project with the aim of taking the pressure off the
forests and making use of all unused and fallow land.
Government forest areas that are close to human settlement and have been degraded over the years due to
human activities needed to be afforested.
Trees were to be planted in and around agricultural fields. Plantation of trees along railway lines and
roadsides, and river and canal banks were carried out. They were planted in village common land,
Government wasteland and Panchayat land.
aims at raising plantations by the common man so as to meet the growing demand for food, fuel wood,
fodder, fiber and fertilizer ( 5 F’s) etc, thereby reducing the pressure on the traditional forest area.
the government formally recognised the local communities’ rights to forest resources,
and encouraged rural participation in the management of natural resources.
Farm forestry, Community forestry, Extension forestry ( Planting of trees on the sides of roads, canals
and railways, along with planting on wastelands), Recreational forestry
NATIONAL BAMBOO MISSION
a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with 100% contribution from Central Government. It is being
implemented by the Horticulture Division under Department of Agriculture and Co-operation in the
Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi
Bamboo Mission envisages integration of different Ministries/Departments and involvement of local
people/initiatives for the holistic development of bamboo sector in terms of growth of bamboo through
increase in -area coverage, enhanced yields and scientific management, marketing of bamboo and
bamboo based handicrafts, generation of employment opportunities etc.
Set up National, State and sub-State level structures, to ensure adequate returns for the produce of the
farmers and eliminate middlemen, to the extent possible
COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION INDEX (CEPI)
is a rational number to characterize the environmental quality at a given location following the algorithm
of source, pathway, receptor and various parameters like pollutant concentration, impact on human health
and level of exposure have been taken into consideration for the calculation of pollution indices for air,
water and land
The present. CEPI is intended to act as an early warning tool.
It can-help in categorizing the industrial clusters in terms of priority of planning needs for interventions
The Central and state Pollution Control Board, in collaboration with IIT, Delhi has applied the CEPI
43 such industrial clusters having CEPI greater than 70, on a scale of 0 to 100, have been identified as
LIGHTING A BILLION LIVES (LABL)
a campaign by TERI that promotes the use of solar lanterns specially designed and manufactured
on a decentralized basis.
has been able to engage with government interventions under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, Madhya Pradesh
Rural Livelihood Project, Rasthriya Gramin Vikas Nidhi, and has facilitated the spread of mobile
telephony with support from Department of Telecommunications, Government of India.
successfully engaged the private sector and leveraged Corporate Social Responsibility
initiative has the potential to contribute towards the realization of the Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs) by improving energy access for the rural poor
Formation of more than 100 women-led Self Help Groups (SHGs), and strengthening of
around 150 SHGs are among the impacts of this initiative
The campaign has demonstrated how Public- Private-People partnerships can support rural development
schemes, particularly in the areas of health, education, environment and women’s empowerment
labeling of environment friendly products to provide accreditation and labelling ‘ for household and other
consumer products which meet certain environmental criteria along with quality requirements of the
Bureau of Indian Standards for that product.
Objective – to recognize good environmental performance as well as improvements in performance of the
Any product, which is made, used or disposed of in a way that significantly reduces the harm to
environment, could be considered as ‘Environment Friendly Product’
URBAN SERVICES ENVIRONMENTAL RATING SYSTEM (USERS)
Project funded by UNDP executed by Ministry of Environment and Forests and implemented by TEM.
Aim – to develop an analytical tool to measure the performance, with respect to delivery of basic services
in local bodies of Delhi and Kanpur. (identified as pilot cities).
Performance measurement (PM) tool was developed through a set of performance measurement
indicators that are benchmarked against set targets using the inputs-outputs efficiency outcomes
BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION & RURAL LIVELIHOOD IMPROVEMENT PROJECT
Aim – conserving Biodiversity in selected landscapes, including wildlife protected areas/ critical
conservation areas while improving rural livelihoods through participatory approaches.
Development of Joint Forest Management (JFM) and eco-development
The Project would be implemented as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme with five financiers (IDA loan,
GEF grant, contributions from Government of India, State Governments and beneficiaries), amounting to
around Rs. 137.35 crores, and spread over six years.
NATIONAL CLEAN ENERGY FUND
‘National Clean Energy Fund’ (NCEF) was constituted in the public account of India in the Finance Bill
Objective – to invest in entrepreneurial ventures and research & innovative projects in the field of
clean energy technology.
The Central Board of Excise and Customs consequently notified the Clean Energy Cess Rules 2010 under
which producers of specified goods namely raw coal, raw lignite and raw peat were made liable to pay
Clean Energy Cess.
Any project with innovative methods to adopt to clean energy technology and research & development
shall be eligible for funding under the NCEF.
Government assistance under the NCEF shall in no case exceed 40% of the total project cost.
The Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (CEFIPRA) launched a multidisciplinary Indo-French research project titled ‘Adaptation of Irrigated Agriculture to Climate Change
The study aims at developing an integrated model for analysing the impact of climate change on ground
water-irrigated agriculture in south India.
Berambadi village and surrounding areas in Hangla hobli of Gundlupet taluk in Chamaraja nagar district
have been selected for a field study under the project.
The project would explore adaptation strategies based on innovative cropping systems and water
resource management policies,
The methodology will combine remote sensing, field surveys and advanced numerical analysis with
hydrological, agronomical and economic modeling, and will pay particular attention to sustainability and
NATIONAL MISSION FOR ELECTRIC MOBILITY
to promote electric mobility and manufacturing of electric vehicles in India,
The setting up of NCEM has been influenced by the following three factors:
1.Fast dwindling petroleum resources
2.Impact of vehicles on the environment and climate change
3.Worldwide shift of the automobile industry towards more efficient drive technologies and alternative
fuels including electric vehicles
The NCEM will be the apex body in the Government of India for making recommendations in these
ENVIRONMENT EDUCATION, AWARENESS & TRAINING (EEAT) SCHEME
A Central Scheme launched during the 6th Five Year Plan in 1983-84
1. To promote environmental awareness among all sections of the society
2. To spread environment education, especially in the non-formal system.
3. To facilitate development of education/training materials and aids in the formal education sector.
4. To promote environment education through existing educational/scientific institutions.
5. To ensure training and manpower development for EEAT.
6. To encourage NGOs, mass media and other concerned organizations for promoting
awareness about environmental issues.
7. To use different media (audio & visual) for spreading messages concerning environment
and awareness and
8. To mobilize people’s participation for preservation and conservation of environment.
NATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AWARENESS CAMPAIGN (NEAC)
launched in 1986 with the objective of creating environmental awareness at the national level.
It is a multi-media campaign which utilises conventional and non-conventional methods of
communication for disseminating environmental messages.
Under this campaign, nominal financial assistance is provided to registered NGOs, schools, colleges,
universities, research institutions, women and youth organisations, army units, State Government
Departments etc. from all over the country for organising/ conducting awareness raising activities.
ECO-CLUBS (NATIONAL GREEN CORPS)
The main objectives of this programme are to educate children about their immediate environment and
impart knowledge about the eco-systems, to mobilise youngsters by instilling in them the spirit of
scientific inquiry into environmental problems and involving them
in the efforts of environmental preservation.
Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE)
The GLOBE is an International Science, and Education Programme, which stress on hands on
India joined this programme during the August, 2000.
aimed at school children
MANGROVES FOR THE FUTURE
a partnership-based initiative promoting investment in coastal ecosystems for sustainable development.
to promote healthy coastal ecosystems through a partnership-based, people-focused, policy-relevant and
investment-orientated approach, which builds and applies knowledge, empowers communities and other
stakeholders, enhances ‘ governance, secures livelihoods, and increases resilience to natural hazards and
Member countries: India, Indonesia, Maldives, Pakistan, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Thailand, VietNam.
Outreach countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Myanmar, Timor-Leste.
Dialogue countries: Kenya, Malaysia, Tanzania.
THE ANIMAL WELFARE BOARD OF INDIA
statutory advisory body on Animal Welfare Laws and promotes animal welfare in the country
The Animal Welfare Board of India, the first of its kind to be established by any Government in the
world, was set up in 1962, in accordance with Section 4 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Acts
Shrimati Rukmini Devi Arundale pioneered the setting up of the Board, with its Headquaters at Chennai.
To keep the law in force in India for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals under constant study and to
advise the government on the amendments to be undertaken in any such law from time to time.
To advise the Central Government on the making of rules under the Act with a view to preventing
unnecessary pain or suffering to animals generally, and more particularly when they are being transported
from one place to another or when they are used as performing animals or when they are kept in captivity
To take all such steps as the Board may think fit for amelioration of animals by encouraging, or
providing for the construction of sheds, water troughs and the like and by providing for veterinary
assistance to animals.
To advise the Government or any local authority or other person in the design of slaughter houses
To take all such steps as the Board may think fit to ensure that unwanted animals are destroyed by local
To encourage by the grant of financial assistance or otherwise, the formation or establishment of
pinjarapoles, rescue homes, animals sanctuaries and the like, where animals and birds may find a shelter
when they have become old and useless or when they need protection.
To advise the Government on matters relating to the medical care and attention which maybe
provided in animal hospitals, and to give financial and other assistance to animal hospitals whenever the
Board think it is necessary to do so.
The Board consists of 28 Members. The term of office of Members is for a period of 3 years
CENTRAL ZOO AUTHORITY
The amendment made to the Wild Life (Protection) Act in 1991 added a new chapter dealing with zoos
to the Act and allowed for the Central Government to constitute an authority known as the Central Zoo
To specify the minimum standards for housing, upkeep and veterinary care of animals kept in a
To identify endangered species of wild animals for purposes of captive breeding and assigning
responsibility in this regard to a zoo
To co-ordinate the acquisition, exchange and loaning of animals for breeding purposes
To ensure maintenance of stud-books, of endangered species of wild animals bred in captivity
To co-ordinate training of zoo personnel in India and abroad
THE NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY AUTHORITY OF INDIA — CHENNAI
established in 2003 to implement India’s Biological Diversity Act (2002).
The NBA is a Statutory, Autonomous Body and it performs facilitative, regulatory and advisory function for the Government of India on issues of ,
conservation, sustainable use of biological resources- and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising out
of the use of biological resources.
Objectives of the NBA
Anybody seeking any kind of intellectual, property rights on a research based upon biological
resource or knowledge obtained from India has to obtain prior approval of the NBA.
The NBA will impose benefit-sharing conditions.
(1) The National biodiversity Authority may-
(a) advise the Central Government on matters relation into-the conservation of biodiversity,
sustainable use of its components
(b) advise the State Governments in the selection of areas of biodiversity importance to be
notified as heritage sites and measures for the management of such heritage sites;
2) The National Biodiversity Authority may, on behalf of the Central Government, take any measures necessary
to oppose the grant of intellectual property rights in any country outside India on any biological resource
obtained from India or knowledge associated with such biological resource which is derived from India.
WILDLIFE CRIME CONTROL BUREAU (WCCB)
The Government of India constituted a statutory body, the Wildlife Crime Control Bureau on 6th June
2007, by amending the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
The bureau would complement the efforts of the state governments, primary enforcers of the Wildlife
(Protection) Act, 1972 and other enforcement agencies of the country.
Collection, collation of intelligence and its dissemination and establishment of a centralized Wildlife
Crime data bank;
Co-ordination of actions by various enforcement authorities towards the implementation of the
provisions of this Act.
Implementation of obligations under the various international Conventions and protocols
Assistance to concerned authorities in foreign countries and concerned international organizations to
facilitate co-ordination and universal action for wildlife crime control;
Development of infrastructure and capacity building for scientific and professional investigation;
Advice the Government of India on issues relating to wildlife crimes having national and international
ramifications, and suggest changes required in relevant policy and laws from time to time.
NATIONAL LAKE CONSERVATION PLAN (NLCP)
Ministry of Environment and Forests
for conservation and management of polluted and degraded lakes in urban and semi-urban areas
through an integrated ecosystem approach.
Activities Covered Under NLCP
Prevention of pollution from point sources by intercepting, diverting and treating the pollution loads
entering the lake.
In situ measures of lake cleaning such as de-silting, de-weeding, bioremediation, aeration, biomanipulation, nutrient reduction, withdrawal of anoxic hypolimn ion, constructed wetland approach or
any other successfully tested eco-technologies etc depending upon the site conditions.
Lake front eco-development including public interface.
Solid waste management & provision of dhobi ghats is generally not covered under NLCP.
Prevention of pollution from non-point sources by providing low cost sanitation.
Public awareness and public participation.Capacity building, training and research in the area of Lake
NATIONAL GANGA RIVER BASIN AUTHORITY (NGRBA)
NGRBA was constituted on February 2009 under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986.
The NGRBA is a planning, financing, monitoring and coordinating body of the centre and the states.
The objective of the NGRBA is to ensure effective Abatement of pollution and conservation of the
river Ganga by adopting a river basin approach for comprehensive planning and management.
The Authority has both regulatory and developmental functions.
Development of a river basin management plan;
WILDLIFE TRUST OF INDIA
➢ NGO founded: 1998
➢ Aim: To conserve nature, especially endangered species and threatened habitats, in partnership with
communities and governments.