Ramsar Sites in India UPSC
- As defined by Ramsar convention 1971, “Wetlands are area of marsh, fen, peat-land or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water, the depth of which at low tide does not exceed six meters”
- Wetlands shares only 0.0001% of the total fresh water available occupying 6.45% of the earth’s surface.
- The wetlands act as buffers for terrestrial run-off and thus prevent eutrophication of inlands and coastal waters.
- The Convention on Wetlands is an intergovernmental treaty that provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources.
- As of now there are 171 Contracting Parties on the convention on wetlands.
- Since India became a contracting party to the Ramsar convention in 1981 India has a total of 75 Ramsar sites
- Nodal Agency: Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC)
- Wetlands in India are grouped on the basis of topographical variation into four major types- 1) Himalayan wetlands, 2) wetlands in Gangetic plain, 3) wetlands in the desert and 4) coastal wetlands.
- Moreover, many wetlands in rural and sub-urban areas are not covered either by the Indian Forest Act 1927 or Wild Life Protection Act 1972. These wetlands are under threat in many ways and therefore invite due attention for their conservation and management. Towards this, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Government of India launched a Wetland Conservation Programme all over the country.
- The Ramsar sites are maintained in Montreux Record to track any major ecological changes that might affect any of the wetland sites positively or in a reverse way.
- The Montreux Record is a register of wetland sites on the List of Ramsar wetlands of international importance where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution, or other human interference. It is maintained as part of the Ramsar List.
- At present, two wetlands of India are in Montreux Record:
- Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan) and
- Loktak Lake (Manipur).
- Note: Chilika Lake (Odisha) was placed in the record but was later removed from it.
- India is a party to the Ramsar Convention.
- India signed under it on 1st February 1982.
- Chilika Lake is the largest Ramsar Site of India
- Chilika Lake (Orissa) and Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan) were recognized as the first Ramsar Sites of India
- World’s First Ramsar site was identified in 1974, which was the Cobourg Peninsula in Australia.
Ramsar Sites in India
- As of December 2022 there are 75 Ramsar Sites in India.
75 Ramsar sites in India UPSC (Updated till December-2022)
- ASHTAMUDI WETLAND
- It is a natural backwater in the Kollam district.
- River Kallada and Pallichal drain into it.
- It forms an estuary with Sea at Neendakara (a famous fishing harbor in Kerala).
- National Waterway 3 passes through it.
- Kanjiracode creek on the south-east end of the lake.
- BEAS CONSERVATION RESERVE
- It is a 185-kilometer stretch of the Beas River.
- The stretch is dotted with islands, sand bars, and braided channels.
- The Reserve hosts the only known population in India of the endangered Indus river dolphin.
- In 2017, a program was initiated to re-introduce the critically endangered gharial.
- Himalayan foothills to the Harike Headworks.
- BHITARKANIKA MANGROVES
- It is part of Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary.
- The core area of the sanctuary was declared Bhitarkanika National Park.
- Gahirmatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary is adjacent to the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary.
- It is famous for its saltwater crocodilesand Olive ridley sea turtle.
- The core area of Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary was declared Bhitarkanika National Park.
- Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary includes Gahirmatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary.
- Bhitarkanika Mangroves, a part of Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance in 2002.
- It is famous for its saltwater crocodiles and Olive ridley sea turtle.
- River Delta- Brahmaniand Baitarani
- BHOJ WETLAND
- The Wetland consists of two lakes located in the city of Bhopal.
- The two lakes are the Bhojtal and the Lower Lake.
- It is a humanmade reservoir.
- The largest bird of India, the sarus crane is found here.
- State-Madhya Pradesh
- CHANDRA TAAL
- It is a high-altitude lake on the upper Chandra valley flowing to the Chenab River of the Western Himalayas (4,337 m asl) near the Kunzam pass joining the Himalayan and Pir Panjal ranges
- It supports IUCN Red-listed Snow Leopard.
- Migratory species-Ruddy shelduck
- Also known as Tso Chikgma
- Lake in the Lahaulpart of the Lahul and Spiti district
- Kunzum La separates Lahaul and Spiti valleys.
- State-Himachal Pradesh
- CHILIKA LAKE
- It is a brackish water lagoon at the mouth of the Daya River.
- It is the largest coastal lagoon in India.
- Largest brackish water lagoon in the world after The New Caledonian barrier reef
- Birds from as far as the Caspian Sea, Lake Baikal, Aral Sea, and other remote parts of Central Asia, Ladakh, and the Himalayas come here.
- In 1981, Chilika Lake has designated the first Indian wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention.
- Nalbana Bird Sanctuary is the core area of the Ramsar designated wetlands of Chilika Lake.
- The Irrawaddy dolphin(critically endangered) is the flagship species and the only known population in Chilika lake.
- Mouth of the Daya River
- Chilka is home to the only known population of Irrawaddy dolphins in India.
- DEEPOR BEEL
- A permanent freshwater lake in a former channel of the Brahmaputra river.
- It is a few kilometers to the left of Guwahati whereas Pobitora Wildlife Sanctuary is around 35 km to the right.
- Basistha and Kalmani rivers and local monsoon run-off are the main sources of water
- BirdLife Internationalhas declared Deepor Beel as an Important Bird Area (IBA)
- Siberian crane(Grus leucogeranus) regularly migrates to this habitat during its annual journey
- EAST KOLKATA WETLANDS
- It is multiple use wetland that serves the city of Kolkata.
- Host the largest sewage fed aquaculture in the world
- Numerous species of fish are farmed in the sewage fed ponds called bheris
- Microbial Diversity is an integral part of biodiversity which includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae, protozoa and protists
- State-West Bengal
- HARIKE WETLAND
- It is a shallow water reservoir at the confluence of Beas and Sutlej rivers.
- Largest wetland in northern India in the border of Tarn Taran Sahib district and Ferozepur district
- Stated to be next only to the Keoladeo National Parknear Bharatpur
- Indus dolphin was recently sighted in the Beas River
- HOKERA WETLAND
- It is only 10 km from Srinagar.
- It is a natural perennial wetland contiguous to the Jhelum basin.
- Lies in the Kashmir Valley
- The waterbirds fly to Kashmir Valley via the Central Asian Flyway.
- 1st designated as a conservation reserve under the Jammu and Kashmir
- Falls under India’s National Wetlands Conservation Programme and is also included in the network of Important Bird Areas
- Union Territory-Jammu and Kashmir
- KANJLI WETLAND
- Manmade Wetland
- Located in the Kapurthala district of Punjab
- Created in 1870 by constructing the headworks across the perennial Bien River, a tributary of the Beas Riverto provide irrigation facilities to the hinterland.
- Upstream of Harike wetland located in the Beas river basin while the Ropar wetland is in the Roopnagar district
- The stream is considered to be the most significant in the state from the religious point of view, as it is associated with the first guru of the Sikhs, Shri Guru Nanak.
- KEOLADEO NATIONAL PARK
- A complex of ten artificial, seasonal lagoons, varying in size.
- Formerly known as the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary
- Vegetation is a mosaic of scrub and open grassland that provides habitat for breeding, wintering, and staging migratory birds.
- A World Heritage Site
- The invasive growth of the grass Paspalum distichum has changed the ecological character of large areas of the site, reducing its suitability for certain waterbird species, notably the Siberian crane.
- Keoladeo Ghana National Park is a man-made and man-managed wetland and one of the national parks of India
- The principal vegetation types are tropical dry deciduous forests intermixed with dry grasslands.
- Scrublands are dominated by ber and kair
- Placed on the Montreux Record in 1990 due to “water shortage and an unbalanced grazing regime”.
- KESHOPUR-MIANI COMMUNITY RESERVE
- The Site is an example of wise use of a community-managed wetland, which provides food for people and supports local biodiversity.
- Threatened species present include the vulnerable common pochard (Aythya ferina) and the endangered spotted pond turtle.
- 1st-ever notified community reserve of India under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 (amended 2002).
- Shalapattan wetland-home to sarus /common crane
- KOLLERU LAKE
- A natural eutrophic lake situated between the river basins of the Godavari and the Krishna in Andhra Pradesh.
- A eutrophic water body, commonly a lake or pond, has high biological productivity. Due to excessive nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, these water bodies are able to support an abundance of aquatic plants. Usually, the water body will be dominated either by aquatic plants or algae.
- The lake serves as a natural flood-balancing reservoirfor the two rivers.
- It was previously a lagoon, but now it is several kilometers inland due to the coastline of emergence and delta formation.
- Forms the largest shallow freshwater lake in Asia
- It was notified as a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1999 under India’s Wild Life Protection Act,1972.
- It was declared a wetland of international importance in 2002under the Ramsar convention.
- The Atapaka Bird Sanctuary at Kolleru Lakehas become a safe breeding ground for two migratory species namely, Grey Pelicans and Painted Storks.
- The present water level in Kolleru Lake, including Atapaka Sanctuary, is posing a slight challenge for the birds to hunt their prey in the deep waters.
- Grey Pelican and Painted Stork both are near-threatened species under the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
- State-Andhra Pradesh
- LOKTAK LAKE
- Loktak Lake is the largest freshwater lake in the north-eastern region of the country.
- Keibul Lamjao the only floating national park in the world floats over it.
- Keibul Lamjao -Last natural refuge of the endangered sangai or Manipur brow-antlered deer
- Famous for the phumdis (heterogeneous mass of vegetation, soil, and organic matters at various stages of decomposition) floating over it
- Also listed under the Montreux Record.
- Manipur River flows through the Manipur Valley.
- It is located near Moirang, Bishnupur district.
- Species of hornbills found are the brown-backed hornbill, rufous-necked hornbill, wreathed hornbill, the pied hornbill and the great pied hornbill.
- At the highest level of eutrophication and the only brow-antlered deer is at the verge of extinction.
- NALSAROVAR BIRD SANCTUARY
- A natural freshwater lake (a relict sea) that is the largest natural wetland in the Thar Desert.
- The wetland is a lifeline for a satellite population of the endangered Indian Wild Ass.
- An important stopover site within the Central Asian Flyway
- Species- critically endangered sociable lapwing (Vanellus gregarius) and the vulnerable marbled teal (Marmaronetta angustirostris) stopping over at the site during migration, while the vulnerable sarus crane
- Migrating Aamin bhai shepherds populate the islands of the lake and on the banks are the Padhars, who are folk dancers
- NANDUR MADHAMESHWAR
- Construction of the Nandur Madhameshwar Weir at the confluence of the Godavari and Kadwa Rivers helped create a thriving wetland.
- Located at Niphad Tehsil of Nashik District
- Maharashtra’s first Ramsar site and known as Maharashtra ‘s Bharatpur
- Boasts of threatened plants like Indian sandalwood, threatened birds like Indian Spotted Eagle, Eastern Imperial Eagle, Common Pochard, Bristled Grass Bird, Wooly-necked stork, White-rumped vulture, Indian vulture and Egyptian vulture, threatened fish Deolali Minnow and mammal like leopard.
- More than one percent population of Common Pochard, White Stork, Common Crane, Eurashian Spoonbill and Glosdy Ibis bird species. Among fish, the wetland has Butter cat fish, Deolali minnow, Slender rasbora, Novacula razorbelly minnow and globally threatened species Shalini barb.
- formed by shallow backwaters
- NANGAL WILDLIFE SANCTUARY
- Located in the Shiwalik foothills of Punjab.
- It supports abundant flora and fauna including threatened species, such as the endangered Indian pangolin and Egyptian vulture.
- It occupies a human-made reservoir constructed as part of the Bhakra-Nangal Project in 1961.
- The site is of historic importance as the Indian and Chinese Prime Ministers formalized the “Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence” there in 1954.
- noticed lesser number of shallow water birds and surprisingly one lone long distance migratory and International Union Conservation Nature (IUCN) listed threatened water bird Ferruginous Duck which migrates from North Asia
- nesting colony of the other resident water bird species as Little Cormorants, Purple Herons, Cattle Egrets, Black-crowned Night Herons, Little Egrets.
- NAWABGANJ BIRD SANCTUARY
- It was renamed as Chandra Shekhar Azad Bird Sanctuary in 2015.
- bird sanctuary located in Unnao district on the Kanpur-Lucknow highway
- houses a deer park, watchtowers and boats.
- shallow marshland
- State-Uttar Pradesh
- PARVATI ARGA BIRD SANCTUARY
- It is a permanent freshwater environment consisting of two oxbow lakes.
- The Sanctuary is a refuge for some of India’s threatened vulture species: the critically endangered white-rumped vulture and Indian vulture and the endangered Egyptian vulture
- State-Uttar Pradesh
- POINT CALIMERE WILDLIFE AND BIRD SANCTUARY
- One of the last remnants of Dry Evergreen Forests.
- low headland of the Coromandel Coast, in the Nagapattinam district
- holds large wintering populations of greater flamingos and blackbucks
- migratory waterbirds-Spot-billed Pelican and Spoon-billed Sandpiper
- Habitat: Dry Evergreen Forests, Mangrove & Wetlands.
- Microbial indicators such as coliform bacteria were also found
- State-Tamil Nadu
- PONG DAM LAKE
- It is also known as Maharana Pratap Sagar.
- Pong Dam Lake is a water storage reservoir created in 1975 on the Beas River (five major rivers of the Indusbasin) in the low foothills of the Himalaya on the northern edge of the Indo-Gangetic plain.
- covered with tropical and subtropical forests
- Wetland zone of the Siwalik Hillsof the Dehra Gopipur Division Kangra district
- Black-headed gulls, Red necked grebes, plovers, terns, ducks, water-fowl egrets
- The avian habitats formed by the creation of the Pong Dam assumes a great significance – given the site’s location on the trans-Himalayan flyway, more than220 bird species have been identified, with 54 species of waterfowl.
- State-Himachal Pradesh
- RENUKA LAKE
- A natural wetland with freshwater springs and inland subterranean karst formations.
- Situated in Sirmour district
- Largest lake in Himachal Pradesh
- Falls in the biogeographical zone IV and biogeographical province IV as per the classification done by the Wildlife Institute of India (WII)
- sambar, barking deer and ghorals are also abundant
- Dry mixed deciduous forest and group 5/051, i.e., dry sal forest
- State-Himachal Pradesh
- ROPAR WETLAND
- A human-made wetland of lake and river formed by the construction of a barrage for diversion of water from the Sutlej River.
- Man-made freshwater riverine and lacustrine wetland
- located in the Shivalik foothills of the Lower Himalayas
- endangered turtleChitra indica and the threatened snake Python molurus (“at lower risk”), as per IUCN Red List, are reported
- modern history in respect of Anglo – Sikh relations
- RUDRASAGAR LAKE
- It is a reservoir fed by three perennial streams discharging to the River Gomti.
- It is an ideal habitat for IUCN Red-listed Three-striped Roof Turtle.
- Known as Twijilikma, is a lakelocated in Melaghar
- Natural sedimentation reservoir, which receives flow from three perennial streams namely, Noacherra, Durlavnaraya cherra and Kemtali cherra
- Potential Important Bird Area and attracts a large number of waterfowl in winter
- Rarer species recorded are the endangered Baer’s pochard and near-threatened ferruginous duck
- SAMAN BIRD SANCTUARY
- It is a seasonal oxbow lake on the Ganges floodplain.
- State-Uttar Pradesh
- SAMASPUR BIRD SANCTUARY
- It is a perennial lowland marsh typical of the Indo-Gangetic Plains.
- The Sanctuary harbours threatened species such as the endangered Egyptian vulture.
- Local birds include Knob-billed Duck, Lesser Whistling-duck, Indian Spot-billed Duck, Eurasian Spoon-bill, Kingfishers, Vulturesetc
- Situated near Salon in Rae Bareli
- State-Uttar Pradesh
- SAMBHAR LAKE
- The Sambhar Salt Lake isIndia’s largest inland saltwater lake.
- It is a key wintering area for tens of thousands of flamingos.
- Receives water from five rivers: Medtha, Samaod, Mantha, Rupangarh, Khari, and Khandela.
- Surrounded by the Aravali hillson all sides
- SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY
- The wetland is typical of the Indo-Gangetic plains.
- Freshwater marsh in the Hardoi district
- River Garra, formerly known as Garun Ganga, passes near the sanctuary
- Rare Siberian white craneGrus leucogeranus has been seen here
- Ancient name as “Dahar Jheel”
- State-Uttar Pradesh
- SARSAI NAWAR JHEEL
- A permanent marsh in the Etawah district
- An example of co-habitation of humans and wildlife.
- Typical wetland of the Indo-Gangetic Plain is fed by the southwest monsoon rains
- Recognized by BirdLife International as an Important Bird Area
- The site’s name is derived from the large non-migratory sarus crane.
- Threatened species present include the critically endangered white-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis) and endangered woolly-necked stork
- State-Uttar Pradesh
- SASTHAMKOTTA LAKE
- Largest freshwater lake in Kerala, situated in Kollam district.
- River Kallada had a unique replenishing system through a bar of paddy field.
- The lake is now depleting due to destruction of replenishing mechanism.
- Presence of large population of larva called cavaborus that consumes bacteria
- SUNDARBAN WETLAND
- Largest mangrove forest in the world.
- It is the largest Ramsar Site in India.
- Delta formed by the confluence of the Ganges,Brahmaputra and Meghna Rivers in the Bay of Bengal.
- The Indian Sundarban, covering the south-westernmost part of the delta, constitutes over 60% of the country’s total mangrove forest area and includes 90% of Indian mangrove species.
- Spans from the Hooghly River in India’s state of West Bengal to the Baleswar River in Bangladesh
- Derived from the word Sundari or Sundri, the local name of the mangrove species Heritiera fomes.
- Important habitat for the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris)
- Sajnekhali Bird Sanctuary is a part of Sundarban
- Mousuni Island
- Shrines to Bon Bibi and her twin brother Shah Jongoli dot the landscape of the Sundarbans.
- The estuarine crocodile is found in Odisha’s Bhitarkanika National Park, the Sundarbans in West Bengal and the Andamans and Nicobar Islands.
- Sundarban National Park is a National Park, Tiger Reserve, and a Biosphere Reserve
- Sundarbans West Wildlife Sanctuary is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- State-West Bengal
- SURINSAR-MANSAR LAKES
- Freshwater composite lake in semi-arid Panjab Plains, adjoining the Jhelum Basin.
- A lake fringed by forest-covered hills
- Supports CITES and IUCN redlisted Lissemys punctuata, Aspideretes gangeticus and Mansariella lacustris.
- High in micro nutrients for which it is an attractive habitat, breeding and nursey ground for migratory waterfolks like Fulica atra, Gallinula chloropus, Podiceps nigricollis, Aythya fuligula and various Anas species
- Waterfowl like the Eurasian coot (Fulica atra), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), black-necked grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), and various Anas species.
- State-Jammu and Kashmir
- TSOMORIRI (TSO MORIRI)
- A freshwater to brackish lake lying at 4,595m above sea level.
- “Mountain Lake”, is a lake in the Changthang
- The Changthang Plateau in the eastern Ladakh represents a landscape of low productive ecosystems which protects unique floral and faunal species.
- The site is said to represent the only breeding ground outside of China for one of the most endangered cranes, the Black-necked crane, and the only breeding ground for Bar-headed geese in India.
- The Great Tibetan Sheep or Argali and Tibetan Wild Ass are endemic to the region.
- Represent the only breeding ground outside of China for one of the most endangered cranes, the Black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis), and the only breeding ground for Bar-headed geese in India. The Great Tibetan Sheep or Argali (Ovis ammon hodgsoni) and Tibetan Wild Ass (Equus kiang) are endemic to the Tibetan plateau, of which the Changthang is the westernmost part.
- An endorheic lake- (also called a sink lake or terminal lake) is a collection of water within an endorheic basin, or sink, with no evident outlet. Generally saline as a result of being unable to get rid of solutes left in the lake by These lakes can be used as indicators of anthropogenic change, such as irrigation or climate change, in the areas surrounding them. Lakes with subsurface drainage are considered cryptorheic.
- With no outflow, evaporation in the arid steppe conditions causes varying levels of salinity.
- The Korzok Monastery, on the western bank of the lake is 400 years old and attracts tourists and Buddhist
- Union Territory-Ladakh
- UPPER GANGA RIVER (BRIJGHAT TO NARORA STRETCH)
- The river provides habitat for IUCN Red listed Ganges River Dolphinand Gharial Crocodile.
- Situated in Hapur district
- State-Uttar Pradesh
- VEMBANAD-KOL WETLAND
- The largest lake of Kerala, spanning across Alappuzha, Kottayam, and Ernakulam districts.
- It is the second-largest Ramsar Site in India after Sundarbans.
- It is also the longest lake in India.
- It is below sea level and is famous for exotic fish varieties and Paddy fields that are below sea level.
- Vembanadu Lakein Kottayam, Punnamada Lake in Alappuzha and Kochi Lake in Kochi.
- The Nehru Trophy Boat Raceis conducted in a portion of the lake
- Fed by 10 rivers flowing into it including the six major rivers of central Kerala namely the Achenkovil, Manimala, Meenachil river, Muvattupuzha river, Pambaand Periyar.
- The mouths of the Pamba and Achankovil rivers in Vembanad forms part of the Kuttanad
- The Kumarakom Bird Sanctuaryis located on the east coast of the lake.
- WULAR LAKE
- It is the largest freshwater lake in India & Asia.
- Sited in Bandipora district
- Lake basin was formed as a result of tectonicactivity and is fed by the Jhelum River.
- Called as Mahapadmasar
- Tulbul Project is a “navigation lock-cum-control structure” at the mouth of Wular Lake
- Lean season water inflows into the Wular Lake are enhanced from the Kishanganga riverby the Kishanganga Hydroelectric Plant after generating electricity.
- UT-Jammu and Kashmir
- ASAN CONSERVATION RESERVE
- ACR is a 444-hectare stretch of the Asan River running down to its confluence with the Yamuna River in the Dehradun district of Uttarakhand. It is Uttarakhand’s first Ramsar Site.
- A barrage in the Uttarakhand-Himachal Pradesh border region in Doon Valley, (Dehradun District)
- The damming of the River by the Asan Barrage in 1967resulted in siltation above the dam wall, which helped to create some of the Site’s bird-friendly habitats.
- These habitats support 330 species of birds including the critically endangered red-headed vulture (Sarcogyps calvus), white-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis), and Baer’s pochard (Aythya baeri).
- Other non-avian species present include 49 fish species, one of these being the endangered Putitora mahseer (Tor putitora). Fish use the site for feeding, migration, and spawning.
- identified with the Asmanvati of the Rigveda.
- Dam creates the Asan Reservoir, also called Dhalipur Lake
- KABARTAL WETLAND
- Also known as Kanwar Jheel, of the Indo-Gangetic plains in the Begusarai district of Bihar.
- It acts as a vital flood buffer for the region besides providing livelihood opportunities to local communities.
- Significant biodiversity is present, with 165 plant species and 394 animal species recorded, including 221 bird species. It is also a valuable site for fish biodiversity with over 50 species documented.
- It is an important stopover along the Central Asian Flyway, with 58 migratory waterbirds using it to rest and refuel.
- Asia’s largest freshwater oxbow lake (U-shaped lake that forms when a wide meander of a river is cut off, creating a free-standing body of water.)
- Formed due to meandering of Gandak river, a tributary of Ganga, in the geological past.
- Important stopover along the Central Asian Flyway
- Five critically endangered species inhabit the site, including three vultures – the red-headed vulture (Sarcogyps calvus), white-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis) and Indian vulture (Gyps indicus) – and two waterbirds, the sociable lapwing (Vanellus gregarius) and Baer’s pochard (Aythya baeri).
- Major threats to the Site include water management activities such as drainage, water abstraction, damming and canalization.
- SOOR SAROVAR LAKE
- It is also known as Keetham lake situated within the Soor Sarovar Bird Sanctuary, which was declared as a bird sanctuary in the year 1991.
- Situated alongside the river Yamuna in Agra
- The Soor Sarovar bird sanctuary covered an area of 97 sq km.
- It is today home to more than 165 species of migratory and resident birds.
- Keetham Lake is the Agra Bear Rescue Facility, which is a Sloth bear rescue facility dedicated to rehabilitating previously enslaved ‘dancing bears
- It also has a Bear Rescue center for rescued dancing bears.
- State-Uttar Pradesh
- LONAR LAKE
- The Lonar lake, situated in the Deccan Plateau’s volcanic basalt rock, was created by the impact of a meteor 35,000 to 50,000 years ago.
- Saline, soda lake, located at Lonar in Buldhana district
- Lake is both saline and alkaline & created by the impact of either a comet or of an asteroid.
- The lake is part of Lonar Wildlife Sanctuary which falls under the unified control of the Melghat Tiger Reserve (MTR).
- Created by a meteorite collision impact during the Pleistocene Epoch.
- It is also known as a Lonar crater and is a notified National Geo-heritage Monument. Geo-heritage refers to the geological features which are inherently or culturally significant offering insight to earth’s evolution or history to earth science or that can be utilized for education.
- One of the four known, hyper-velocity, impact craters in basaltic rock anywhere on Earth. The other three basaltic impact structures are in southern Brazil
- It is the second Ramsar site in Maharashtra after Nandur Madhmeshwar Bird Sanctuary in the Nashik district.
- The water in the lake is highly saline and alkaline, containing special microorganisms like anaerobes, Cyanobacteria, and phytoplankton.
- Lies within the only known extraterrestrial impact crater found within the great Deccan Traps, a huge basaltic formation in India.
- Kala Namak and Nimak Dalla are found in white crystalline masses. Khuppal is obtained in solid compact lumps and consists of a mixture of carbonates and chlorides in roughly equal proportions. Pipadi or Papri, which has a similar chemical composition, is very different in appearance. It is frequently tinged, slightly pink in colour and hollow air spaces are found between the crystalline masses which are formed in flakes or layers. Bhuski has no definite structure but consists of a soft flaky powder mixed with a quantity of impurity.
- Gaylussite is the mineral has been recently reported from drill core. Gaylussite is a carbonate mineral, a hydrated sodium calcium carbonate (An unstable mineral which dehydrates in dry air and decomposes in water)
- TSO KAR WETLAND COMPLEX (TSO KAR LAKE)
- Ladakh’s Tso Kar Wetland Complex has been recognized as a wetland of international importance, becoming India’s 42nd Ramsar site.
- 2nd Ramsar site in the Union Territory of Ladakh. It is a high-altitude wetland complex, found at more than 4,500 meters above sea level in the Changthang region of Ladakh.
- The Tso Kar Basin is a high-altitude wetland complex, which comprises two principal waterbodies– Startsapuk Tso and Tso Kar Lake situated in Ladakh’s Changthang region.
- Situated in the Rupshu Plateau and valley in the southern part of Ladakh
- Startsapuk Tso is a freshwater lake and Tso Kar is a hypersaline lake.
- The TSO Kar name means white lake and it was given because of the white salt efflorescence found on the margins of the wetlands due to the evaporation of highly saline water.
- The TSO Kar basin is categorized as A1 Category Important Bird Area (IBA) as per BirdLife International and is also a key staging site in the Central Asian Flyway.
- The basin is one of the most important breeding areas of the Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) in India.
- It is also a major breeding area for the Bar-headed Geese (Anserindicus), Great Crested Grebe (Podicepscristatus), Ruddy Shelduck (Tadornaferruginea), Lesser Sand-Plover (Charadriusmongolus) and Brown-headed Gull (Larusbrunnicephalus), and many other species.
- UT-Ladakh, Leh
- BHINDAWAS WILDLIFE SANCTUARY
- A human-made freshwater wetland of Haryana.
- It is also the largest in Haryana.
- Over 250 bird species use the sanctuary throughout the year as a resting and roosting site.
- The site supports more than 10 globally threatened species including the endangered Egyptian Vulture, Steppe Eagle, Pallas’s Fish Eagle, and Black-bellied Tern.
- SULTANPUR NATIONAL PARK
- Located in Haryana supports more than 220 species of resident, winter migratory and local migratory waterbirds at critical stages of their life cycles.
- More than 10 of these are globally threatened, including the critically endangered sociable lapwing, and the endangered Egyptian Vulture, Saker Falcon, Pallas’s Fish Eagle and Black-bellied Tern.
- THOL LAKE WILDLIFE SANCTUARY
- Situated in the state of Gujarat
- Lies on the Central Asian Flyway and more than 320 bird species can be found here.
- The wetland supports more than 30 threatened waterbird species, such as the critically endangered White-rumped Vulture and Sociable Lapwing, and the vulnerable Sarus Crane, Common Pochard and Lesser White-fronted Goose.
- WADHVANA WETLAND
- The Wadhvana Wetland in Gujarat is internationally important for its birdlife as it provides wintering ground to migratory waterbirds, including over 80 species that migrate on the Central Asian Flyway.
- They include some threatened or near-threatened species such as the endangered Pallas’s fish-Eagle, the vulnerable Common Pochard, and the near-threatened Dalmatian Pelican, Grey-headed Fish-eagle and Ferruginous Duck.
47. HAIDERPUR WETLAND
- 47th Ramsar Sites of India abutting the Madhya Ganga barrage, about 10 km from Bijnor in western Uttar Pradesh
- Located within the boundaries of Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary
- Wetland lies in the strategic Central Asian Flyway
- One of the largest human-made wetland that was formed in 1984 after the construction of Madhya Ganga Barrage.
- The region is fed by the Ganges and its tributary Solani river, constituting an area of 6908 hectare within the Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary in Muzaffarnagar and Bijnor districts.
48. Bakhira Wildlife sanctuary-Uttar Pradesh
- It is the largest natural flood plain wetland in India.
- The floodplain wetland is that part of the river valley that gets flooded with water periodically. The resident time of water here is greater than flood plains.
- The sanctuary is located to the west of Gorakhpur. It is breeding ground for resident birds and a staging ground for number of migratory birds.
- The Siberian birds visit the wetland during winter. Also, birds from China, Europe, Tibet and Siberia come to the lake during winters.
- There are more than 30 fish species. The dominant ones are Chana and Labeo rohita. The wetland is the breeding ground for the grey – headed swamphen.
- It is also called purple swamp hen or Indian purple moorhen. It is locally called Kaima. The wetland is connected to the Bakhira canal.
- The canal runs 15 kms supplying water for irrigation to the nearby villages.
49. Khijadia Bird Sanctuary-Gujarat
- It is located in Jamnagar, Gujarat. More than 300 migratory birds visit the sanctuary.
- It has freshwater marshlands, freshwater lakes and salt water marshlands.
- It is fed by river Ruparel.
- It also has creeks that support mangroves. It is located in the Gulf of Kutch region.
- The sanctuary is known for different types of nests such as floating nests, on ground nests and the ones built on trees.
- The black – necked storks are found in abundant in the sanctuary. It is not found anywhere else in India.
50. Karikili Bird Sanctuary (Tamil Nadu)
- Located in the Kancheepuram District of the state of Tamil Nadu
- The sanctuary is spread over a five-kilometer-wide belt and is home to cormorants, egrets, grey heron, open-billed stork, darter, spoonbill, white lbis, night herons, grebes, grey pelican among others.
- The vegetation is mainly composed of Barringtonia acutangula and Acacia nilotica trees.
- The near-threatened oriental darter (Anhinga melanogaster) and spot-billed pelican (Pelecanus philippensis) breed here.
- The Site was declared a Birds Sanctuary in 1972 and a management plan is currently being implemented to safeguard the biodiversity of the Site.
- Karikili Bird Sanctuary along with Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary has been identified as one of the Important Bird Areas of Tamil Nadu.
51. Pallikaranai Marsh Reserve Forest (Tamil Nadu)
- One of the last remaining natural wetlands, the marsh drains in an area of 250 square kilometres encompassing 65 wetlands.
- The Pallikaranai Marsh is one of the few natural coastal aquatic habitats that qualify as a wetland in India.
52. Pichavaram Mangrove (Tamil Nadu)
- One of the last mangrove forests in the country.
- It has an island of a vast expanse of water covered with mangrove forests.
53. Sakhya Sagar (Madhya Pradesh)
- Human-made reservoir on the outskirts of Shivpuri town within the Madhav National Park.
- Created from the Manier river in 1918, Sakhya Sagar is located near Madhav National Park.
- This wetland not only adds to the natural beauty of the area, but also provides a permanent source of water for wildlife, and habitat for animals including thousands of migratory waterfowl and also mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris).
- The Site is one of the “three lakes of Shivpuri” and as such, it benefits from the Shivpuri Management and Conservation Plan implemented by the Local Urban Municipality.
54. Pala Wetland in Mizoram (Mizoram)
- It is home to a wide range of animals, birds, and reptiles.
- Its geographical location falls under the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot and is therefore rich in animal and plant species.
- The lake is a major component of the Palak Wildlife Sanctuary and it supports the major biodiversity of the sanctuary.
55. Koonthankulam Bird Sanctuary-TamilNadu
- A man-made wetland in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu.
- It is the largest reserve for breeding resident and migratory water birds in South India and an ‘Important Bird and Biodiversity Area’ forming part of the Central Asian Flyway, a brief by the ministry of environment, forest and climate change (MoEFCC) states.
- The wetland also irrigates about 190 acres of paddy.
56. Nanda Lake-Goa
- Located in Goa, another addition to the list, has freshwater marshes that lie adjacent to one of the major rivulets of the Zuari river, said the brief.
- This enables local residents to store water during the off-monsoon season.
- The stored water is also utilised to cultivate paddy downstream of the lake and supports fishing and recreation.
- The lake is a habitat for Black-headed ibis, Common kingfisher, Wire-tailed swallow, Bronze-winged jacana, Brahminy kite, among others.
57. Satkosia gorge-Odisha
- Spread along the Mahanadi in Odisha. Established in 1976 as a wildlife sanctuary, Satkosia is the meeting point of two biogeographic regions of India; the Deccan Peninsula and the Eastern Ghats, contributing immense biodiversity.
- a mosaic of marshes and evergreen forests.
- The forests of these catchments play a vital role in the prevention of the gorge siltation.
- They also help in maintaining a desirable depth of water crucial for the endangered gharial population.
58. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve (GoMBR)-TamilNadu
- One of the most important located on the southeastern coastline.
- Extends between Toothukudi & Ramanathapuram districts.
- The Reserve is home to several globally important and highly threatened species like the Dugong, Whale Shark, Seahorses, Balanoglossus, Green sea turtle, Hawksbill Turtle, Dolphins, Sacred chanks etc.
- First Marine Biosphere Reserve in South and South-East Asia. The Gulf is where the southward extension of the Bay of Bengal meets the Indian Ocean, and is one of the most biologically diverse regions in India.
- Globally threatened species include the dugong (Dugong dugon), whale shark (Rhincodon typus), green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis). The local communities are mainly Marakeyars, with fishing their main livelihood.
59. Vembannur Wetland Complex-TamilNadu
- A man-made inland tank which forms the southernmost tip of peninsular India. This wetland forms part of the Important Bird and Biodiversity Area and hence part of the BirdLife International Data Zone. About 250 species of birds have been recorded in the district.
- Provides suitable habitat to several species of waterbird in the breeding and non-breeding seasons such as the Indian river tern (Sterna aurantia), the spotted greenshank (Tringa guttifer), the garganey (Anas querquedula) and the grey pelican (Pelecanus philippensis). The Site is also an excellent habitat for notable plants including Indotristicha ramosissima, Cyrtococcum longipes and Eriochrysis rangacharii.
60. Vellode Bird Sanctuary-TamilNadu
- Located in the Vadamugam Vellode village in Tamil Nadu’s Erode district. Locally known as Periyakulam Yeri, it is one of the 141 prioritised wetlands in the state.
- It is an important staging and breeding ground for migratory birds on the Central Asian Flyway and also resident species such as the Indian river tern (Sterna aurantia), oriental darter (Anhinga melanogaster) and painted stork (Mycteria leucocephala).
- The Site is also an ideal habitat for notable plant species including Cayratia pedata, Tephrosia purpurea and Commelina tricolor.
61. Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary-TamilNadu
- One of the oldest bird-protected areas in Chengalpattu district of Tamil Nadu. This freshwater wetland is a people-protected waterbird area, the history of which goes back centuries.
- Locals have been protecting this heronry and in return benefitting from the manure-rich water from the lake.
- Presence of several species including the black-headed ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus), Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia),
black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and painted stork (Mycteria leucocephala). Vedanthangal is well known for nature tourism, which generates considerable revenue for the local communities.
62. Udhayamarthandapuram Bird Sanctuary-TamilNadu
- Located in the Tiruthuraipoondi taluk of Tiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu. It is an important staging and breeding ground for several species of waterbirds.
- 80 kilometres from Thanjavur, about 58km from Vaduvur Birds sanctuary and 10 km from Point Calimere Birds Sanctuary.
- The Sanctuary consists of human-made irrigation tanks, interconnected by an ancient network of canals and fed by the Mettur dam through the Koraiyar canal.
- The Site is an important staging and breeding ground for several species of waterbirds. Notable species observed include the oriental darter (Anhinga melanogaster), black-headed ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus), Eurasian wigeon (Anas Penelope), Northern pintail (Anas acuta) and garganey (Anas querquedula).
63. Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary-Karanataka
- This is also the first and the only Ramsar site in Karnataka though India’s tally of such sites stands at 64.
- Also known as ‘Pakshi Kashi’ of the state.
- The bird sanctuary supports more than 1% of the world’s population of spot-billed pelicans — as against a global population of nearly 17,000, Ranganathittu supports about 1,000 of these birds.
- Similarly, it supports a high population of painted storks and mugger crocodiles besides other species of fish and hence the six islands and the water surrounding them would be part of Ramsar site.
- Aghanashini River in central Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka originates in the Western Ghats and flows westward towards the Arabian Sea. A major part of its course travels through forested gorges and valleys.
- Karnataka sought the Ramsar status also for Aghanashini estuary in Uttara Kannada, Magadi-Shettikeri tanks in Gadag and Ankasamudra in Ballari.
- It also finds a place in the Important Bird Areas (IBA) list of 42 sites in Karnataka that are identified by the Bombay Natural History Society.
- Located in the mid-stream of the Cauvery river.
64. Sirpur Wetland-Madhya Pradesh
- A human-made wetland that has stabilized and acquired near-natural characteristics in the last two centuries.
- Commonly named Pakshi Vihar (bird sanctuary)
- A shallow, alkaline, nutrient-rich lake that floods during the monsoon to a maximum depth of two metres.
- It boasts a wealth of plants and animals including threatened species: it supports some 175 terrestrial plant species, six macrophytes, 30 natural and cultured fish species, eight reptiles, and amphibians.
- Waterbirds congregate during the winter season; the Site supports 130 bird species in all, including residents and migrants such as common pochard (Aythya ferina), Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) and Indian river tern (Sterna aurantia).
- Sirpur Wetland provides surrounding communities with fisheries and medicinal plants, and acts as a buffer against flooding while helping to regulate the local microclimate.
- The local communities also accrue benefits through spiritual enrichment, recreation and education.
- The Site is yet to benefit from a management plan or a national legal conservation status.
65. Tampara Lake-Odisha
- Tampara Lake is among the most prominent freshwater lakes in the State of Odisha situated in Ganjam district.
- The depression on the ground gradually filled with rainwater from catchment flow and was called “Tamp” by the British and subsequently termed “Tampra” by the locals.
- The wetland supports at least 60 species of birds, 46 species of fishes, at least 48 species of phytoplanktons, and more than seven species of terrestrial plants and macrophytes.
- The wetland is an important habitat for vulnerable species such as Cyprinus carpio, common pochard (Aythya ferina), and river tern (Sterna aurantia).
- With an estimated average fish yield of 12 tonnes per year, the wetland is an important source of livelihood for the local communities.
- Along with fishes the wetland also provides provisioning services like water for agriculture, and domestic use and is a well-known tourism and recreation site.
66. Hirakud Reservoir-Odisha
- Hirakud Reservoir, the largest earthen dam in Odisha started operating in 1957.
- The reservoir to support a range of floral and faunal species, including several of high conservation significance.
- Out of the known 54 species of fish from the reservoir, one has been classed as being endangered, six near threatened and 21 fish species of economic importance.
- Fisheries presently yield a catch of around 480 MT of fish annually and is the mainstay of livelihoods of 7,000 fisher households. Similarly, over 130 bird species have been recorded at this site, out of which 20 species are of high conservation significance.
- The reservoir is a source of water for producing around 300 MW of hydropower and irrigating 436,000 ha of cultural command area.
- The wetland also provides important hydrological services by moderating floods in the Mahanadi delta, the ecological and socio-economic hub of the east coast of India.
- Hirakud reservoir supports abundant tourism, and forms an integral part of the high touristic value sites located around Sambalpur with over 30,000 tourists annually visiting the site.
67. Ansupa Lake-Odisha
- Ansupa Lake is the largest freshwater lake of Odisha situated in Banki sub-division of Cuttack district and has its fame from time immemorial for its scenic beauty, biodiversity, and natural resources.
- The wetland is an oxbow lake formed by River Mahanadi and is spread over an area of 231 ha.
- The wetland is home to at least 194 species of birds, 61 species of fishes and 26 species of mammals in addition to 244 species of macrophytes.
- The wetland provides a safe habitat to at least three threatened bird species- Rynchops albicollis (EN), Sterna acuticauda (EN) and Sterna aurantia (VU) and three threatened fish species- Clarias magur (Clariidae) (EN), Cyprinus carpio (Cyprinidae) (VU) and Wallago attu (VU). Ansupa lake sustains the freshwater demands of the surrounding areas and also supports the livelihood of the local communities through fisheries and agriculture.
- The wetland has immense recreational and tourism potential as it is a major wintering ground for migratory birds and is also known for its scenic beauty.
68. Yashwant Sagar-Madhya Pradesh
- One of the two Important Bird Areas (IBA) in the Indore region as well as one of the most important birding sites in Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh.
- Presently it is mainly used for water supply to the city of Indore and is also being used for fish culture on a commercial scale.
- Yashwant Sagar reservoir comes under the jurisdiction of Indore City Municipal Corporation. Indore which has bagged the title of one of the cleanest cities in India is also often known as center of economic growth of Madhya Pradesh.
- The catchment area of this wetland is predominantly agriculture.
- Yashwant Sagar is considered to be a stronghold of the vulnerable Sarus Crane in central India.
- The lake backwaters have plenty of shallow areas, conducive for waders and other waterfowl.
- As the water level recedes, many islands serve as roosting sites for waterfowl.
- Due to its vast shallow reed beds, the wetland is considered heaven to a large number of winter migratory birds.
69. Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary-Tamil Nadu
- Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary, locally known as “Chitrangudi Kanmoli” is located in Ramanathapuram district in Tamil Nadu.
- The wetland is a protected area since 1989 and declared as Bird Sanctuary, coming under the jurisdiction of Tamil Nadu Forest Department, Ramanathapuram division. Chitrangudi Bird Sanctuary is an ideal habitat for winter migratory birds.
- Around 50 birds belonging to 30 families have been reported from the site.
- Out of these 47 are water birds and 3 terrestrial birds.
- Notable waterbirds spotted from the site area spot-billed pelican, little egret, grey heron, large egret, open billed stork, purple, and pond herons.
- Chitrangudi is surrounded by agricultural fields, where different crops are grown throughout the year.
- The wetland also supports a number of fishes, amphibians, molluscs, aquatic insects, and their larvae forming good food sources for arriving waterbirds.
- Groundwater is extracted for irrigation around and within the wetland for agricultural purposes.
70. Suchindram Theroor Wetland Complex- Tamil Nadu
- Suchindrum Theroor Wetland complex is part of the Suchindrum-Theroor Manakudi Conservation Reserve.
- It is declared an Important Bird Area and lies at the southern tip of the Central Asian flyway of migratory birds.
- It was formed for birds’ nesting purposes and it attracts thousands of birds every year.
- The total population dependent upon Theroor is about 10,500 and 75% of the population’s livelihood hinges on agriculture which in turn is dependent upon the water released from the Theroor tank.
- This is a man-made, inland Tank and is perennial. Copper plate inscriptions from the 9th century mention Pasumkulam, Venchikulam, Nedumarthukulam, Perumkulam, Elemchikulam and Konadunkulam.
- Around 250 species of birds have been recorded in the area, of which 53 are migratory, 12 endemic, and 4 threatened.
71. Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary-Tamil Nadu
- Vaduvur bird sanctuary spreads over an area of 112.638 ha, is a large human-made irrigation tank and shelter for migratory birds as it provides a suitable environment for food, shelter, and breeding ground.
- While these irrigation tanks have socio-economic and cultural significance, very little is known of their ecological importance.
- These tanks have the potential to harbor good populations of resident and wintering water birds but no studies have been done to confirm this.
- Indian Pond Heron Ardeola grayii occurred in most of the surveyed tanks.
- Large concentrations of wintering waterfowl such as Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope, Northern Pintail Anas acuta, Garganey Anas querquedula were recorded in tanks.
- Vaduvur Bird Sanctuary has a diverse habitat including a number of inlets and surrounding irrigated agricultural fields which provides good nesting and foraging habitats for birds.
- Thus, the site provides support to the species listed above during critical stages of their life-cycle.
72. Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary-Tamil Nadu
- Kanjirankulam Bird Sanctuary is a Protected area near Mudukulathur Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu.
- India, declared in 1989. It is notable as a nesting site for several migratory heron species that roost in the prominent growth of babul trees there.
- The breeding population of migratory waterbirds arrive here between October and February and include: painted stork, white ibis, black ibis, little egret, great egret.
- The site qualifies as an IBA as the threatened Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis breeds here.
- The wetland exhibits rich biodiversity including many globally near-threatened species like Spot-billed Pelican, Oriental Darter, Oriental white Ibis and Painted Stork and also commonly occurring shore and water birds like greenshank, plovers, stilts and forest birds like bee-eaters, bulbuls, cuckoos, starlings, barbets, etc.
- They act as breeding, nesting, roosting, foraging, and stopover sites for the birdsThe wetland supports IUCN RedList vulnerable avian species like Sterna aurantia (River Tern).
73. Thane Creek-Maharashtra
- Thane Creek is located in Maharashtra, India.
- There are several sources of fresh water to the creek, of which Ulhas River is the largest, followed by many drainage channels from various suburban areas of Mumbai, Navi Mumbai & Thane. It has been declared as Thane Creek Flamingo Sanctuary.
- Thane creek is fringed by mangroves on both banks & comprises around 20% of the total Indian mangrove species.
- The mangrove forest acts as a natural shelter belt & protects the land from cyclones, tidal surges, seawater seepage & intrusions.
- The mangrove serves as a nursery for several fishes & sustains the local fishery.
- The area is an important part of the wetland complex of the Central Asian Flyway of the birds and has been categorized as an Important Bird Area (IBA).
- Other than 202 avifaunal species, the creek also houses 18 species of fishes, crustaceans & molluscs, 59 species of butterflies, 67 species of Insects, and 35 species of phytoplankton, and 24 species of zooplankton & 23 species of Benthos.
74. Hygam Wetland Conservation Reserve
- Hygam Wetland falls within the River Jhelum basin and plays a significant role as a flood absorption basin, biodiversity conservation site, eco-tourism site, and livelihood security for the local communities.
- The wetland is located in the Baramulla district.
- It serves as an abode to many residents and migratory bird species.
- It is also recognized as an Important Bird Area (IBA).
- Consequent to the high rate of siltation, Hygam Wetland has lost its wetland characteristics to a large extent and in many places changed its profile into a landmass.
- This has resulted in further loss of habitat conditions to offer a suitable site for visiting migratory birds (Winter/ Summer migrants) and for resident birds as well.
- Hygam Wetland provides a plethora of ecosystem services, these include fish and fiber, water supply, water purification, climate regulation, flood regulation, and recreational opportunities.
- The livelihoods of people living in, and adjoining the fringes of wetlands depend partially or entirely on wetland ecosystem services.
75. Shallbugh Wetland Conservation Reserve-Jammu and Kashmir
- Shallabug Wetland Conservation Reserve is located in the District Srinagar, UT of J&K. Large areas of the wetland dry up between September and March.
- The area has extensive reedbeds of Phragmites communis and Typha angustata, and rich growth of Nymphaea candida and N. stellata on open water.
- It serves as an abode to more than four lakh resident and migratory birds of at least 21 species.
- Shallabugh Wetland plays a major role in the natural control, amelioration or prevention of flooding, It is also important for seasonal water retention for wetlands or other areas of conservation importance downstream.
- The wetland is important for the recharge of aquifers. A major natural floodplain system.
- Shallabugh Wetland provides plethora of ecosystem services, these include fish and fiber, water supply, water purification, climate regulation, flood regulation, recreational opportunities.
- The wetland serves as an important breeding ground for many species of waterbirds.
The Montreux Record
- A register of wetland sites on the List of Ramsar wetlands of international importancewhere changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution or other human interference.
- It is a voluntary mechanism to highlight specific wetlands of international importance that are facing immediate challenges.
- It is maintained as part of the List of Ramsar wetlands of international importance.
- At present 2 Indian sites are listed under it. In 1993 Chilka lake was also listed in Montreux record due to problem of Siltation, but later in 2002, it was removed from the list.
- Keoldeo NP and Loktak Lake are listed under Montreux Record.
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