• REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) is the global endeavor to create an incentive for developing countries to protect, better manage and save their forest resources, thus contributing to the global fight against climate change.
  • REDD+ goes beyond merely checking deforestation and forest degradation, and includes incentives for positive elements of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.

Forest Carbon Partnership Facility

  • It is a global partnership of governments, businesses, civil society, and Indigenous Peoples focused on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest carbon stock conservation, the sustainable management of forests, and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (activities commonly referred to as REDD+).
  • The World Bank assumes the functions of trustee and secretariat.
  • The World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Development Programme are Delivery Partners under the Readiness Fund and responsible for providing REDD+ readiness support services to distinct countries.


  • To assist countries in their REDD+ efforts by providing them with financial and technical assistance.
  • To pilot a performance-based payment system for REDD+ activities.
  • Within the approach to REDD+, to test ways to sustain or enhance livelihoods of local communities and to conserve biodiversity.
  • To disseminate broadly the knowledge gained in Emission Reductions Programs (ERPs).

BioCarbon Fund Initiative

  • The BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL) is a multilateral fund, supported by donor governments and managed by the World Bank.
  • It seeks to promote reduced greenhouse gas emissions from the land sector, from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+), and from sustainable agriculture, as well as smarter land-use planning, policies and practices.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

    • Scientific intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations.
    • Set up at the request of member governments.
    • It was first established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
    • Membership of the IPCC is open to all members of the WMO and UNEP.
    • The IPCC produces reports that support the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
    • IPCC reports cover all relevant information to understand the risk of human-induced climate change, its potential impacts and options for adaptation and mitigation.
    • The IPCC does not carry out its own original research.
    • Thousands of scientists and other experts contribute on a voluntary basis.
  • The 2007 Nobel Peace Prize was shared, in two equal parts, between the IPCC and an American Environmentalist.

The aims of the IPCC are to assess scientific information relevant to:

  1. Human-induced climate change,
  2. The impacts of human-induced climate change,
  3. Options for adaptation and mitigation.

IPCC Assessment Reports (AR)

  • In accordance with its mandate, the IPCC prepares at regular intervals comprehensive Assessment Reports of scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of human induced climate change, potential impacts of climate change and options for mitigation and adaptation.

Special Reports

  • Special Reports have been prepared on topics such as aviation, regional impacts of climate change, technology transfer, emissions scenarios, land use, land use change and forestry, carbon dioxide capture and storage and on the relationship between safeguarding the ozone layer and the global climate system.

Global Environment Facility

  • The Global Environment Facility (GEF) unites 183 countries in partnership with international institutions, civil society organizations (CSOs), and the private sector to address global environmental issues while supporting national sustainable development initiatives.
  • Today the GEF is the largest public funder of projects to improve the global environment.
  • An independently operating financial organization, the GEF provides grants for projects related to biodiversity, climate change, international waters, land degradation, the ozone layer, and persistent organic pollutants.
  • The GEF also serves as financial mechanism for the following conventions:
  • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
  • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
  • UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
  • Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
  • Minamata Convention on Mercury
  • The GEF, although not linked formally to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (MP), supports implementation of the Protocol in countries with economies in transition.

The list below describes 10 GEF agencies that currently operating related to adaptation to climate change:

  • United Nations Development Programme
  • United Nations Environment Programme
  • World Bank Food and Agriculture
  • Organization Inter-American Development Bank
  • United Nations Industrial Development Organization
  • Asian Development Bank
  • African Development Bank
  • European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
  • International Fund for Agricultural Development
  • World Wildlife Fund
  • United Nations Industrial Development Organization
  • Conservation International

Areas of work

  • Biodiversity
  • Climate change
  • International waters
  • Land degradation
  • Sustainable forest management / REDD+:
  • Ozone depletion

Arctic Council

  • Intergovernmental forum promoting cooperation, coordination and interaction among the Arctic states, Arctic Indigenous communities and other Arctic inhabitants on common Arctic issues, in particular on issues of sustainable development and environmental protection in the Arctic.
  • The Arctic Council consists of the eight Arctic States: Canada, the Kingdom of Denmark (including Greenland and the Faroe Islands), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States.